Durum wheat ( Triticum durum )
The durum wheat ( Triticum durum ), including durum , durum wheat or glass wheat named after wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), the most economically important wheat -Art. They are usually grown as summer cereals .
The annual inflorescence measures 4 to 6 centimeters without awns , with a width of 12 to 18 millimeters. It is compressed on the sides and roughly a square in cross-section. The ear axis is not brittle when ripe, so the durum wheat is a naked wheat. Tufts of hair sit at the point of attachment of the spikelets . The spikelets contain four to seven flowers, two to four of which are fertile . The spikelet is 10 to 15 millimeters long, longer than it is wide. The glumes are 9 to 12 mm long, almost as long as the lowest floret. They are membranous and keeled sharp to winged. The keel ends in an upright tooth. The side keel ends in a side tooth. The lemmas have nine to 15 nerves, are no more than 12 millimeters long and carry an awn up to 20 millimeters long.
Durum wheat is characterized by its high gluten content , yellow color and high cooking strength. It has a higher protein content and at the same time lower starch content than winter soft wheat.
The composition of durum wheat naturally fluctuates, both depending on the environmental conditions (soil, climate) and the cultivation technique (fertilization, crop protection).
Details per 100 g of edible portion:
1 mg = 1000 µg
Durum wheat is only known as a culture. It probably originated from the emmer ( Triticum dicoccon ). It loves warmth and needs less than 500 mm of annual precipitation . Important growing areas are the Mediterranean and the Middle East .
Durum wheat represents around 10% of the world's wheat. The most important countries in Europe for producing durum wheat in 2007 were Italy (4 million t), France (1.9 million t), Spain (1.2 million t) and Greece (0.9 million t). In the same year, 38,000 t were harvested in Germany and 53,000 t in Austria.
Durum wheat is particularly rich in protein (average content around 16%). Elastic doughs can be obtained from the semolina or haze of durum wheat, which are particularly suitable for the production of pasta , especially classic Italian pasta . Also couscous and bulgur are made from durum wheat.
Durum wheat that has been pre-cooked in steam, dried and peeled, is available under the brand name Ebly .
- Durum wheat at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
- Durum wheat. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Triticum durum Desf. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora .
- Thomas Meyer: Data sheet with identification key and photos at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland (old name of the website: Flowers in Swabia ).
- Siegmund Seybold (Ed.): Schmeil-Fitschen interactive (CD-Rom), Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2001/2002, ISBN 3-494-01327-6 .
- Ternes, Täufel, Tunger, Zobel: Food Lexicon . Behr's Verlag, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-89947-165-2 .
- Nutrient database of the USDA ( Memento of the original of July 18, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Wolfgang Franke: Nutzpflanzenkunde. Usable crops of temperate latitudes, subtropics and tropics. 4th edition, Thieme, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-13-530404-3 , p. 82.
- Getreide-Jahrbuch 2008/2009, Ed. Verlag Moritz Schäfer, Detmold (figures from the ZMP and from national statistics).
- Descriptive list of varieties for grain, page 112 ff , accessed on August 21, 2014
- Federal Customs Administration : Basic information on customs duties and taxes in export procedures , information, accessed on March 16, 2014.
- morgenpost.de: Do you know Ebly?