Dār al-Harb

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The Arabic term Dār al-Harb دار الحرب dār al-harb , DMG dāru l-ḥarb literally means “house of war” or better: “area of ​​war” and refers to all areas of the world in which Islam is not the state religion, which is not a Dār-al-ahd (area of the contract). The inhabitants of the Dār al-Harb are the Ḥarbīs , who have their own legal provisions. Largely with the same meaning as Dār al-Harb , the term Dār al-Kufr (دار الكفر), literally used as "area of ​​disbelief". In contrast, areas with Islam as the state religion are Dār al-Islām (دار الإسلام) called. The term does not appear in the Koran , but according to Yusuf al-Qaradawi , goes back to the founder of the Hanafi school of law, the Islamic legal scholar Abu Hanifa (699–767).

Campaigns against the Dār al-Harb are not regarded as wars from the traditional perspective of Islam and are therefore not referred to as such, but rather as "openings" (فتوحات Futuhat ). According to the traditional Islamic view, there can be no salām (“ peace ”) with the Dār al-Harb , but only a temporary hudna (“ armistice ”). Wars against the Dār al-Harb are traditionally referred to as jihad . The well-known late Muslim author and speaker on the subject of Islam, Fatima Grimm , propagated jihad in her work “ The Education of Our Children ” and others. a. with the words: “I mean that around the age of 15 we can expectto findour childrenopen tothe concept of jihad . We must then show them in which areas our faithis exposed tothe attacks of Dar-ul-harb and open up ways for them that will one day enable them to successfully take the defense into their own hands. This includes that we ... always remind them of what a great honor it is for every Muslim to be able to fight for the cause of Islam with weapon in hand. He cannot earn a greater merit by anything on earth. "

Those who practice jihad are called mujahed (مجاهد), pl. Mujahidun (مجاهدون), or in the genitive and accusative mujahideen (مجاهدين) designated. The jihad is not a duty of the individual Muslim, but mandatory for all the Muslims ( fard Kifaya ). Anyone killed during jihad goes as a Shahid (شهيد), literally translated as “witness”, “ martyr ” directly into heaven, where he is surrounded by the so-called virgins of paradise ( huri ) and other joys.

According to the original view, a Muslim is forbidden to live in the Dār al-Harb , and he must, if he is at all possible, emigrate from there to the Dar al-Islam ( Hijra , like the Prophet Mohammed from Mecca , before it was Islamic, immigrated to Medina ).

In later times, terms like Dar as-Sulh ("area with peace treaty") and Dar al-'Ahd were created. They denoted areas that had signed a treaty with Dar al-Islam and were subject to tribute. Muslims did not necessarily have to emigrate from these areas. After the British conquest of India , religious scholars such as Sayyid Ahmad Khan declared that any country in which Muslims were allowed to practice their religion should be regarded as Dar al-Aman ("area with guaranteed security"), which removes the obligation to jihad or emigrate. In this sense, after the partition of India in 1947, many Muslims viewed India as Dar al-Aman . Many Indian Muslims, however, remained true to the traditional view and emigrated to Pakistan ( Muhajirun ).

These later terms are controversial, however, since the Islamic madhahib have rejected any innovations since the 11th or 12th century. More details about innovations can be found in the article Fiqh .

Since at the latest since the end of the caliphate in 1924 there has been no Islamic state and government association, there are very different interpretations and applications of Islamic law in the respective Muslim-dominated nation states, including the concept of Dār al-Harb . It is of little importance nowadays.

Individual evidence

  1. "Dar Al-Islam And Dar Al-Harb: Its Definition and Significance" by Ahmed Khalil, upper third
  2. cit. after Fatima Grimm, " The education of our children " , Munich 1995, p. 19; reproduced here with the copy of the Islamic website enfal.de stored in the Internet Archive and no longer available
  3. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e490?_hi=1&_pos=1