Albert von Koelliker
Rudolf Albert von Koelliker , before 1897 Rudolf Albert Kölliker (* July 6, 1817 in Zurich ; † November 2, 1905 in Würzburg ) was a Swiss-German anatomist and physiologist who raised microscopic anatomy to an independent medical subject and was the founder of the modern, systematically carried out tissue theory , modern development history and cellular physiology applies.
Rudolf Albert Kölliker was the son of the bank clerk Johannes Kölliker (1790–1836) and Anna Maria Katharina born. Füßli (1796-1860). He himself married Maria Schwarz (1823–1901) in 1848, with whom he had three children.
Kölliker studied at the University of Zurich from 1836 to 1839 , then at the Royal Friedrich Wilhelms University in Bonn for one semester and then until 1841 in Berlin and Heidelberg . He was a student of Friedrich Arnold , Johannes Peter Müller , Jakob Henle (microscopic anatomy) and Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg . In 1841 he received his doctorate in philosophy in Zurich and in medicine in Heidelberg in 1842.
After working as an assistant and from 1842 as a prosector under Jakob Henle, who was now working in Zurich, he completed his habilitation in Zurich in 1843 with a thesis on the development of invertebrates and in 1844 became associate professor for comparative anatomy and physiology at the University of Zurich .
In 1847 he was appointed to the University of Würzburg , where he was initially appointed professor for comparative anatomy and experimental physiology. In 1848 he was a member of the preliminary parliament . In 1849 he became full professor of experimental physiology, comparative anatomy and the chair of anatomy that he had called for; He was also the head of the anthropotomic, zootomic and physiological institutions. In 1858 he left his chair for comparative and topographical anatomy to Heinrich Müller . Kölliker gave up the physiology chair in 1865. Privy Councilor Albert von Koelliker retired in 1897, but headed the Institute for Comparative Anatomy, Embryology and Histology until 1902.
In 1849 he was a founding member of the Physical-Medical Society in Würzburg . Before this society Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen presented the recently discovered X- rays on January 23, 1896. The hand of Kölliker was used as an object of illustration. After the performance, Kölliker suggested naming it as X-rays. Until then, Röntgen had used the term X-rays.
Since 1849 Kölliker was with Carl von Siebold editor of the journal for scientific zoology . In 1864 he published his lecture on "Darwin's theory of creation". Kölliker ascribed no effect to the mechanism proposed by Charles Darwin , the selection of variables. Instead he put forward a "theory of heterogeneous procreation". Kölliker assumed that living beings, under the influence of a general law of development, produce other deviating ones from germs they produce. He saw an analogy in the generation change . Individual basic forms should develop more and more and branch out to the diversity of living beings, whereby Kölliker assumed rather abrupt transitions between the species (in contrast to the gradual development in Darwin).
In order to be able to read the works of Santiago Ramon y Cajal , Kölliker learned Spanish in 1889. Kölliker made the discoveries of this Spanish histologist and Nobel Prize winner known in Germany.
For the outdated term protoplasm, Kölliker introduced the term cytoplasm, which is still used today, for the content of the cells of living beings . His research has influenced the field of microscopic anatomy worldwide.
Honors and memberships
- Member of the Leopoldina (1858)
- Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg (1858)
- Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1860)
- Honorary Member ( Honorary Fellow ) of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1864)
- Member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences (1873)
- Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1883)
- Ennobled by Luitpold of Bavaria (1897)
- Cothenius Medal of the Leopoldina (1897)
- Linnean Medal of the Linnean Society of London (1902)
- Directory of the phanerogamic plants of the Canton of Zurich , 1839 ( doi : 10.7891 / e-manuscripta-32362 )
- Contributions to the knowledge of sexual relations and the seminal fluid of invertebrates. Berlin 1841 (also the printed version of the Phil. Diss. Zurich 1841).
- Investigations into the Importance of the Seed Thread , 1842
- History of the development of the squid , 1844
- Manual of tissue science. 1852
- The eruption of the Aetna in 1852. In: Negotiations of the Physical-Medical Society in Würzburg. Volume 4, 1854, pp. 37-43.
- History of development of man and the higher animals. Academic lectures by Albert Kölliker. Engelmann, Leipzig 1861 ( digitized and full text in the German text archive )
- About Darwin's theory of creation (lecture 1864 in Würzburg). In: Journal for Scientific Zoology 14 (1864) pp. 174–186 (also as a special print by Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig 1864, 15 pages)
- Outline of the history of development of man and the higher animals. 1880
- The importance of the cell nuclei for the processes of inheritance. In: Journal of Scientific Zoology. Volume 45, 1885, pp. 1-46.
- Memories from my life . Engelmann, Leipzig 1899.
- Werner E. Gerabek : Koelliker, (Rudolf) Albert von. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 771 f.
- Reinhard Hildebrand: Rudolf Albert Koelliker and his scientific contacts abroad. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 2, 1984, pp. 101-115.
- Reinhard Hildebrand: Rudolf Albert von Koelliker and his circle. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 3, 1985, pp. 127-151.
- Thomas Sauer, Ralf Vollmuth : Letters from members of the Würzburg medical faculty in the estate of Anton Ruland. Sources on the history of medicine in the 19th century with short biographies. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 9, 1991, pp. 135-206, here: pp. 154-157.
- Bernd Krebs: Contributions to the conceptual history of the nomenclature of cell theory up to the beginning of the 20th century. Dissertation, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum 2013, pp 54–55 ( online ).
- Literature by and about Albert von Koelliker in the catalog of the German National Library
- Christoph Mörgeli: Kölliker, Albert. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Albert Kölliker: Virchow's most prominent Würzburg colleague on the Pathology website of the University of Würzburg
- Juliusspital: Albert von Koelliker
- Biography as a member of the Pourlemerite Order. (PDF; 342 kB)
- Overview of Albert von Koelliker's courses at the University of Zurich (winter semester 1842 to summer semester 1847)
- Hans Zuppinger: Albert Kölliker (1817–1905) and microscopic anatomy. Juris, Zurich 1974 (= Zürcher Medizingeschichtliche Abhandlungen , 101), especially p. 13.
- Neue Deutsche Biographie , Volume XII, p. 323.
- Reinhard Hildebrand: Rudolf Albert von Koelliker and his circle. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 3, 1985, pp. 127-151, in particular pp. 127 f.
- Erhart Kahle: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 12, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1980, ISBN 3-428-00193-1 , p. 322 f. ( ). In:
- Reinhard Hildebrand: Rudolf Albert von Koelliker and his circle. 1985, p. 129.
- Federal Archives: Members of the Pre-Parliament and the Fifties Committee (PDF file; 79 kB)
- Georg Feser: The Anatomical Institute in Würzburg 1847–1903. Medical dissertation Würzburg 1977, pp. 43-48.
- Thomas Sauer, Ralf Vollmuth : Letters from members of the Würzburg Medical Faculty in the estate of Anton Ruland. Sources on the history of medicine in the 19th century with short biographies. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 9, 1991, pp. 135-206, here: p. 154.
- About Darwin's theory of creation , p. 181. Cf. Franz Stuhlhofer : Charles Darwin - Weltreise zum Agnostizismus. 1988, pp. 110-133: "Admission of Darwinism in Germany".
- Rudolf Fick : Rudolf Albert Kölliker. In: Biographisches Jahrbuch and Dt. Nekrolog 10, 1907, pp. 130-137.
- Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names . Extended Edition. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, Free University Berlin Berlin 2018. 
- Fellows Directory. Biographical Index: Former RSE Fellows 1783–2002. (PDF file) Royal Society of Edinburgh, accessed December 28, 2019 .
|SURNAME||Koelliker, Albert von|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Kölliker, Rudolf Albert von; Kölliker, Rudolf Albert (maiden name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Swiss anatomist and physiologist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 6, 1817|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Zurich|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 2, 1905|
|Place of death||Wurzburg|