Cold water geyser

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The Andernach geyser , the highest cold water geyser in the world (2016)
Cold geyser "Brubbel" in Wallenborn / Eifel
Eruption of the bubble

A cold water geyser is a special form of artificial carbon dioxide sources (gas artesian well ) which, like real geysers, expel their water at more or less regular intervals as a fountain . The driving force behind the expulsion of water is carbon dioxide. The mechanism is comparable to the frothing of mineral water from a mineral water bottle when it is opened.


A prerequisite for a cold water geyser is carbon dioxide , which is released into the groundwater by volcanic processes and is there in dissolved form. The groundwater is increasingly enriched with carbon dioxide until it cannot absorb any more. Normally, the carbon dioxide is then released slowly and regularly from the groundwater surface and seeks its way through the overlying soil in order to either escape over a large area on the earth's surface or in a few narrowly defined places as mofette .

For the creation of a cold water geyser, as with real geysers, a narrow ascent channel is necessary for the water discharge. This is usually artificial and occurs when the carbon dioxide-containing groundwater is drilled and the borehole is cased. In this eruption channel, the groundwater has a direct connection to the surface.

If these conditions are met, the eruption mechanism of a cold water geyser is based on the fact that the solubility of the carbon dioxide also decreases when the water pressure decreases. The free water surface in the borehole allows the carbon dioxide to bubble out unhindered when the solution limit is reached. This will lower the pressure so that more carbon dioxide is released and the water begins to bubble. The process intensifies so much that the water finally rises and, depending on the diameter of the borehole and the supply of carbon dioxide, emerges from the upper opening as a gush or fountain. The carbon dioxide content in the groundwater decreases as the gas and water escape until the reaction comes to a standstill. After the eruption, the process starts all over again. This process can be controlled by closing the borehole (eruption control). Technical eruption control is available, for example, at the cold water geysers in Andernach and Soda Springs ( Idaho ).


Cold water geysers are particularly found in passive volcanic areas, such as the Vulkaneifel , where volcanic carbon dioxide escapes, making it possible to use mofets and thus cold water geysers. Most cold water geysers are encountered when tapping mineral water, in Germany for example in Andernach and at the northern end of the Upper Rhine Rift between Bad Nauheim and Wiesbaden .

In Germany, the cold water geysers of the Eifel in particular are open to tourism. In Wallenborn, the Wallende Born (popularly called the Brubbel ) is an active cold water geyser (eruption about every 25-30 minutes ( IBE ), duration of the eruption about 5 minutes, eruption height up to 3 meters, like a fountain). The cold water geyser Andernach is located on the Namedyer Werth near Andernach (height of the fountain in the previously usual technically controlled operation 50 to 60 meters, jet-like).

In Slovakia , in addition to the geyser in Herľany near Košice (Kaschau) - interval 32 to 34 hours, duration of the eruption about 26 minutes, eruption height 15 m - with the Sivá Brada , there is another weakly active cold water geyser near Spišské Podhradie .

The cold water geysers in the USA are mainly located in southeastern Utah, known are the Crystal Geyser near Green River (Utah) and the Woodside Geyser (interval about 20 minutes) in Woodside (Utah) . Another well-known cold water geyser in the USA is located in Soda Springs , Idaho (artificial interval by timer and valve: 1 hour, natural interval: unknown, eruption height 30 m). The cold water geyser is only opened when the wind is so that the nearby buildings and shops are not soaked.

There is an independent carbon dioxide fountain on Lake Nyos in Cameroon to degas a crater lake .

List of some cold water geysers worldwide

Surname place region country Height
(° C)
CO 2 content comment
And afterwards geyser Then after Rhineland-Palatinate Germany 40-60 90-240 7-8 1903/1904, first drilling down to a depth of 343 m, active every 3–4 hours, fountain 50–60 m high, active until 1957, in 2001 a new well was drilled to a depth of 350 m, today's geyser.
Champagne Geyser Green River Utah United States 7-8 120 5 (Chaffin Ranch Geyser)
Cold Water Geyser Yellowstone National Park Wyoming United States 0.5 10
Crystal Geyser Green River Utah United States 3-15 240-720 7-32 and
16.5-17.5 2.6-5.8 kg / s Generated in 1935 while drilling for oil at a depth of 800 m
Floriano de Lemos Caxambu Minas Gerais Brazil 8th 3 times a day 27
Herľany Geyser Herľany Košice Slovakia 15th 32–34 hours 26th 10-17.8 1.385 g / l The first drilling was carried out in 1870, the first eruption took place in 1872 at a depth of 172 m, in 1874 the fountain rose at 330 m depth for 10 days to 112 m, today's depth 404.5 m. Since 2002 on UNESCO's list of proposals for recognition as a World Heritage Site .
Jones Fountain of Life Clearlake California United States <1.0 60 22nd 62
Mokena Geyser Te Aroha Waikato New Zealand 0.5-5 40 a few min. 75-85 2.5 g / kg Artificially created in 1936 by drilling
Povremeni Geyser Sijarinska Serbia 20th 9 2 55
Sivá Brada Spišské Podhradie Slovakia 0.3 more than 10 times per minute 1-2 seconds
Soda Springs Geyser Soda Springs Idaho United States 30th 60 1-2 40 Drilled to a depth of 96 m in 1937, Geysir is switched on every hour on the hour by a timer and reaches a height of around 30 m.
Source Intermittent de Vesse Bellerive-sur-Allier Auvergne France 1-6 230-270 45-50 29.7 In 1844 the source was drilled to a depth of 110 m.
Ten Mile Geyser Green River Utah United States 2.5-3.5 404 51 sec
Tumbleweed Geyser Green River Utah United States 0.3-1.5 2-8.5 46-94
Walling Born Wallenborn Rhineland-Palatinate Germany 2-3 25-30 a few min. Popularly Brubbel called to 1933 regularly seething source; now, after piping with a 30 meter pipe, geyser
Woodside Geyser Woodside Utah United States 6-10 28 60-90 (Roadside Geyser)
Unnamed Geyser Salton Sea California United States 0.1-0.5 10-60 sec Seconds

Basis of the table: J. Alan Glennon , The Operation and Geography of Carbon Dioxide-Driven, Cold-Water “Geysers” , 2004

See also

Other post-volcanic or thermal spring related phenomena:

Web links

Wiktionary: Kaltwasser geyser  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Fountain under lock and key. In: The time. May 19, 2004, accessed March 10, 2008 .
  2. ^ E. Kümmerle: Explanations of the geological map of Hesse 1: 25,000. Sheet No. 5618 Friedberg. Hessian State Office for Soil Research, Wiesbaden 1976, p. 102 ff . (247 pp.).
  3. a b The geyser of Herľany . Slovakia Travel , accessed April 19, 2018 .
  4. J. Alan Glennon, Rhonda M. Pfaff : The Operation and Geography of Carbon Dioxide-Driven, Cold-Water “Geysers” . In: The GOSA Transactions . Volume IX . University of California , Santa Barbara 2004, pp.  184–192 (English, online [PDF; 169 kB ; accessed on December 3, 2015]).
  5. ^ Largest Man-made Geyser, Soda Springs, Idaho . Roadside America , accessed March 8, 2008 .
  6. SJ Friedmann, FJ Gouveia : Timing and prediction of CO2 eruptions from Crystal Geyser, UT . Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , California May 31, 2006 (English, Online [PDF; 2.0  MB ; accessed on April 22, 2019]).
  7. Geiser Floriano de Lemos . Descubra Caxambu , accessed January 17, 2018 (Portuguese).
  8. Geyser in Herlany . UNESCO World Heritage Center , accessed June 26, 2014 .
  9. ^ The chemistry of waters of Te Aroha geothermal system . In: Waikato Regional Council Technical Report . tape  2013/07 . Waikato Regional Council , October 2012, ISSN  2230-4355 (English, online [PDF; 2.6 MB ; accessed on April 22, 2019]).
  10. Geyser Park & ​​Visitor Center . Soda Springs , archived from the original on July 11, 2014 ; accessed on June 27, 2014 (English, original website no longer available).
  11. La source intermittente de Vesse et son geyser . Tous droits réservés , accessed on June 26, 2014 (French).
  12. ^ J. Alan Glennon : The Operation and Geography of Carbon Dioxide-Driven, Cold-Water “Geysers” . In: The GOSA Transactions . Volume IX . University of California , Santa Barbara 2004, pp.  184–192 (English, online ( memento of October 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) PDF (169 kB) [accessed on December 3, 2015]).