Joan I (Navarre)

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Seal of Joan I of Navarre

Joan I of Navarre (born January 14, 1273 in Bar-sur-Seine , † April 2, 1305 in Vincennes Castle ) was Countess of Champagne and Queen of Navarre from 1274 to 1305, as well as through her marriage to Philip IV. the beautiful Queen of France from 1285 to 1305.


She was the only surviving child of King Henry I of Navarre , known as Henry III. was also Count of Champagne , and his wife Blanche d'Artois from the Capetian dynasty .

Johanna only spent 5 years in what was then the capital of Navarre, Pamplona .

At the age of a few months she was promised to marry the English Crown Prince Heinrich .

After the death of Heinrich in 1274, revolts and external threats broke out in Navarre, so that her mother and Johanna found themselves under the protection of the French king and relative Philip III. posed. Philip restored the peace by marching his troops into Navarre.

Johanna was in future in Paris together with the sons of Philip III. raised.

Since there was no male heir to the throne anyway , Philip married the 11-year-old Johanna on August 16, 1284 in Paris to his son Philip the Fair. The House of Capetians came into possession of all the titles and lands of the dynasty of Navarre and Champagne.

Although their marriage came about as a contractual consideration for the military intervention of France , they seemed to have been happy anyway, because Philip did not remarry in the 9 years after Joan's death until his own death in 1314, although at that time a great material one with a clever marriage and political gain was achievable.

After the death of his father on a campaign in October 1285, Philip IV and Johanna were crowned in Reims . With that she was Queen of France at the age of 12.

Johanna often accompanied her husband on his travels through France, but had little political influence on him. On the other hand, she dealt intensively with the administration of her inherited territories in Champagne and Navarre. Joan's marriage and the accompanying strengthening of French authority in Champagne, urged the neighboring Count Henry III. von Bar into an alliance with the King of England. When the Count von Bar invaded the Champagne region, Johanna met him, defeated him in a battle near Commines (1297) and took him prisoner. It recaptured Navarre from its Spanish neighbors and ensured a lasting peace there.

The Collège de Navarre, donated by the Queen in 1304, in 1440 (after moving)

Joan of Navarre died in the year 1305 at the age of 32 in Vincennes Castle and was buried in Paris in the Couvent des Cordeliers , the monastery of the Friars Minor of St. Francis of Assisi in the monastery church, which burned down in 1580.

In connection with Joan's death, the Bishop of Troyes was accused but not convicted. The Queen's personal physician was the inventor Guido da Vigevano .

In 1304, the Queen made the Paris city palace, which she owned in rue Saint-André-des-Arts, available to the foundation of the Collège de Navarre , which she had established , which had 70 students not only from Champagne and Navarre, but independently of each other of social and national origin. At the end of the 14th century, the college was at the northern end of today's rue Descartes.

Around 1305 she asked the Sire Jean de Joinville , who was her official as Seneschal of Champagne, for a biography of King Louis IX. to write to the saint , her husband's grandfather.

The only contemporary depiction of the Queen known today, made in Paris in 1305 and displayed in the Collège de Navarre in Paris until the building was sacked during the French Revolution, has been in the State's Sculpture Collection since 2006 as the property of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museums-Verein Museums zu Berlin - Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation can be found in the Bode Museum. It was in Louis Stern's art collection in the 19th century .


Joan of Navarre and Philippe IV fathered 7 children, of whom 3 sons and a daughter reached adulthood:

  • Louis X. the quarrel (October 4, 1289 - June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316
  • Margarete (* probably 1290; † 1294)
  • Blanka (* probably 1291; † 1294)
  • Philip V the Long (1293 - January 3, 1322), King of France from 1316 to 1322
  • Charles IV the Handsome (June 18, 1294 - February 1, 1328), King of France from 1322 to 1328
  • Isabella (* 1295; † August 22, 1358), called the "she-wolf of France (Louve de France)"
  • Robert (* 1297; † August 1308)


  • Robert Suckale: In the footsteps of a forgotten queen - A major work of Parisian court art in the Bode Museum, Peter Imhof Verlag Petersberg 2013
  • Jean Favier: Philippe le Bel. Fayard, [Paris] 1978.
  • Béatrice Leroy: Johanna I . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 5, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-7608-8905-0 , Sp. 523.

Web links

Commons : Joan I of Navarre  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
predecessor Office successor
Heinrich I. Queen of Navarre
Louis X.
Maria of Brabant Queen of France
Margaret of Burgundy