Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine
Федерација Босне и Херцеговине
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Flag is missing Coat of arms is missing
flag coat of arms
Kroatien Albanien Serbien Montenegro Republika Srpska Republika Srpska Brčko-Distrikt Föderation Bosnien und Herzegowina Föderation Bosnien und Herzegowina Föderation Bosnien und Herzegowinamap
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Location in Bosnia and Herzegovina
status Entity of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina 
Capital Sarajevo
Official languages Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian
founding March 18, 1994
president Marinko Čavara ( HDZ BiH )
Prime Minister Fadil Novalić ( SDA )
surface 26,111 km²
Residents 2,219,220 (2013 census)
Population density 91 inhabitants per km²

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Bosnian and Croatian : Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine ; Serbian : Федерација Босне и Херцеговине), formerly also known as the Bosniak-Croatian Federation , is one of the two entities alongside the Republic of Srpska and the State of Bosnia . The capital of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Sarajevo . The federation was created in the course of the political division of the country after the Bosnian War, which lasted from 1992 to 1995 .


According to the 2013 census, the federation had 2,219,220 inhabitants, including 1,562,372 Bosniaks (70.4%), 497,883 Croatians (22.4%) and 56,550 Serbs (2.5%). 102,415 inhabitants (4.6%) assigned to another (including Bosnian Roma ) or no ethnic group.

The Bosniaks have a clear majority in the cantons of Una-Sana , Tuzla , Zenica-Doboj , Sarajevo and Bosnian Podrinje , the Bosnian Croats in the cantons of Posavina , West Herzegovina and canton 10 . In the two cantons of Herzegovina-Neretva and Central Bosnia , the majority ratios vary from municipality to municipality. In the west of Bosnia (Canton 10 and Canton Una-Sana) there are some municipalities with a Serb majority. a. Drvar and Bosanski Petrovac .

Political structure

Cantons and largest cities

The federation is divided into ten cantons . In turn, the cantons are subdivided into communes ( općine ).


Since the Dayton Treaty , the area of ​​the federation - excluding the Brčko district condominium - covers around 50% of the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina .

The federation covers the south and south-west of the country to Bihać in the far west and the center of the country almost to the Save River in the north. However, it is separated from this by the Brčko district, which as a condominium of both entities is directly subordinate to the entire state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On the Sava there are two exclaves of the canton Posavina , which also belong to the federation and are enclosed by the Republika Srpska and the Brčko district on one side and by Croatian territory (across the Sava) on the other.

The biggest cities are Sarajevo , Tuzla , Zenica , Mostar and Bihać .


Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović and Croatian President Franjo Tuđman signing the treaties establishing the federation (Washington, March 18, 1994)

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was created under US pressure by the Washington Treaties of March 18, 1994, which ended the military clashes between Croatian and Bosniak troops in some parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina , as a common political framework for the predominantly Bosniaks and Croatians populated areas of the country. The federation initially claimed for itself the areas of the country controlled by Croats and Bosniaks in 1994 as well as those areas of the country that were predominantly inhabited by these two peoples before the war (a total of almost 60% of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina), this included up to the Bosniak and Croat offensives in In the summer of 1995, however, only around 30% de facto.

In order to avoid future conflicts, the highest state organs of the Federation should be staffed equally or proportionally with members of both nationalities. The cantons were to be given extensive autonomy; in the previously contested areas in central Bosnia and central Herzegovina , two cantons with special status were formed, in which parity of nationalities was guaranteed, similar to the federal level.

The Federation's government, which was newly formed in 1994, initially acted simultaneously as the government of the existing Bosnian-Herzegovinian state, whose remaining parliament (without the majority of Serbian MPs) became the Federation's provisional parliament. However, due to the institutional inertia of the parallel structures that existed in many areas, the establishment of the state organs of the federation was slow.

A possible solution to the Bosnia conflict was the accession of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Serbs to the federation in the form of additional Serbian cantons. However, that did not happen.

Rather, the 1995 Dayton Agreement made the Federation one of two entities of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the Republika Srpska became the second entity. According to the Dayton Agreement, the territory of the Federation is around 50% of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereby the demarcation with the Republika Srpska is only partly based on the population situation before the war, but often on the course of the front lines in late summer 1995.

After the Dayton Agreement, the state organs of the Federation were separated from those of the entire state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in which representatives of the Republika Srpska were now also involved.

In 1996 the first direct elections to the parliaments of the Federation and its cantons took place.

In 2001, in the wake of the affairs involving the dismissal of the politician Ante Jelavić and the closure of Hercegovačka banka , conflicts arose between Bosnian Croats and the Office of the High Representative .

A decision of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina According to the 2001 have - in deviation from the agreement of Washington - in the Federation alongside the Bosniaks and the Croats and the Serbs the status of a constitutive nation , which in turn also Bosniaks and Croats in the Republika Srpska applies .

As a result of a constitutional amendment decreed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbian as the official language of the Federation has been on an equal footing with Bosnian and Croatian since 2002 and the Cyrillic as well as the Latin alphabet are recognized as the official script of the Federation.


Surname Beginning of the term of office Term expires Ethnic group Political party
Krešimir Zubak May 31, 1994 May 18, 1997 Croatian NHI
Vladimir Šoljić May 18, 1997 December 29, 1997 Croatian HDZ
Ejup Ganić December 29, 1997 January 1, 1999 Bosniak SDA
Ivo Andrić Lužanski January 1, 1999 January 1, 2000 Croatian HDZ
Ejup Ganić January 1, 2000 January 1, 2001 Bosniak SDA
Ivo Andrić Lužanski January 1, 2001 February 28, 2001 Croatian HDZ
Karlo Filipović February 28, 2001 January 1, 2002 Croatian SDP
Safet Halilović January 1, 2002 January 27, 2003 Bosniak SBiH
Niko Lozančić January 27, 2003 February 22, 2007 Croatian HDZ
Borjana Krišto February 22, 2007 March 17, 2011 Croatian HDZ
Živko Budimir March 17, 2011 February 9, 2015 Croatian HSP
Marinko Čavara February 9, 2015 officiating Croatian HDZ

prime minister

Surname Beginning of the term of office Term expires Ethnic group Political party
Haris Silajdžić May 31, 1994 January 31, 1996 Bosniak SDA
Izudin Kapetanović January 31, 1996 December 18, 1996 Bosniak SDA
Edhem Bičakčić December 18, 1996 January 11, 2001 Bosniak SDA
Dragan Čović January 11, 2001 March 2, 2001 Croatian HDZ
Aliyah Behmen March 2, 2001 February 14, 2003 Bosniak SDA
Ahmet Hadžipašić February 14, 2003 March 22, 2007 Bosniak SDA
Nedžad Branković March 22, 2007 March 23, 2007 Bosniak SDA
Ahmet Hadžipašić ( 2nd time ) March 23, 2007 March 30, 2007 Bosniak SDA
Nedžad Branković ( 2nd time ) March 30, 2007 June 25, 2009 Bosniak SDA
Mustafa Mujezinović June 25, 2009 March 17, 2011 Bosniak SDA
Nermin Nikšić March 17, 2011 March 31, 2015 Bosniak SDP
Fadil Novalić March 31, 2015 in office Bosniak SDA


In the elections on October 12, 2014, the SDA won the most votes at the federal level (28%), ahead of DF (13%) and HDZ BiH (12%). There were 16 ministries to be distributed (eight “Bosniak”, five “Croatian” and three “Serbian”). Due to long disputes about their occupation, the formation of the government dragged on until March 31, 2015. The HDZ BiH received all five Croatian ministries and one additional ministry. The DF initially requested the three Serbian ministries and ultimately received five ministries. In the actual government negotiations, the party leaders of DF and HDZ did not communicate with each other. In the end, the SDA was satisfied with just five ministries, even though it won more votes in the elections than HDZ BiH and DF together.

This coalition broke up in June 2015 after a dispute over positions in state-owned companies. At the end of July 2015, a new coalition agreement was signed with three smaller parties. The Democratic Front was replaced by the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriot Party, the Party for BiH (SBiH) and the Party of Democratic Activity (A-SDA). The government reshuffle took place on October 28, 2015.

See also

Portal: Bosnia and Herzegovina  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Web links

Commons : Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Ustav Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine [Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina], Section I, Article 6: “Službeni jezici Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine su: bosanski jezik, hrvatski jezik i srpski jezik. Službena pisma su latinica i ćirilica. "
  2. http://www.fbihvlada.gov.ba/bosanski/aktuelno.php?akt_id=4612
  3. Agencija za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine: Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Bosni i Hercegovini, 2013. Rezultati popisa. (pdf, 19.7 MB) Sarajevo, June 2016; P. 54
  4. Agencija za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine: Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Bosni i Hercegovini, 2013. Rezultati popisa. (pdf, 19.7 MB) Sarajevo, June 2016; P. 54
  5. ^ Steven L. Burg, Paul S. Shoup: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention: Crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina. P. 297
  6. Ana S. Trbovich: A Legal Geography of Yugoslavia's disintegration. P. 320
  7. ^ Office of the High Representative: Decision on Constitutional Amendments in the Federation, Amendment XXIX. Retrieved August 1, 2018 .
  8. http://www.kas.de/wf/de/33.40990/
  9. ^ Bosnia and Herzegovina: Government crumbles. In: DiePresse.com. June 4, 2015, accessed January 6, 2018 .
  10. ^ Bosnia - New coalition for the Muslim-Croatian part of the country , tt.com of July 31, 2015
  11. ^ Constituting of the Government of the Federation of Bosnia And Herzegovina , accessed December 7, 2015.

Coordinates: 44 °  N , 18 °  E