In a military staff support elements of the military leader (eg. In Germany Commander , Commanding General , Commander ) for guidance of subordinate organizations , large organizations or other military services combined. The staff supports the military leader in all troop command tasks.
A rod is in the armed forces from the outline level Association ( battalion or regiment and set higher). A chief of staff (CdS) - English Chief of Staff (CoS) - coordinates the work in bars from the brigade level upwards.
Officers working in a staff are called " officers of the staff" in order to avoid confusion with the rank group of staff officers ( major to colonel or comparable). Colloquially they are also referred to as "staff officers".
General Staff designates the highest military command authority in many armed forces.
Military staff work is leadership activity in order to advise the military leader and to support him in the respective specialist area. The basis for the workflow is determined by rules of procedure or staff duty. The work of the staff is coordinated by the chief of staff. The military leader gives orders to the staff. This works out possibilities of action on the basis of which the military leader makes decisions.
The work of the staff is based on the military leadership process . This is a structured thought and action process that runs continuously at all military command levels. It consists of the phases of situation assessment, planning, issuing orders and control. Central processes for information and decision-making within the staff are "Situation presentations for decision" (LVE) and "Situation presentations for instruction" (LVU). With these, the members of the staff inform the military leader or explain to him options for trading and weigh them up. NATO's Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive (COPD) forms the basis for work in NATO staffs.
The staff work related to the troop leadership is based on the series of rules on troop leadership, at the top of which is the regulation C1-160 / 0-1001 "Troop leadership" (formerly HDv 100/100).
In order to support the military leader in his tasks, the necessary sub-tasks are divided between different departments within the staff.
The departments of the staff are always abbreviated with a letter and a number, e.g. B. "S 3". In the Bundeswehr command area (FGG; 1–6) or at NATO level the number indicates the “Staff Function” (1–9 and possibly “Med.”), Which the department processes.
Departments whose department head post is not marked as a post for officers in the General Staff Service receive an "S" as a letter . This is the case up to the regimental / squadron level and in command areas 1 and 6 at brigade level. They are called "staff departments".
Departments of the Army and Air Force whose department head posts are marked as posts for officers in the General Staff Service have a "G" for "General Staff Department". These are the departments of the command areas 2 to 4 at the brigade level and all departments at the higher level. Corresponding naval departments (from flotilla level ) bear the letter "A" for "Admiral staff department ". In the Bundeswehr and NATO, departments in joint staffs (basically from the operational level upwards) are referred to as "Joint Staff Department" ("J").
In the address, the departments are basically z. B. as S1 department, G2 department, A3 department, etc., the Joint Staff Departments z. B. as "J-1".
Larger departments can be subdivided into groups, divisions (for the commands of the armed forces: units ), subject areas or cells. In use, they form control centers and cells.
Departments and cells within bars are usually led by ladders (e.g. department heads). The heads of the departments are referred to as "S 1" and so on. Historically, the term Staffabteilungsleiter (StAL) in the Bundeswehr was reserved for the department heads of the command staff in the Federal Ministry of Defense ( command staff of the armed forces (formerly the Bundeswehr), the army , the air force , the navy and the medical service ), which existed until 2012. The officers and NCOs with portepee of the staff are depending on the rank group, department and coding of the post as general staff service post in their post description z. B. called S1-Offz, S2-StOffz, G3-StOffz, A4-StOffz and S6-Fw.
The basic command areas, according to which the responsibility and the layout of the departments of a staff in the Bundeswehr are basically:
- FGG 1 - Human Resources and Replacement, Inner Leadership , Information, Press and Public Relations , Recruiting Young Talent
- FGG 2 - Military communications , military security , geographic information
- FGG 3 - leadership, planning, training, organization
- FGG 4 - Logistics, possibly including the first aid cell ( Chief Medical Officer - LSO)
- FGG 5 - civil-military cooperation (in principle only in the event of a defense or in higher command authorities )
- FGG 6 - leadership support
- Administration department (if applicable; command authorities)
(Joint) Staff Functions
Staffs in the armed forces of other states as well as (joint) staffs of NATO and the Bundeswehr (e.g. EinsFüKdoBw ) are divided into (joint) staff functions:
- J-1 Personnel and Administration ( English Personnel and administration )
- J-2 military intelligence ( English Intelligence )
- J-3 management of current operations ( English Operations )
- J-4 Logistik ( English Logistics )
- J-5 Planning of Operations ( English Plans )
- J-6 leadership support ( English Communication and information systems )
- J-7 training ( English training )
- J-8 Budget and Finance ( English Budget and Finance )
- J-9 civil-military cooperation ( English Civil-military Operations )
In addition, there may be consultants for political ( English Political Advisor; POLAD ), legal ( English Legal Advisor; LEGAD ), cultural ( English Cultural Advisor ) and gender ( English Gender Advisor ) matters as well as for the use of special forces ( English Special Operations Advisor) ) give.
At battalion level there are usually divisions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6. The battalion commander is the immediate superior of all soldiers on the staff ( VorgV ). He is the disciplinary superior of level 1 of the officers of the staff and assesses them. From brigade level up, this is the chief of staff.(1)
Department S 1
Department S 1 at battalion level is responsible for recruiting and managing personnel and reservist matters for the battalion and supports the commander in all matters relating to internal leadership. The department head S 1 (AbtLtr S 1) is the personnel officer (PersOffz), who is basically an officer of the military technical service .
Department S 2
Department S 2 at battalion level performs the task of military intelligence (MilNW). It is generally led by an officer of the troop service of the type of service corresponding to the battalion in the rank of first lieutenant or captain (MilNW Offz, AbtLtr S 2). He is the battalion's security officer . In addition, it usually consists of a non-commissioned officer with portepee and a team rank .
The task area of military intelligence in the sub-area of news management includes the assessment of the situation of opposing forces during exercises and in action as an essential contribution to the deployment of the battalion's forces. The tasks of the military security sub-area (MilSichh) include fundamental issues, personal security (e.g. initiation and monitoring of security reviews ), material security (e.g. structural and technical security of the barracks ), organizational security ( e.g. monitoring of key systems), evaluation of the Location of opposing forces during exercises and in action as an essential contribution to the deployment of the battalion's forces.
Department S 3
Department S 3 is the largest department in a battalion staff and is generally led by an officer of the troop service of the type of service corresponding to the battalion in the rank of major or lieutenant colonel (AbtLtr S 3). This usually performs the function of a chief of staff. In addition to the head, the department consists of several officers, portepee NCOs and men.
Department S 3 is responsible for training projects and deployment planning in basic operations. During exercises or operations, she supports the battalion commander in planning training projects as well as operations and management of his own forces. The department also forms the core of the operations center of the battalion's command post . This is where the reports from the companies and other subordinate elements come together and are summarized and evaluated on the situation maps . The resulting situation report serves the battalion commander as an essential basis for leadership and decision-making.
Department S 4
Dept. S 4 is headed by a staff officer of the logistics team (Dept. S 4). This is the troop supply staff officer (TrVersStOffz) of the battalion. In addition, it consists of at least one other officer, the technical officer (TechnOffz), the troop supply officer , material disposition and management sergeants , non-commissioned officers and men.
The department is responsible for the material readiness and supply of the unit and advises the commander on logistical management decisions of the battalion. All processes of material management and maintenance, which are required for assessing the logistical readiness for use, come together in it. She works closely with the maintenance and supply forces as well as the material group of the supply and support company.
Department S 6
Department S 6 is responsible for management support, telecommunications and information technology (IT). The department is led by an officer of the military technical service (IT-Offz, AbtLtr S 6). This is basically on exercises and deployed commander of the command post.
Department S 6 ensures the commander's leadership ability in all areas and ensures the communication link between the battalion and the next higher management level. She is responsible for the planning, coordination, use and operation of IT equipment, telecommunication equipment, radio and satellite connections of the association, both in peacetime operations as well as during exercises and operations. Often the post office function is also performed in the department .
The Stabszugführer (StZgFhr) is a superior with a special area of responsibility vis-à-vis the NCOs and crews of the staff platoon and the battalion staff. While on duty, he has the authority to issue orders to these soldiers that are necessary for the performance of his duties. If this results from his area of responsibility, he also has the authority to give orders to soldiers who are not on duty ( VorgV ). The staff commander is the disciplinary superior of the non-commissioned officers and men of the staff and has the authority to judge them. As a rule, he is also responsible for organizing general military training, e.g. B. Discarding basic individual skills (shooting, medical training , ABC protective measures, swimming in clothes , basic fitness test , walking with luggage ) and general sports training.
Among other things in offices and commands, the "Commandant Stabsquartier" (Kdt StQ) performs the duties of a staff commander.
The staffs have the authority to issue orders while on duty
- the officers to all non-commissioned officers and men,
- the NCOs from Sergeant upwards to all staff NCOs, NCOs and men,
- the staff sergeants and the sergeants vis-à-vis all teams.
However, the commander can limit the authority to subdivide the staff. ( VorgV )Paragraph 1 in conjunction with Paragraph 3
The word staff , in the sense of a sign of the authority of command, was transferred from the 17th century to the "totality of the higher officers of an army". The German term is also borrowed as English staff at the beginning of the 18th century ; the Russian loan word штаб also dates to the 18th century; French has the term cadre ("frame"). The rank of quartermaster general was introduced at the beginning of the 18th century and represents the direct historical preliminary stage of the general staff . The formal organization of staff departments goes back to the middle of the 18th century. In 1758 Leopold Joseph von Daun pushed for a more important role for the quartermaster general after the imperial-royal army at Leuthen . In 1769 a permanent staff of 30 officers was set up under Franz Moritz von Lacy .
Structure of the staff of the Wehrmacht
In the army of the Wehrmacht , the departments of the staff were designated with a combination of a Roman numeral and a lowercase letter. The staff of an infantry division was z. B. structured as follows:
- Ia First General Staff Officer (leadership and training)
- Ib Quartermaster (logistics, wounded and supply services)
- Ic Third General Staff Officer ( Enemy and Defense )
- IIa Personnel Administration - 1st Adjutant (responsible for the officers)
- IIb Personnel Administration - 2nd Adjutant (responsible for NCOs and men)
- III Court Martial / Registrar
- IVa supply officer (civil servant)
- IVb doctors / medical service
- IVc veterinary
- IVd division pastor
- Gesine Hofinger, Rudi Heimann (Ed.): Handbook of staff work - management and crisis staff in emergency organizations, authorities and companies . With 52 figures and 10 tables. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-662-48186-8 ( full text PDF ).
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- Harald Schaub: Military staffs in the Bundeswehr . In: Gesine Hofinger, Rudi Heimann (Hrsg.): Handbook of staff work - management and crisis staff in emergency organizations, authorities and companies . Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-662-48186-8 , pp. 33 .
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- Harald Schaub: Military staffs in the Bundeswehr . In: Gesine Hofinger, Rudi Heimann (Hrsg.): Handbook of staff work - management and crisis staff in emergency organizations, authorities and companies . Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-662-48186-8 , pp. 36 .
- Harald Schaub: Military staffs in the Bundeswehr . In: Gesine Hofinger, Rudi Heimann (Hrsg.): Handbook of staff work - management and crisis staff in emergency organizations, authorities and companies . Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-662-48186-8 , pp. 34 .
- Lieutenant Colonel Bornhardt: The new TF . In: In the focus - magazine for troop leadership . tape 1 , no. 1 , August 2018, p. 7–10 ( full text PDF ).
- Information from KoordStTermBw from October 18, 2019, see here
- NATO Standard AJP-3 - Allied Joint Doctrine for the Conduct of Operations - Edition C Version 1. In: NATO . Nato Standardization Office (NSO), February 2019, accessed on October 18, 2019 (Annex A; p. 111 ff.).
- Structure of the Mountain Infantry Battalion 232. In: https://www.deutschesheer.de/ . February 19, 2018, accessed October 2, 2019 .
- Christopher Duffy, Instrument of War (The Austrian Army in the Seven Years War) (2000), p. 381. General Regulations , or Behavior for the Imperial and Royal Generals (1769), 145f.