from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pasta production in the food laboratory to check the quality of the raw materials
freshly made pasta (pasta fresca)

Pasta (Italian for dough ) is the name in Italian cuisine for pasta made from durum wheat semolina , table salt and water in many sizes and shapes .


Neapolitan maccharoni eaters

In China , pasta has been known at least since the times of the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD). One of the oldest written documents speaks of pasta , steamed dumplings and dumplings . Pasta dishes were also known in ancient Greece . They are attested in Etruscan tombs by images of devices for making pasta.

The term came from the Latin from the Greek pastē , which was used to describe a barley meal similar to grits . A flat Greek product similar to pasta but baked in oil was called laganon , which was also mentioned by the Roman writers Cicero and Horace .

In the 12th century , the geographer Al-Idrisi wrote that near Palermo , Sicily, threads of wheat were cooked, which Muslims and Christians alike enjoy eating. He also reports on an extensive export of this pasta called Itryah to the entire Mediterranean region . This is the first written document that speaks of pasta as defined today. The Italian coast, especially the area around Naples , developed at times into a stronghold for pasta production.

Today there are only a few traditional pasta producers (pastifici) in Italy, the majority of pasta is manufactured industrially. According to their size, they are divided into pasta corta (short pasta) and pasta lunga (long pasta). Since 1992 there has been a pasta museum in Rome , the Museo Nazionale delle Paste Alimentari .


The original Italian names are used for most types of pasta and the Italian spelling is retained. Only macaroni is Germanized ( Maccheroni in Italian ), and spaghetti has been allowed to be written without an h since the spelling reform .

The Vermicelli variety (along with other Italian-sourced spices ) was offered by Tyrolean traders in markets north of the Alps as early as the 18th century .


Most types of pasta are made from durum wheat semolina. There is also egg noodles ( all'uovo ), consisting of durum wheat semolina and eggs. Other varieties are:

Pasta integrals
Whole wheat pasta
Pasta con soia
made from durum wheat semolina with soy flour
Pasta 5 cereals
made from barley , oats , rye , wheat and buckwheat
Pasta Farro e Lenticchie
with spelled and lentils
Pasta Orzo e Grano Saraceno
Barley and buckwheat
Pasta di corn

The endings for pasta molds mean:

wide, for example tagliatelle
narrow or small, for example orecchiette
-ine / -ini
small, for example tortellini
big, for example tortelloni
cut off, shortened (literally: "half")
with vegetables or colorful pasta (literally: "vegetable gardener")

In the case of the large pasta shapes, if it is pasta fresca (fresh pasta), individual herb leaves, such as sage or basil, are sometimes worked into the dough, so that their structure and color can be seen through the dough.


Tricolor rotini

Pasta without color additives has different shades of yellow depending on whether it was prepared with or without eggs. In addition, pasta is traditionally made with additions of spinach (green pasta), tomatoes or beets (red pasta), carrots (orange pasta), more rarely - as a regional specialty of southern Italy - from octopus ink (black pasta) or cocoa powder (brown pasta) . Mixtures of pasta with three different colors are commonly referred to as pasta tricolore .

Serving styles

Pasta is arranged and served in different ways, examples:

Pasta in brodo
Pasta is cooked and served in soup ( Italian in brodo , in broth ). This type of preparation is popular with tortellini , for example .
Pasta lessa
Fresh ( pasta fresca ) or dried ( pasta asciutta / pasta secca ) pasta is boiled in water ( lessare ) and, after draining, served with a little butter ( al burro ) or with a sauce ( al sugo ) . In Italy, pasta prepared in this way is usually served as the first course ( primo piatto ) . In Italy, pasta is usually mixed with the sauce before serving, so that the pasta takes on the taste of the sauce. If there is a second main course ( secondo piatto ) made of meat after the pasta , the preparation of which resulted in a sauce, a short pasta sauce can be prepared from this, which is then served with a type of pasta that is perceived as suitable before the meat course. In the German-speaking world, spaghetti bolognese is also commonly referred to as pasta asciutta . In Italy both names are unusual; The minced meat sauce is usually served there as a ragù bolognese with tagliatelle .
Pasta al forno
Pasta is baked in a baking dish in the oven ( forno ) with other ingredients . Lasagne al forno and cannelloni al forno as well as rigatoni al forno are best known .

See also


Web links

Commons : Pasta  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Pasta  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Researchers find stone age spaghetti
  2. Chinese noodles from the Neolithic Age
  3. Italian pasta
  4. paste. In: Webster's New World College Dictionary / Retrieved August 27, 2011 .
  5. paste. In: Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved August 27, 2011 .
  6. pasta. In: Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved August 27, 2011 .
  7. Andrew Dalby: Food in the Ancient World From A to Z . Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-415-23259-7 , pp. 251 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  8. ^ Berthold Louis Ullman: Horace Serm. I. 6. 115 and the History of the Word Laganum. In: Classical Philology, Vol. 7, No. 4 (October 1912), pp. 442–449 (Eng.)
  9. Hans-Peter Baum : On the southern goods range on the Würzburg market in 1725. In: Ulrich Wagner (Ed.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes; Volume 2: From the Peasants' War in 1525 to the transition to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1814. Theiss, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8062-1477-8 , pp. 445–447.
  11. Matteo Garuti: Spaghetti alla bolognese: bestemmia culinaria o realtà storica? (Italian), May 23, 2017, accessed September 26, 2018.