Fātima bint Muhammad

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The Prophet Mohammed gives his daughter Fatima to marry his cousin ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib (from the Ottoman miniature Siyer-i Nebi ).

Fātima bint Muhammad ( Arabic فَاطِمَة ٱبْنَت مُحَمَّد, DMG Fāṭimah ibnat Muḥammad , * 606 ; † 632 ), in the Persian-speaking area also Fātemeh , with the epithetsٱلزَّهْرَاء / az-Zahrāʾ andسَيِّدَة نِسَاء ٱلَعَالَمِين / Sayyidah Nisāʾ al-ʿĀlamīn  / 'Lady of the Women of the Worlds', was the youngest daughter and, according to Shiite opinion, the only daughter of the Islamic founder of the religion, Mohammed, of his first and for a long time only wife Khadīdscha bint Chuwailid and the wife of ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālibs ; from this marriage the sons Hasan ibn ʿAlī and al-Husain ibn ʿAlī were born.

Fatima belongs to the Ahl al-bait  /أهل البيت / 'Family of the (prophet) house'. Shiites count her as the only woman together with Mohammed and the twelve imams to the " fourteen infallible ".


Fatima was born in Mecca . Her mother, Hadidja bint Chuwailid, was the first wife of the wives of Muhammad . There are different opinions about her exact birthday. The majority of Sunni scholars postpone Fatima's birth to five years before the first revelation of the Koran (605 AD); the majority of Shiite scholars for five years after the first revelation of the Koran on the 20th Jumadā l-ūlā (March 30, 615 AD). Other Shiite scholars, such as Sheikh al-Mufid or Ibrahim b. 'Ali al-Kaf'ami, claim that Fatima was born two years after the first revelation of the Koran (612 AD).

Fatima had three older sisters named Zainab bint Mohammad , Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad and Ruqaya bint Muhammad. She also had three brothers named Qasim ibn Mohammad, Abdallah ibn Mohammad and Ibrahim ibn Mohammad, who died as infants. While most Sunnis believe that Zainab, Umm Kulthum and Ruqayah were actually the daughters of Mohammad, most Shiites believe that these were the daughters of Hala, the sister of Khadija, and that they were adopted by Mohammad and Khadija after their deaths. As a further reason for this belief, Shiite scholars give the Mubahala event mentioned in the Koran , where Fatima was chosen as the only woman by Mohammad. Even so, the Sunnis accept that Mohammad had four daughters with Khadijah.


Fatima married Ali ibn Abi Taleb . After Mohammed emigrated to Medina and because he was the leader of the Islamic community, Fatima was held in high regard by the Muslims because she was the daughter of Mohammed. Allegedly because of her qualities towards the other women of her time and because of the great love that Mohammed showed her, some Muslims felt compelled to hold their hand.

Even some dignitaries of the Quraish tribe had asked for the hand of Fatima, including Abū Bakr , ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb , ʿAbd ar-Rahmān ibn ʿ Auf , but Mohammed dismissed them all on the grounds that Allah would appoint his daughter's husband. They claimed that only Ali could be a husband and went to him and asked him about it. As a result, Ali went to Mohammed and asked him for Fatima's hand. Mohammed is said to have asked his daughter if she agreed and she said yes. Ali did not have a stable financial position and got into trouble paying the bride gift to Fatima. According to tradition, Mohammed advised him to sell his mail shirt and with the proceeds some of Mohammed's companions bought the most necessary household items. The wedding ceremony of Ali and Fatima took place in the mosque on the 1st Dhul-Hijah two years after the Hijra (623 AD).

Life after the death of Muhammad

Attack on the house of Fatima

Shiite sources say that she lost her unborn child Mohsin when she closed the front door to prevent the intrusion of Abū Bakr and ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb and when they opened it violently hit her stomach. Because of the argument with Abū Bakr, she never spoke to him again. She died in a small room, grieving over her father's death, from the injuries of the fight on her doorstep. In the Sunni tradition , these reports are rejected, it is assumed that the relationship between Aisha and Fatima was good and strong. Whereby the evidence is not clear here, even in Sunni sources there are indications of a dispute between Fatima and the caliphs Abū Bakr and ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb.


The state mourning for the death of Fatima (Fatemiyeh) in the Hussainia of Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran ; in the picture the “ revolutionary leaderKhamenei , Attorney General Mahmud Hashemi Schahrudi and President Mahmud Ahmadineschād

Fatima fell out with Abu Bakr over disputes over the Prophet's inheritance. The dispute went so far that her burial place was kept secret from Abu Bakr by her husband Ali. To this day, no one can say with certainty where her burial place is in Medina . However, most historians today assume that Ali buried her either in al-Baqīʿ or in Rawdah , the area between the pulpit and the grave of her father Muhammad.

The first thesis is supported by traditions, according to which several newly built burial mounds were seen in the al-Baqīʿ cemetery on the morning after her nightly burial. Accordingly, the contemporaries assumed that Ali built several burial mounds to make the actual grave unrecognizable. The other assumption that Fatima was buried in the Rawdah of the Prophet's Mosque goes back to various sayings of the Prophet himself, according to which there will be something heavenly there. This is understood by Shiites in particular as an indication that Fatima should be buried there. Muhammad Baqir Majlisi mentions this in his collection Bihār al-Anwār in the book on the calamities after the Prophet (Vol. 28–34) and in the book of the biography of the mistress of women among the world's inhabitants (vol. 43–45).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b ʿĀmilī , al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-Nabī , B. 2, pp. 207–220
  2. Fatima (sa), the Daughter of Muhammad (S), a Brief Biography. Retrieved September 20, 2018 .
  3. Muhammad Husain Tabātabāʼī , fl. 1892-1981 .: The "ABC" of Islam . Boarding school Publ., Tehran 1996, ISBN 964-304-044-5 .
  4. Balādhurī : Ansāb al-ashrāf . tape 1 , p. 403 .
  5. Ibn Saʿd : al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā . tape 1 , p. 133 .
  6. Farhangnāma-yi ʿ ulūm-i Qur ʾ ān . tape 1 , p. 2443 .
  7. Mufīd : Masār al-sharī ʿ a . S. 54 .
  8. Kafʿamī : al-Miṣbāḥ . S. 512 .
  9. Ordoni . 1990, p. 32, 42-44 .
  10. Ṭabāṭabāyī , "Izdiwāj-i Fāṭima", B. 1, p. 128.
  11. Kulaynī , al-Kāfī , vol . 8, p. 165; Qāḍī Nuʿmān al-Maghribī , Sharḥ al-akhbār , B. 3, p. 29.
  12. Muttaqī al-Hindī , Kanz al-ummāl , vol . 7, p. 129.
  13. Ṭabāṭabāyī , "Izdiwāj-i Fāṭima", B. 1, p. 128.
  14. Ḥākim al-Nīyshābūrī , al-Mustadrak ʿalā l-ṣaḥīḥayn , B. 2, pp. 167–168 .; Nisāʾī , al-Sunan al-kubrā , B. 5, p. 143.
  15. Ṭabarī , Dalāʾil al-imāma , p. 82.
  16. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā , vol . 8, p. 19.
  17. Mufīd, al-Ikhtiṣāṣ , p. 148.
  18. Ṭūsī , al-Amālī , p. 40.
  19. Ibn Athīr al-Jazarī , Usd al-ghāba , vol . 5, p. 517.
  20. Irbilī , Kashf al-ghumma , B. 1, p. 358.
  21. Khwarizmī , al-Manāqib , pp. 335–338. Ṭabarī, Dalāʾil al-imāma , pp. 88–90.
  22. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī , Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb , vol . 12, p. 391; Maqrizī , Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ , B. 1, p. 73.
  23. كسر ضلع الزهراء وصلب السيد المسيح. (No longer available online.) In: www.almanhaj.com. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016 ; Retrieved October 13, 2016 (Arabic).
  24. العلاقة بين أم المؤمنين عائشة ، وفاطمة بنت النبي ، رضي الله عنهما. In: islamqa.info. Retrieved October 13, 2016 (Arabic).
  25. al-Bukhari : al-Jami ʿ as-sahīh . tape 4 , Book 53, Hadith No. 325.
  26. al-Bukhari : al-Jami ʿ as-sahīh . tape 5 , Book 53, Hadith No. 546.