Spotted Gentian ( Gentiana punctata )
Appearance and leaves
The mostly opposite, sessile leaves are simple and smooth-edged. In some taxa , the opposite leaves are partially connected by a thickened bar. In some herbaceous species, the leaves are basal concentrated. Stipules are missing.
Inflorescences and flowers
The flowers stand individually, in terminal or axillary inflorescences , mostly it is a simple or compound dichasium , with or without bracts . The hermaphrodite flowers are almost always radially symmetrical and usually four or five-fold. The four or five (rarely up to twelve) sepals are fused at least at the base. The four or five (rarely up to twelve) mostly large and strikingly colored petals are fused at least at the base ( sympetalie ). There is only a circle with four or five (rarely up to twelve) stamens ; they are fused with the corolla tube. Sepals, petals and stamens are always present in the same number per flower. Two carpels have become a top permanent ovary grown. Some species are heterostyle . The pollination is usually by insects ( Entomophilie ).
Fruits and seeds
This family was established in 1789 under the name "Gentianae" by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in Genera Plantarum , 141. The type genus is Gentiana L. The taxa of the earlier families: Chironiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl , Coutoubeaceae Mart. , Potaliaceae Mart. , Saccifoliaceae Maguire & Pires are now included in the Gentianaceae family.
The Gentianaceae family is divided into six tribes with about 80 to 87 (up to 95) genera and 900 to 1655 species:
- Tribus Saccifolieae (Maguire & Pires) Struwe, Thiv, VAAlbert & Kadereit : It contains four to five genera with around 19 species in tropical South America :
- Curtia Cham. & Schltdl. : The eightor sospecies are distributed from Mexico via Central America to Argentina and are absent in the Andes region.
- Hockinia Gardner : It contains only one species:
- Saccifolium Maguire & Pires : it contains only one species:
- Tapeinostemon Benth. : The seven or so species are common in northeastern South America.
- Voyriella Miq. : It contains only one type:
- Tribe Exaceae Colla : It contains six genus with around 165 species in the Paleotropic :
- Cotylanthera flower (sometimes in Exacum L. ): In the four or so species, the leaves contain little or no chlorophyll. The only four species are common in northeast India , Bhutan , Nepal , Myanmar , China , Thailand , Indonesia and the Philippines .
- Bitter leaf ( Exacum L. ): The approximately 65 species are common in the Paleotropic .
- Gentianothamnus Humbert : It contains only one species:
- Ornichia clack. : The three or so species only occur in Madagascar.
- Sebaea Sol. ex R.Br. : The approximately 60 to 100 species are distributed from Africa to India, Australia and New Zealand .
- Tachiadenus Griseb. : The eleven or so species only occur in Madagascar.
- Tribus Chironieae (G.Don) Finlicher : It is divided into two sub- tribes and contains about 26 genera with about 159 species:
- Subtribe Chironiinae:
- Bitter gentians or bitterlings ( Blackstonia Huds. ): The four or so species occur in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
- Centaury ( Centaurium Hill ): The approximately 20 species occur in Eurasia and North Africa .
- Chironia L .: The 15 or so species are common in Africa and Madagascar.
- Cicendia Adans. : Of the only two species, one occurs in western Europe and the Mediterranean region and one in California and western South America.
- Prairie gentians ( Eustoma Salisb. ): The approximately three species are distributed from southern North America to northern South America.
- Exaculum Caruel : It contains only one type:
- Geniostemon Engelm. & A.Gray : The five or so species occur in Mexico.
- Gyrandra Griseb. : The five or so species are common in Central America .
- Ixanthus Griseb. : It contains only one type:
- Orphium E. Mey . : The only two types are common in southern Africa.
- Sabatia Adans. (Syn .: Lapithea Griseb. ): The approximately 20 species are distributed from North to Central America and on Caribbean islands .
- Schenkia Griseb. : The five or so species are found in Eurasia, the Mediterranean region, Australia and the Pacific islands .
- Zeltnera G.Mans. : The approximately 25 species are distributed in North, Central and South America ( Colombia , Ecuador and Peru ).
- Zygostigma Griseb. : It contains only one type:
- Canscora Lam. : The approximately nine species are common in the tropics.
- Cracosna Gagnep. : The three or so species are common in Southeast Asia.
- Hoppea Willd. : The roughly two species are native to India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar and are neophytes in Africa, Australia and the Philippines.
- Microrphium C.B.Clarke : The approximately two species occur in Malesia and the Philippines.
- Phyllocyclus In short : the five or so species occur from Myanmar to southern Dhina .
Schinziella Gilg : It contains only one species:
- Schinziella tetragona (Schinz) Gilg : It is common in tropical Africa.
- Coutoubea Aubl. : The five or so species are distributed from Central America to northern tropical South America.
- Deianira Cham. & Schltdl. : The five to seven species are common in Brazil and Bolivia.
- Schultesia Mart. : The approximately 21 species are distributed in the tropics, except in Asia.
Symphyllophyton Gilg : It contains only one species:
- Symphyllophyton caprifolioides Gilg : It occurs in southern Brazil.
Xestaea Griseb. : It contains only one type:
- Xestaea lisianthoides Griseb. : It occurs in Venezuela.
- Tribus Helieae Gilg : It contains about 22 genera with about 190 species in the Neotropic :
Adenolisianthus (Progel) Gilg : It contains only one species:
- Adenolisianthus arboreus (Spruce ex ProGel) Gilg (Syn .: lisianthus arboreus Spruce ex ProGel , Helia arborea (Spruce ex ProGel) Kuntze , Irlbachia alata . Subsp arborea . (Spruce ex ProGel) JGMPers & Maas , Chelonanthus fruticosus Maguire & Boom ): You is common in Colombia, Brazil and Venezuela.
Aripuana Struwe, Maas, & V. Albert : It contains only one species:
- Aripuana cullmaniorum Struwe, Maas, & V. Albert : It is common in the Brazilian southeastern Amazon region.
- Calolisianthus Gilg : The approximately six species are distributed in Brazil and Bolivia .
- Celiantha Maguire : The only three species are common in northern South America.
- Chelonanthus Gilg : The ten or so species are distributed from Mexico to Central and South America.
- Chorisepalum Gleason & Wodehouse : The approximately five species are distributed from Venezuela to Surinam .
- Helia Mart. : The only two species are common from Brazil to Paraguay .
- Irlbachia Mart. : The nineor sospecies are distributed in Colombia, Venezuela , Brazil and the Guyanas .
Lagenanthus Gilg : It contains only one species:
- Lagenanthus princeps (Lindl.) Gilg (Syn .: Lehmanniella princeps (Lindl.) JESimonis ex PJMMaas , Lisianthus princeps Lindl. ): It is native to northern South America on the Colombian-Venezuelan border.
- Lehmanniella Gilg : The only two species occur in Peru and Colombia.
- Macrocarpaea (Griseb.) Gilg : The 90 to 100 species are distributed from Central to South America and the Greater Antilles.
- Neblinantha Maguire : The only two species are native to northern South America on the Brazilian-Venezuelan border.
- Prepusa Mart. : The five or so species are common in southeastern Brazil.
Purdieanthus Gilg : It contains only one species:
- Purdieanthus pulcher (Hook.) Gilg (Syn .: Lehmanniella pulchra (Hook.) Simonis ex. PJMMaas , Lisianthius pulcher Hook. ): It is native to northern South America on the Colombian-Venezuelan border.
- Rogersonanthus Maguire & BMBoom : The only three species are common in northern South America and on the island of Trinidad.
- Senaea Taub. : The only two types are common in southeastern Brazil.
Sipapoantha Maguire & BMBoom : It contains only one species:
- Sipapoantha ostrina Maguire & BMBoom : It only occurs in Venezuela.
- Symbolanthus G.Don : The 30or sospecies are common in Costa Rica , Panama and northern South America.
- Tachia Aubl. : The approximately 13 species are distributed in Bolivia, Colombia, Brazil and the Guyanas.
Tetrapollinia Maguire & BMBoom : It contains only one species:
- Tetrapollinia caerulescens (Aubl.) Maguire & BMBoom : It is widespread in tropical South America.
- Wurdackanthus Maguire (often found in Symbolanthus ): It contains at most two species in northern South America.
Yanomamua J.R. Grant , Maas & Struwe : It contains only one species:
- Yanomamua araca E. Dean, Maas & Struwe : It occurs only in the Serra do Araca in Brazil.
Zonanthus Griseb .: It contains only one species:
- Zonanthus cubensis Griseb. : The home is Cuba.
- Adenolisianthus (Progel) Gilg : It contains only one species:
- Tribus Potalieae Reichenbach : The is divided into three sub- tribes and contains about 13 genera with about 154 tropical species:
- Subtribus Potaliinae: It contains three genera:
- Anthocleista R.Br. : The approximately 15 species are distributed in tropical Africa, Madagascar and the Comoros .
- Fagraea Thunb. : The approximately 35 species are distributed from Southeast Asia via Australia to Pacific islands.
- Potalia Aubl. : The approximately nine species occur from Costa Rica to Bolivia.
- Subtribus Faroinae: It contains nine genera:
- Congolanthus A.Raynal : It contains only one species:
- Djaloniella P.Taylor : It contains only one species:
- Enicostema flower : Of the approximately three species, one occurs in northern South America, Central America and on the Caribbean islands and two species occur in Madagascar, tropical Africa and Asia.
- Faroa Welw. : The 19 or so species are common in tropical Africa.
Karina Boutique : It contains only one type:
- Karina tayloriana Boutique : It only occurs in the Congo.
- Neurotheca Salisb. ex Benth. & Hook. f. : Of the approximately three species, one is native to northern South America, tropical Africa and western Madagascar and two are distributed in tropical Africa.
Oreonesion A.Raynal : It contains only one species:
- Oreonesion testui A.Raynal : It occurs in tropical West Africa.
Pycnosphaera Gilg : It contains only one species:
- Pycnosphaera buchananii (Bak.) NEBr. : It occurs in tropical Africa.
- Urogentias Gilg & Gilg-Ben. : It contains only one type:
- Subtribus Lisianthiinae: It contains only one genus:
- Subtribus Potaliinae: It contains three genera:
- Tribus Gentianeae Colla : It is divided into two subtribes and contains around 17 genera with around 950 species:
- Subtribus Gentianinae: It contains three genera:
- Crawfurdia Wall. : The approximately 16 species are distributed in India, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanmar and China (14 species).
- Gentians ( Gentiana L. ): The approximately 360 species are mainly found in Asia. A few species each occur in Europe, North and South America, northeast Africa and eastern Australia.
- Tripterospermum flower : With about 24 kinds; they occur in East Asia.
- Subtribus Swertiinae: It contains about 13 genera:
- Bartonia H.L. Mühl. ex Willd. : With about four types. They occur in North America.
- Dwarf genes or hair throat ( Comastoma (Wettst.) Toyok. ): With about seven to 25 species that occur in Europe, Asia and North America.
- Frasera Walter : The 15 or so species are common in North America.
- Kranziane ( Gentianella Moench ): The approximately 250 species are distributed in Eurasia, North and South America, Africa and New Zealand.
- Fringed gentians ( Gentianopsis Ma ): The approximately 16 to 24 species are common in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.
- Halenia Borkh. : Of the approximately 80 species, approximately 76 are distributed from Central to South America; the other four or so are found in Asia and North America.
- Jaeschkea In short : The two to four species occur in the Himalayas in northern India, Kashmir, Pakistan, Sikkim and in China (two species).
- Latouchea Franch. : It contains only one type:
- Tauernflower or scars ( Lomatogonium A.Braun ): With about 21 species; they occur in the temperate zones of Eurasia.
- Megacodon (Hemsl.) Harry Sm .: The only two species occur in the Himalayas in India, Nepal, Sikkim , Bhutan and in the Chinese provinces of Hubei and Sichuan.
- Obolaria L .: It contains only one species:
- Pterygocalyx Maxim. : It contains only one type:
Marsh gentian or tarant ( Swertia L. ): The leaves are arranged in a whirling manner. The 150 or so are distributed almost worldwide, mainly in Asia and Africa, with a few species each in North America and Europe, and there are 75 species in China. Here too:
- Marsh gentian ( Swertia perennis L. )
- Veratrilla Baill. ex franch. : The only two species occur from the eastern Himalayas from India, Bhutan and Sikkim to China.
- Subtribus Gentianinae: It contains three genera:
- Is not classified in any tribe:
Some genera are also classified in the Loganiaceae family by different authors .
- The Gentianaceae family on the AP website. (Sections systematics and description)
- The Gentianaceae family at DELTA. (Section description)
- The Gentian Research Network . (Sections systematics and description)
- Ting-nung Ho & James S. Pringle: Gentianaceae , p. 1 - same text online as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi & Peter H. Raven (Eds.): Flora of China , Volume 16 - Gentianaceae through Boraginaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis 1995, ISBN 0-915279-33-9 (Sections Description and Systematics)
- Gentianaceae at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- Gentianaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
- Maria Fernanda Calió, 2009: Neotropical Gentianaceae. In: Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. Last accessed on February 11, 2014
- David John Mabberley: Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses . 3. Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Ting-nung Ho & James S. Pringle: Gentianaceae , p. 1 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi & Peter H. Raven (eds.): Flora of China , Volume 16 - Gentianaceae through Boraginaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis 1995, ISBN 0-915279-33-9
- Werner Greuter & Rosa Rankin: Bisgoeppertia (Gentianaceae) unraveled. Account of a small genus of the Greater Antilles , In: Willdenowia - Annals of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem , Volume 38, Number 1, 2008, pp. 177-185: doi : 10.3372 / wi.38.38112
- K. Marhold, 2011: Gentianaceae. In: Euro + Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity . Last accessed on February 11, 2014
- JR Grant, PJM Maas & L. Struwe: Yanomamua araca (Gentianaceae), a new genus and species from Serra do Araca, an outlier of the Guayana Region in Amazonas State, Brazil. In: Harvard papers in botany. Volume 11, Issue 1, 2006, pp. 29-37.