Peace of Paris (1763)

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Allegorical engraving: The peace returned to Europe in 1763 . In front of the Temple of Janus , the personifications of France and Great Britain exchange olive branches under the supervision of Europe (right), while Pax hurries up to the left .

With the Peace of Paris on February 10, 1763, the Seven Years' War in Western Europe , North America and India , which Great Britain and its ally Portugal had fought against France and Spain , ended. This mainly affected areas in the Lower Rhine-Westphalian , Upper Rhine and Lower Saxony districts as well as the American, African and Indian colonies . Shortly afterwards, the Peace of Hubertusburg ended the war between Prussia , Empress Maria Theresa ( Empire and Habsburg countries) and Electoral Saxony .

Great Britain emerged from the conflict, particularly from the French and Indian wars in North America, as the only winner. The peace treaty awarded England Florida, which was until then Spanish . France had to cede Canada and the areas east of the Mississippi and around the Great Lakes to the British Crown. In addition, it had to compensate Spain with its areas west of the Mississippi ( Louisiana ) for the loss of Florida. In North America, France kept only the western half of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola (today's Haiti ) and the fishing islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon , which, however, were not allowed to be fortified according to the terms of the contract.

The Indian possessions of France also fell to Great Britain after the Third Carnatic War as a result of the Peace of Paris . The French crown kept only a few trading bases here, including Pondicherry and Karikal , which became Indian in 1954. Also Senegambia , now divided in Senegal and Gambia , as well as some smaller possessions were British. France had to remove the heavy fortifications of the port city of Dunkirk . Some provisions of the treaty were revised 20 years later in the Peace of Paris of 1783 : After Britain's defeat in the American War of Independence , in which France had supported the young USA against Great Britain, Senegal reverted to France and Florida to Spain.

After the conquest of Spain during the Napoleonic Wars , Louisiana came under French rule again for a short time in 1800. Three years later, Napoléon I sold the entire area to the United States ( Louisiana Purchase ).

Peep box picture of the peace celebration in Paris: fireworks and ephemeral festival architecture on Place Louis XV on June 22, 1763 on the occasion of the conclusion of peace and the inauguration of the equestrian statue of the king


  • Hans-Jürgen Arendt: World historical consequences of the peace treaties of Paris and Hubertusburg 1763. In: Susanne Hahn (Hrsg.): Peace responsibility and peacekeeping in the 21st century. 2nd Hubertusburg Peace Talks, 19. – 21. September 2008, Hubertusburg Castle, Wermsdorf. (= Protocol volumes / Hubertusburger Peace Talks. 2). Leipzig 2009, pp. 22-38.
  • Colin G. Calloway: The scratch of pen. 1763 and the transformation of North America. Oxford et al. a. 2006.
  • Edmond Dziembowski: Les négociations franco-britanniques de 1761 devant le tribunal de l'opinion: le duc de Choiseul et la publicité de la diplomatie française. In: Jean-Pierre Jessenne, Morieux Dupuy, Pascal Renaud (eds.): Le négoce de la paix. Les nations et les traités franco-britanniques (1713–1802). (= Collection Études révolutionnaires. 10). Paris 2008, pp. 47-67.
  • Barry M. Gough: British mercantile interests in the making of the Peace of Paris, 1763. Trade, war, and empire. (= Studies in British History. 30). Lewiston et al. a. 1992.
  • Alain-Charles Gruber: Les grandes fêtes et leurs décors à l'époque de Louis XVI. (= Histoire des idées et critique littéraire. 122). Genève 1972, chapter: Les Fêtes de la Paix à l'occasion de la fin de la Guerre de Sept Ans en juin 1763, pp. 19-25.
  • Sophie Imbeault, DenisVaugeois, Laurent Veyssière (eds.): 1763. Le traité de Paris bouleverse l'Amérique. Québec 2013.
  • Zenab Esmat Rashed: The Peace of Paris 1763. Liverpool 1951.
  • Roger Soltau: Le chevalier d'Eon et les relations diplomatiques de la France et de l'Angleterre au lendemain du traité de Paris (1763). In: Mélanges d'histoire offerts à Charles Bémont. Paris 1913, pp. 653-664.
  • Hermann Wellenreuther: The Treaty of Paris (1763) in Atlantic history. In: Lower Saxony Yearbook for State History. 17, 1999, pp. 81-110.

Web links

Commons : Peace of Paris (1763)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Hans-Martin Kaulbach: Europe in the peace allegories of the 16th-18th centuries Century. In: Klaus Bußmann, Elke Anna Werner (Ed.): Europe in the 17th century. A political myth and its images. Stuttgart 2004, pp. 53–78, here 73.
  2. Jonathan R. Dull: The French Navy and the Seven Years' War. (= France Overseas: Studies in Empire and Decolonization ). Lincoln / London 2005, ISBN 0-8032-1731-5 , pp. 194-243.