al-Hussain ibn ʿAlī
Al-Husain ibn ʿAlī ( Arabic الحسين بن علي, DMG al-Ḥusain bin ʿAlī ; born in January 626 in Medina ; died on October 10, 680 in Kerbala ), called Hussein or Hossein (also Hussain ) for short , was the younger son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima bint Muhammad , a grandson of the Islamic prophet Mohammed and thus a member of the Ahl al-bait .
Al-Husain is a central figure in the Shiite faith. After the death of his brother Hasan in 670, he raised claims to the office of caliph , but is said to have refused to take action against Muawiya I during his lifetime. In 680 he took over the leadership of an uprising in Kufa against the ruling line of the Umayyads , which was quickly suppressed. Husain was captured on October 10, 680 ( 10th Muharram 61 Islamic calendar ) in the battle of Karbala by the troops of the Umayyad caliph Yazid I and killed in the course of the battle. According to Shiite tradition, his tomb is located in a mosque in Karbala, in the Imam Husain shrine . At the place where his severed head is said to be buried, there is a shrine in the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus ; but there is also a tradition according to which Hussain 's head rests in the Cairo Sayyidna-al-Hussain mosque .
His son Ali Zain al-Abidin , the fourth Imam of the Shiites, came from his marriage to the Sassanid princess Shahr-Banu . Another of his sons, Ali Asgar, is said to have died in the battle of Karbala when he was six months old and is venerated as a martyr by the Shiites.
Today's descendants of Husain are known as Sayyid and also as Husainī.
Husain's maternal grandparents were the Islamic prophet Mohammed and Khadijah bint Chuwalid and his paternal grandparents were Abu Talib and Fatima bint Asad . According to Islamic tradition, Mohammad regarded his grandsons Hasan and Husain as if they were his own sons because of his love for them and because he regarded the children of his daughter Fatima as his own children and descendants. He is said to have said: "All the children of the mother are ascribed to their father except for the children of Fatima, for whom I am their father and their descent." Consequently, the descendants of Fatima belong to the descendants of Mohammads and are therefore part of the Ahl-al -bait .
ʿAlī ibn Husain Zain al-ʿĀbidīn
Main article: ʿAlī ibn Husain Zain al-ʿĀbidīn
Ali Zain al-Abidin ( Arabic علي بن حسين زين العابدين, DMG ʿAlī bin Ḥusain Zain al-ʿĀbidīn ; born 658 in Medina ; died 713 in Medina) was a son of al-Husain and Shahr Banus and is thus a great-grandson of the prophet Mohammed .
Ali Akbar ibn Husain
Main article: Ali Akbar ibn Hussain
Ali Akbar ibn Hussain (born 662 ; died October 13, 680 , Arabic علي الأكبر بن الحسين, DMG ʿAlī al-akbar bin al-Ḥusain ) was a son of al-Husain with Umm Layla . He was involved in the battle of Karbala and died in it.
Safia bint Husain
Safia bint Hussain ( Arabic صفية بنت الحسين, DMG Ṣafiyya bint al-Ḥusain , 665–680) was the daughter of al-Husain and Rubab bint Imri 'al-Qais. She died in Baalbek in 680 in captivity of Shimr ibn Dhi l-Jawshan , Omar ibn Saad and Yazid on a death march to Damascus . She was buried in Baalbek.
Abdullah ibn Husain
Abdullah ibn Hussain is a son of al-Hussain with Rubab bint Imri 'al-Qais; the name Ali Asghar has come down to him in other stories. He was born in Medina in 679 and died by an arrow in 680 at the Battle of Karbala at the age of 6 months. According to stories, Husain took his son to the battlefield to get water for the child; there it was deliberately killed by Harmala ibn Kahil .
Chaula bint Husain
Chaula bint Husain ( Arabic خولة بنت الحسين, DMG Ḫaula bint al-Ḥusain , born 679 ; died 680 ) is a supposed daughter of al-Husain. The sources and the historical authenticity of Chaula bint Husain are controversial, but there is a mosque named after her at her alleged place of death. This was expanded through donations from Iran in 1994.
- Fatimah bint Husain al-Sughra
- Ruqaya bint Husain
- Sakina bint Husain
- Jafar ibn Husain
Husain was seven years old when the last prophet in Islam, Mohammad, passed away; Nevertheless, even in these short years he was involved in important events of that time, among other things, he was with his brother the representative of the Islamic youth at the event of Mubahala and was one of those people who were involved in the event of the Ahl al-kisā ' .
Husain is regarded by the Twelve Shiites as the third imam and venerated as a martyr because of his death in the battle of Kerbela, which was waged for the caliphate ; The first high point of this veneration are the annual Ashura ceremonies . The numerous mourning ceremonies at Muharram are concluded with the al-Arba'un festival, during which a total of 14.5 million people went to the Imam Husain shrine in 2009.
Husain ibn Ali got the leadership mandate ( Imamat ) after the death of his brother Hasan ibn Ali (670 AD) and thus became the third Shiite Imam. Husain kept to the peace treaty that Hasan had made with Muawiya .
Reign of Yazid I.
Muawiya named his son Yazid I as his successor and broke the peace treaty. After Muawiya's death (680 AD), Yazid became caliph and required Husain to take an oath of allegiance to legitimize his rule. Husain refused and went from Medina to Mecca to avoid unnecessary bloodshed. During this time, people from Kufa, who learned of Husain's refusal to obey Yazid, wrote him letters inviting him to Kufa. In order to establish the loyalty of the Kufites, Husain sent his cousin Muslim ibn Aqil to Kufa to report to him. After Muslim ibn Aqil had been hospitably received in Kufa and the Kufites had sworn allegiance to Husain, he wrote a letter to Husain that people in Kufa were ready to receive him. So Husain began his journey from Mecca to Kufa.
- Laura Veccia Vaglieri : (Al-) Husayn bin Ali bin Abi-Talib. In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume 3: H - Iram. New Edition, Reprint. Brill, Leiden 1986, ISBN 90-04-08118-6 , pp. 607-615.
- Arnold Nöldeke : The sanctuary of al-Husain in Kerbelâ (= Turkish library. Volume 11, ZDB -ID 536307-x ). Mayer & Müller, Berlin 1909 (Erlangen, University, dissertation, 1909).
- Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī at Encyclopædia Britannica
- ↑ Encyclopaedia Iranica ( Memento from February 27, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ 28) The children of Fatimah (sa) are the children of the Prophet (saw). Retrieved September 12, 2018 .
- ↑ Muttaqi Hindi, Jalaluddin Suyuti: Kanz al-Umal . tape 13 , p. 101 .
- ↑ Ibn Hajar al-Haytami: Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah . S. 156, 187 .
- ↑ Fatima Özoguz: Kitab Al-Irschad - The book of guidance . Ed .: m-haditec. 1st edition. Eslamica, Bremen 2006, ISBN 978-3-939416-02-9 , pp. 338 .
- ↑ الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب بن عبد المطلب بن هاشم الهاشمي. Retrieved August 26, 2020 .
- ↑ صفية بنت الحسين - عليهما السلام -. Retrieved August 26, 2020 .
- ↑ The entire story. In: Who is Hussain. Retrieved on August 27, 2020 (German).
- ^ Hazrat Ali Asghar (as) - The youngest martyr of Karbala: JAFARIYA NEWS NETWORK. Retrieved August 27, 2020 .
- ^ Ansar Al-Hussein Dictionary. Retrieved August 27, 2020 .
- ↑ ما حقيقة وجود السيدة خولة بنت الإمام الحسين عليه السلام ؟. Retrieved August 26, 2020 (Arabic).
- ↑ مقام السيدة خولة في بعلبك: جزء مهم من السياحة الدينية في المنطقة. Retrieved August 26, 2020 (Arabic).
- ↑ Ibn Saʿd: al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā . tape 6 , p. 406-407 .
- ↑ Mufīd: al-Irshād . tape 1 , p. 168 .
- ↑ Balādhurī: Ansāb al-ashrāf. Volume 3, pp. 157-159; Mufīd: al-Irshād. Volume 2, pp. 36-38.
- ↑ Mufīd: al-Irshād. Volume 2, p. 41.
|SURNAME||al-Hussain ibn ʿAlī|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||al-Husain ibn 'Alī ibn Abī Tālib ibn' Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hāschim ibn 'Abd Manaf; Hussain ibn Alī|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||third Imam of the Shiites|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 626|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Medina|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 10, 680|
|Place of death||Kerbala|