|coat of arms||Germany map|
|County :||Bad Kreuznach|
|Association municipality :||Nahe-Glan|
|Height :||158 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||10.34 km 2|
|Residents:||2796 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||270 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||55590|
|Area code :||06753|
|License plate :||KH|
|Community key :||07 1 33 065|
|Association administration address:||Obertor 13
55590 Meisenheim, Germany
|City Mayor :||Gerhard Heil|
|Location of the city of Meisenheim in the Bad Kreuznach district|
Meisenheim is a town and belongs to the community of Nahe-Glan in the Bad Kreuznach district ( Rhineland-Palatinate ). The city is the seat of an additional administrative office of the Verbandsgemeinde. Meisenheim is a state-approved resort and according to state planning as a middle center.
Meisenheim also includes the Hof Wieseck, Keddarterhof and Röther Hof residential areas .
There are first traces of settlement in the Meisenheim area from the 8th century BC. Chr. (Clay pot shards); from the first century BC A coin find comes from BC. Grave finds and remains of a pottery workshop come from the Romans. Traces of a Franconian row grave cemetery date from the beginning of the 7th century AD. The existing settlement was probably given the name of the hypothetical Franconian founder Meiso at this time .
Around 1127, the sons of Nahegau Count Emich I shared their father's property. The younger son Gerlach received not only Veldenz Castle, after which his family was named, but also the area around Meisenheim. Meisenheim is first mentioned in a document in 1154. The Counts of Veldenz made Meisenheim their headquarters and built a castle, the traces of which have disappeared under the later buildings on Schlossplatz. Count Georg I von Veldenz received in 1315 from King Ludwig IV of Bavaria, city rights based on the Oppenheim model for his royal seat. Count Georg I brought the Johanniter to Meisenheim in 1321 and entrusted them with pastoral care in the castle church. The religious built the “yellow house” below the church for their coming and built a hospital at the beginning of the 15th century (first mentioned in 1416).
The last Count of Veldenz, Friedrich III., Remained without sons; his daughter Anna married Count Palatine Stefan in 1409 , the second youngest son of King Ruprecht of the Palatinate from the Wittelsbach family . By merging his legacy (mainly the County of Zweibrücken) with Anna's Veldenzer legacy, the Duchy of Pfalz-Zweibrücken was created , which existed until the French revolutionary troops marched in in 1794 and was ruled by rulers from the House of Wittelsbach. Even though the government was soon relocated to Zweibrücken, Meisenheim remained a central location as the seat of an upper office. During the Wittelsbach period, the new building of the castle church (consecrated in 1504), the expansion of the castle into a three-wing complex, of which the eastern wing (“Magdalenenbau” from 1614, today “Herzog-Wolfgang-Haus”) and parts of the foundation walls of the The south wing ("Steinerner Stock", burned down in 1734) have been preserved.
The Reformation was introduced relatively early in Pfalz-Zweibrücken; In 1526 the first Protestant service was held in the castle church. The Johanniter brothers converted to the new creed; the coming was dissolved in 1532. Duke Wolfgang von Pfalz-Zweibrücken promoted the Lutheran teaching by enacting a church ordinance (1557) and the establishment of the Latin school (1558). From 1538 to 1571 he maintained a mint in Meisenheim with an intermittent interruption, which was then relocated to Bergzabern . The double thalers, thalers and half thalers minted in the Meisenheim period are among the highest quality coin products in Pfalz-Zweibrücken. Wolfgang's son Johann I introduced the Reformed Confession under the influence of his relative, the Palatine Elector Friedrich IV .
In the Thirty Years War Meisenheim was occupied by Spanish troops under Spinola in 1620/21 and by imperial troops under Gallas in 1635 . The city was not destroyed, but still at least half of the population was killed by famine and a plague epidemic.
The Peace of Westphalia granted the Kingdom of France greater influence on Rhenish territories - in the "Réunions" (1679–1684) and in the Palatinate War of Succession (1688–1697), Louis XIV claimed large parts of the Duchy of Palatinate-Zweibrücken with Meisenheim for his rule. Since from 1681 to 1718 the kings Karl XI. and Charles XII. of Sweden from the Pfalz-Kleeburg line were also dukes of Pfalz-Zweibrücken (which they never entered), the French occupation had to act cautiously. French rule ended with the Peace of Rijswijk (1697). In 1734 French troops retreating from the War of the Polish Succession to the throne set up a hospital for their soldiers suffering from cholera in the "Stone Stock" of the Meisenheim Castle. Carelessness in the hospital kitchen burned the building down.
During the First Coalition War , the Left Bank of the Rhine, and with it Meisenheim, was occupied by French revolutionary troops in 1794 . From 1798 onwards the region was part of the French Republic and from 1804 to 1814 it was part of the Napoleonic Empire . In 1798 Meisenheim became the administrative seat ( chef-lieu ) of a canton in the Birkenfeld arrondissement of the Saar department ; since the Glan became the administrative border, Meisenheim lost its areas east of the river, which came to the Donnersbergdepartement .
At the beginning of 1797 the robber Johannes Bückler, known as Schinderhannes , committed one of his first break-ins in Meisenheim. He went into a master tanner's house at night and stole some of the leather supplies that he supposedly sold to the tanner the next day. In the spring of 1798 Schinderhannes danced several times in Meisenheim's inns.
The Congress of Vienna did not remove the Glang limit, but instead struck Meisenheim and the surrounding area of the small Landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg, about 110 km away . Meisenheim, from 1816 on the administrative seat of the Meisenheim Oberamt and a high school building, was surrounded by customs borders in all directions (to NW Principality of Birkenfeld [to Oldenburg], to NE Prussia, to SE Bavaria, to SW Principality of Lichtenberg [to Saxony-Coburg]) . By participating in the Hambach Festival (1832) and in the revolution of 1848/49 , the Meisenheimers tried to free themselves from their politically and economically cramped situation, the occupation of Meisenheim by Prussian troops in 1849 put an end to these efforts. In 1866 the Grand Duchy of Hesse inherited the entire territory, but after the lost war in the same year, Hesse-Homburg fell to Prussia . The Oberamt Meisenheim formed a district in the Koblenz administrative district of the Prussian Rhine Province . The economic recovery through the establishment of the German Empire in 1871 (creation of an industrial area north of the city) was slowed down by the fact that the railway line through the Glantal was not opened until 1896.
After the First World War , Meisenheim belonged to "Zone 3" according to the provisions of the Versailles Treaty , which was to remain under French occupation until 1935. After the failure of separatist attempts to form a "Rhenish Republic" and after the relaxation of Franco-German relations through the Locarno Treaty (1925), the occupation ended prematurely in 1930. In 1932, the Meisenheim district was dissolved in the course of Brüning's austerity policy and the district Affiliated to Kreuznach.
The city put up little resistance to National Socialism . “Jewish boycott”, book burning, November pogroms in 1938 took place here like everywhere in Germany. Towards the end of the Second World War there were a total of three bombing attacks that targeted the railway line. On March 19, 1945, Meisenheim was occupied by US troops without a fight.
After the Second World War, Meisenheim belonged to the French zone of occupation. With the formation of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the city was reunited with the former Bavarian areas.
Since the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, the city has grown to the west (residential and commercial), north (commercial area and schools) and east (residential, Bodelschwingh-Zentrum der Diakonie, health center on the Liebfrauenberg) beyond its softness.
57% of the population are Protestant, 20% Catholic. The Evangelical Castle Parish belongs (as one of the southernmost parishes) to the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland ; the Catholic Church of St. Anthony of Padua belongs to the parish community of Bad Sobernheim , Diocese of Trier .
The city council in Meisenheim consists of 20 council members, who were elected in a personalized proportional representation in the local elections on May 26, 2019 , and the honorary city mayor as chairman.
The distribution of seats in the city council:
- WGH = voter group Heil
City Mayor is Gerhard Heil. In the local elections on May 26, 2019, he was confirmed in his office with 82.38% of the votes.
coat of arms
The Meisenheim coat of arms has the following elements:
- A blue, red-armored lion on silver (borrowed from the coat of arms of the Counts of Veldenz )
- A titmouse on red (symbol of the historically incorrect derivation of the name "Meisenheim" from "Meise")
Culture and sights
The old town of Meisenheim am Glan is the only one in this area that has been developing continuously since the 14th century, uninterrupted by war, fire and destruction. It has a well-preserved wall ring in places with a still-preserved city gate, the lower gate, the town hall from 1517, numerous aristocratic courts and civil buildings and a medieval wagon scale.
The city's oldest aristocratic court, the Boos von Waldecksche Hof, was built before 1400. Today the building is animated by an event house and a court distillery and can be visited.
After a fire in the 18th century and demolition in the 19th century, only the Magdalenenbau remains as a larger building of the Meisenheim castle of the Veldenz counts and Zweibrücker dukes, which was generously renovated in the 15th century , which was the residence of the Zweibrücken family in 1614 Dowager Duke Magdalena and was significantly redesigned in the 19th century by the Landgraves of Hesse-Homburg. It is used today by the Protestant Church and is therefore also called the Herzog-Wolfgang -Haus after the Duke, who significantly favored the Reformation .
The Evangelical Castle Church , a three-aisled hall church , was built between 1479 and 1504. When it was built, it stood right next to the castle and was the court church, town parish church and church of the Johanniterkomturei. Its late Gothic west tower is decorated with rich stone carving. In the burial chapel, the 44 tombs of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken family (mostly executed in the Renaissance style) and the rich Gothic ribbed vault are evidence of highly developed sculpture; The wooden Rococo pulpit is also often praised. The organ on the west gallery with its baroque prospect, restored in 1993/94, was made in 1767 by the well-known Stumm brothers and, with its 29 registers, 2 manuals and pedal, was already one of the most opulent organ works on the Middle Rhine at that time. Today, along with the organ in the Augustinian Church in Mainz, it is the largest preserved instrument in this family of organs from the Hunsrück.
The baroque Catholic Church of St. Anthony of Padua has a very beautiful interior, some of which was donated by the former Polish King Stanislaus I. Leszczyński , who lived here temporarily during his exile. The former synagogue is now a meeting place . It was built in the 19th century in historicist forms; The original appearance included two smaller towers on the gable side, which can still be guessed at from the protruding side sections of the facade. The stately old primary school, inaugurated in 1908, is located on the lime tree avenue, which was completely renovated in 2007 amid fierce controversy. The Jewish cemetery is located in the so-called "Bauwald", east of the road from Meisenheim to Rehborn .
See also: List of cultural monuments in Meisenheim
Stanislaus I. Leszczyński often lived in Meisenheim between 1714 and 1718
Elisabeth Landgravine of Hessen-Homburg (1770–1840), builder of the Magdalenenbau
Friedrich VI. Landgrave of Hessen-Homburg (1769–1829), builder of the Magdalenenbau
Georg Moller (1784–1852), architect and urban planner, a. a. of the Magdalenenbau
Regular festivals and markets
- May'n Sunday (open for sale) (every 3rd May Sunday)
- Heimbacher Brunnenfest on the first weekend in July
- Water festival (festival of the volunteer fire brigade)
- Coat Sunday (open for sale) (annually on the 3rd Sunday in October)
- Christmas market (with handicraft presentation in the town hall)
Economy and Infrastructure
The company Bito Storage Systems has established the headquarters and the production facility for shelving systems in Meisenheim and employs over 950 employees.
The city was connected to the railway network in 1896 with the opening of the Lauterecken - Odernheim line, which was built as a direct continuation of the Lautertal Railway. This section merged in 1904 in the Glantalbahn, which was fully opened that year . The Meisenheim train station was definitely important for the local industry. In 1986, however, passenger traffic between Lauterecken-Grumbach and Staudernheim was stopped. Today the former train station is only used as a stopping point for the adventure trolley trips between Staudernheim and Kusel, which have become a tourist magnet.
Meisenheim has three schools:
- The Astrid Lindgren Primary School
- The secondary school plus in an integrated form.
- The Paul Schneider Gymnasium , which was founded in 1948 and expanded in 1953 , is the successor to the old urban Progymnasium , the “Latin School” , located at the Obertor that no longer exists . Up to and including 2015, the school had a boarding school.
The Glantal Clinic Meisenheim had two hospitals. The house “Hinter der Hofstadt” covered the needs of surgery, internal affairs and outpatient general medicine. The “Glantal Clinic” located on the Liebfrauenberg was a center for acute neurology, neurological rehabilitation, surgery and trauma surgery, internal medicine and the therapy of communication disorders. In 2015 the Glantal health center opened on the Liebfrauenberg, which now combines both former clinics. A speech healing center is attached to the clinic. The house “Hinter der Hofstadt” has been used as a branch of the Ingelheim reception center for asylum seekers since the end of 2015.
sons and daughters of the town
- John II of Alben (Ivan II. Albeni) OSB († 1433), Abbot of Topuszkó and Pannonhalma, Bishop of Veszprém, Pécs and Zagreb, Chancellor of Hungary
- Johann I (Pfalz-Zweibrücken) (1550–1604), Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken
- Friedrich von Pfalz-Vohenstrauß-Parkstein (1557–1597), Duke of Pfalz-Parkstein
- Johann Friedrich Allmacher (1648–1686), doctor and surgeon
- Philipp Heinrich Hellermann (1728–1806), builder of the late baroque and classicism
- Johann Carl Bonnet (1737–1786), poet and pastor
- Friedrich Karl von Fürstenwarther (1769-1856), Austrian field marshal lieutenant and baron, descended from the Wittelsbach ruling house
- Leopold von Fürstenwarther (1769–1839), Bavarian officer and baron, descended from the Wittelsbach ruling house
- Ludwig Neureuter (1796–1871), painter, gilder and maker of picture clocks
- Joseph Heinrich Friedlieb (1810–1900), Catholic theologian
- Ludwig Römmich (1816–1894), Palatine civil servant and politician
- Karl Koehl (1847–1929), doctor and prehistorian, pioneer of Stone Age and Bronze Age research
- Carl von Coerper (1854–1942), admiral and naval attaché
- Heinrich Coerper (1863–1936), clergyman, founder of the Liebenzeller Mission
- Carl Braun (1886–1960), chamber singer
- Peter Hetzel (1960–2014), literary critic, journalist and author
- Christian Held (* 1961), lawyer specializing in energy law
- Paul Metzger (* 1973), theologian and pastor of the Evangelical Church of the Palatinate
- Marco Reich (* 1977), soccer player
Have worked in Meisenheim
- Johann Christoph Beysiegel (1778–1843), gold and silversmith and first lieutenant in the Landwehr (1819)
- Ernst Hermann Albert Loewedon Falkenhagen (1828–1902), administrative officer, mayor 1869–1872
- Johann Georg Martin Reinhardt (1794–1872), District Administrator of the Oberamt / District Meisenheim from 1832 to 1872
- Hellmut von Schweinitz (1901–1960), writer and journalist, pastor at the Protestant Castle Church 1947–1960, founder of the Meisenheim Poet Weeks
- Wolfgang Schumann (* 1929), mayor from 1984 to 1999
- Eike Emrich (* 1957), sports sociologist and sports economist
- Ralph Spiegler (* 1961), politician (SPD)
- Melitta Sundström (1963–1993), actually Thomas Gerards, entertainer; buried in Meisenheim
- Tim Ganz (* 1997), handball player
- Anton Hain, founder of Anton Hain Verlag
- Günter F. Anthes: Historical tour of Meisenheim am Glan (= Meisenheimer Hefte . Issue 4). 6th edition. Meisenheim 1978.
- Günter F. Anthes, Meinhold Lurz (ed.): Meisenheim. Studies on nature, history and art (= local history series of the Bad Kreuznach district . Volume 18.I-II ). Meisenheim 1984.
- Karl-Heinz Drescher: Meisenheim am Glan (= large architectural monuments . Issue 194). 2nd edition, Munich / Berlin 1973.
- Klaus Freckmann: Meisenheim am Glan (= Rheinische Kunststätten. 268). 2nd, modified edition, Neuss 1992.
- Meinhold Lurz: Meisenheim. Architecture and urban development . Horb a. N. 1987, ISBN 3-89264-075-0 .
- Udo Salomon: Meisenheim. A small town and its inhabitants caught in the tensions of European history . Bad Kreuznach 2015, ISBN 978-3-945676-01-1 ( stadt-meisenheim.de [PDF; 15.7 MB ; accessed on June 10, 2018]).
- Werner Vogt : Meisenheim am Glan as the second residence of the Wittelsbach dukes and count palatine of Zweibrücken . In: Yearbook for West German State History . tape 19 , 1993, pp. 303-324 .
- Alfried Wieczorek : Meisenheim am Glan in the early Middle Ages according to archaeological evidence . In: Mainzer archaeological journal . tape 1 , 1994, p. 165-189 .
- Website of the city of Meisenheim
- Website of the Meisenheim Association
- Wolfgang Kemp and others: Meisenheim (Bad Kreuznach district): Jewish history / synagogue. In: alemannia-judaica.de . 20th January 2016 .
- Literature about Meisenheim in the Rhineland-Palatinate state bibliography
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate - population status 2019, districts, communities, association communities ( help on this ).
- Verbandsgemeinden Bad Sobernheim and Meisenheim: Agreement on territorial merger. (PDF) § 1. September 11, 2018, accessed on January 1, 2020 .
- State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate: My village, my city. Retrieved May 6, 2020 .
- State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate (ed.): Official directory of the municipalities and parts of the municipality. Status: January 2019 [ Version 2020 is available. ] . S. 23 (PDF; 3 MB).
- census database
- The Regional Returning Officer RLP: City Council Election 2019 City of Meisenheim. Retrieved September 28, 2019 .
- The Regional Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: Municipal elections 2014, city and municipal council elections.
- The Regional Returning Officer RLP: Direct elections 2019. Accessed on September 28, 2019 (see Meisenheim, Verbandsgemeinde, tenth line of the result).
- Wilhelm Altmann (Ed.): Eberhart Windeckes Memories on the History of the Age of Emperor Sigmund . Gärtner, Berlin 1893, p. 380.
- Scheffler, Wolfgang: Johann Christoph Beysiegel. In: Goldsmiths of Rhineland-Westphalia: dates, works, signs. Vol. 2. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1973. 740.