Zamora - Romanesque cathedral over the Duero
|coat of arms||Map of Spain|
|Autonomous Community :||Castile and León|
|Comarca :||Tierra del Pan|
|Area :||149.28 km²|
|Residents :||61,406 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Population density :||411.35 inhabitants / km²|
|Postal code :||49001 - 49028|
|Municipality number ( INE ):||49275|
Zamora is the capital of the province of Zamora of the same name and the capital of a municipality (municipio) with 61,406 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2019 ) in the autonomous Spanish region of Castile-León . Zamora is located on a branch of the Camino de Santiago that comes from the south ( Seville , Mérida , Cáceres and Salamanca ) and joins the main route in León or Astorga . The historic center is recognized as a cultural asset ( Bien de Interés Cultural ) in the Conjunto histórico-artístico category .
Location and climate
The city of Zamora is located on the Meseta a good 250 km (driving distance) northwest of Madrid at altitude of about on a rocky hill above the Duero River . The border with Portugal at Miranda do Douro is only about 55 km away. The winter temperatures are quite cool, whereas in summer it is warm to hot; the sparse rainfalls (approx. 360 mm / year) fall over the whole year.
The strong increase in population in the 20th century is mainly due to immigration from the surrounding countryside ( rural exodus ). The hamlet (pedanía) Carrascal , which has a good 100 inhabitants, also belongs to the municipality .
The agriculture has always been the livelihood for the people of the region; the city was an important market town and is now a regional center for handicrafts, trade and services of all kinds. Zamora is known for the manufacture of leather goods and textiles . Tourism within Spain is also of a certain importance.
A Bronze Age settlement can already be proven in the area of the city . In ancient times the place was called Ocelum or Ocelodurum a city of the Vettonen ; later he was part of the Roman province of Lusitania and was a stop on the under Emperor Augustus built Roman road from Mérida ( Emerita Augusta ) to Astorga ( Asturica Augusta ) , which later under the name " Silver Street was known."
As part of the Islamic conquest , the city was mainly settled by Berbers , but they had to vacate the country again around 900. Located in an area in the no man's land between al-Andalus and the Christian rulership, which was devastated for strategic reasons, the city changed owners and residents several times in the 9th century. Provided with a city wall by Alfonso II (r. 791–842), the city received after the conquest by Alfonso III. (r. 866–910) in 893 it was a fortress and became a bishopric of the diocese of Zamora around the year 900 ; the first bishop was Attila of Zamora . The attempt of the Umayyad prince and self-proclaimed Mahdi Ibn al-Qitt to recapture the city for the Muslims in 901 failed.
The city was destroyed in 981 by the Moors under the leadership of Almansor . In the 11th century it was rebuilt by Ferdinand I (r. 1035-1065) and a repopulation ( repoblación ) was initiated. After his death, the city became the residence of his daughter Urraca . The city experienced its heyday in the 12th and early 13th centuries, but this came to an end with the shift of political, cultural and economic interests towards Andalusia - it sank back to the rank of a provincial town, but on the other hand many medieval churches (all first of all the cathedral) have been preserved.
Sights and culture
- The Romanesque cathedral (Catedral de San Salvador) dates from the 12th century and is the episcopal church of the diocese of Zamora.
Other Romanesque churches:
- San Cipriano
- San Claudio de Olivares
- Espíritu Santo
- San Isidoro
- Santiago de los Caballeros
- Santa María Magdalena
- San Pedro de la Nave , Visigothic church from the 7th century
see also: List of cultural monuments in Zamora
- Casa del Cid , built in the 11th century
- Aceñas de Olivares , water mills
- Palacio de los Momos
- Palacio de los Condes de Alba y Aliste (15th century), now a Parador hotel
- Teatro Principal , opened in 1876
- Mercado de Abastos (Market Hall)
- Casino de Zamora , built between 1905 and 1910
- Museo de Zamora
- Museo de Semana Santa
- Centro de Interpretación de las Ciudades Medievales (exhibition on the city's medieval history)
- Museo Baltasar Lobo
- Museo Etnográfico de Castilla y León ( Ethnographic Museum)
- The parades during Holy Week ( Semana Santa ) are known beyond the city.
- The sheep cheese " Queso Zamorano " DOP is named after the city.
- In 1976, some scenes from the film Robin and Marian with Sean Connery and Audrey Hepburn were shot in front of the Castillo de Zamora .
Zamora has twinned cities with
- Bragança , Portugal (1984)
- Oviedo , Spain (2001)
- Yaritagua , Venezuela
- Altagracia de Orituco , Venezuela
sons and daughters of the town
- Attila von Zamora (around 850 – around 920), bishop and saint (since 1095)
- Jitzchak Arama (1420–1494), Jewish scholar
- Alfonso de Castro (1495–1558), Franciscan theologian and lawyer
- Juan Nicasio Gallego (1777-1853), poet
- Leopoldo Alas (1852–1901), writer, journalist and professor of Roman law at the University of Oviedo
- Agustín García Calvo (1926–2012), grammarian, translator, philosopher, poet and essayist
- Gaspar Calvo Moralejo OFM (* 1930), religious
- Ángel Nieto (1947–2017), motorcycle racer
- Ludwig Vones , Hans-Rudolf Singer : Zamora . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 9, LexMA-Verlag, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-89659-909-7 , Sp. 471-473.
- Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero . Population statistics from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (population update).
- Zamora - climate tables
- Zamora - population development
- Zamora History