Gerhard Ice

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Gerhard Eis (born March 9, 1908 in Aussig , † March 29, 1982 in Schriesheim ) was a German medievalist and medical historian. He was full professor for German studies at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg and is considered the founder of specialist prose research .


After attending the elementary school in Aussig (1914-1919) and the Aussiger Oberrealschule (1919-1926), ice in Prague took his Abitur at the German grammar school in 1927. This was followed by a degree in natural sciences at the German University of Prague , then he switched to the humanities of German philology and English studies with Erich Gierach with a study visit to London until 1931. In the same year, he did his doctorate in Prague with an old Germanist work “The sources des Märtyrerbuches ”(published in 1932 in the series Prager Deutsche Studien 46, reprint 1975). In 1932 the teaching exams for secondary schools for the subjects German and English took place. The habilitation of ice took place in 1935 also in Prague with the work “Contributions to Middle High German legend and mysticism. Investigations and Texts ”(printed in 1935, reprinted in 1967).

From 1931 to 1932 he was an assistant professor at the German Commercial Academy in Pilsen, where he was provisional professor from 1932 to 1936 and professor in 1937. From 1937 to 1945 he was a professor at the German Commercial Academy of Reichenberg . During this time from 1935 to 1940 he was a private lecturer for older German language and literature in Prague, from 1940 to 1944 a civil servant lecturer and in 1938 became head of a “Sudeten German Archive in Reichenberg”. Eis, who joined the NSDAP in 1938 , did military service from 1940 to 1943.

From 1943 to 1945 he was Associate Professor for Older German Language and Literature at the University of Pressburg . In the years 1945 to 1946 he was initially unemployed and after fleeing and expelled he found a job until 1947 as an assistant at the cathedral library in Freising . In that year he was employed as a lecturer and director of the German Institute of the Philosophical-Theological University of Bamberg until 1953. He was also a lecturer from 1949 to 1950 at the Philosophical-Theological University in Passau and from 1950 to 1955 at the TH Munich .

He was appointed associate professor for German Philology and Folklore of the Middle Ages at the University of Heidelberg in 1955. In 1957, he succeeded Eugen Fehrle (who had been dismissed from university because of his involvement in the Nazi regime in 1945 and his position was the German Institute was assigned, but initially remained vacant) Professor of German Philology and Folklore and Director of the German Institute until 1973; his successor was the language historian Oskar Reichmann . At the University of Maryland he took up a visiting professorship in 1967, and he retired in 1973.

Eis taught and published on Old High German, Old Saxon and Middle High German language and literature, as well as on Gothic language and literature ( Wulfila Bible ), on runology and on the local Sudeten German intellectual history. He undertook research on heroic poetry and especially on cultural and medical history, especially medieval prose of the Middle Ages and on the literature of humanism . In this regard, he collected medieval manuscripts in a private collection. Eis is considered to be the founder of demythologized research on (late) medieval German specialist prose. According to the Würzburg medical historian and Germanist Gundolf Keil , the representative of the philological methodology that Eis also introduced into medical history, the "prelude to specialist prose research" was a lecture given by Eis in July 1937 at the "Summer University Week in Bohemian-Leipa ". His students include the folklorist Peter Assion and the medical historians Gundolf Keil (Würzburg) and Wolfram Schmitt (Heidelberg).

The University of Veterinary Medicine in Hanover honored him with an honorary doctorate in 1976. Eis had been a member of the German Association of Germanists since 1951 , an external member of the Bratislava Linguistic Society (Jazykovedná spoločnost) and the World Academy of Art and Science . For his medical history and literary research, he was a member of the International Paracelsus Society and a member of the International Society for the History of Pharmacy . In 1980 he was appointed a full member of the humanities class of the Sudeten German Academy of Sciences and Arts .

Fonts (selection)

  • Older German manuscripts as sources for the local cultural and intellectual history. In: Journal for Sudeten German History. Volume 1, 1937, pp. 281-291.
  • Master Albrant's horse drug book in the German East. Reichenberg 1939 (= publications of the German Scientific Society in Reichenberg. Volume 9); Reprint Hildesheim / New York 1977 (= Documenta hippologica. Representations and sources on the history of the horse. ).
  • The broadcast of German culture in the Sudeten region. Reichenberg 1940 (= From the Sudetengau. Volume 1).
  • The Groß-Schützener health theory. Studies on the history of German culture in the southeast. Brno / Munich / Vienna 1943 (= Southeast European works. Volume 36).
  • New ways of regional literary history. In: German folk research in Bohemia and Moravia. Volume 3, 1944, pp. 165-177.
  • Gottfried's fur book. Studies on the range and duration of the effects of the Middle High German specialist literature. Callwey, Munich 1944; Rohrer, Brünn / Munich / Vienna 1944 (= Southeast European works. Volume 38). Reprint Olms, Hildesheim 1966.
  • The seven own arts and their old German literary monuments. In: Forsch. Fortsch. Volume 26, 1950, pp. 269-271.
  • Historical theory of sounds and forms in Middle High German. Heidelberg 1950 (= linguistic study books. ).
  • Studies on old German specialist prose. Heidelberg 1951 (= German Library. III, [2]).
  • About the speech and the silence of the alchemists. In: German quarterly for literary and intellectual history. Volume 25, 1951, pp. 415-435; also in: Gerhard Eis: Before and after Paracelsus. Investigations into Hohenheim's ties to tradition and news about his followers. Stuttgart 1965 (= Medicine in History and Culture. Volume 8), pp. 51–73.
  • Manuscript studies on the medical literature of the late Middle Ages. In: Sudhoff's archive. Volume 38, 1954, pp. 233-266; also in: Gerhard Eis: Research on specialized prose. Bern / Munich 1971, pp. 15–34 and 358–364.
  • From the lost old German poetry. Considerations and Estimates. In: Germanic-Romance monthly. Volume 37 (= New Series, Volume 6), 1956, pp. 175-189.
  • Salernitan and unsalernitan in the 'Armen Heinrich' of Hartmann von Aue. In: Researches and Advances. Volume 31, 1957, pp. 77-81.
  • with Gundolf Keil: Supplements to the author's dictionary. In: Studia neophilologica. Volume 30, 1958, pp. 232-250, Volume 31, 1959, pp. 219-242, and Volume 43, 1971, pp. 377-426, as well as contributions to the history of German language and literature. Volume 83, (Tübingen) 1961/1962, pp. 167-226.
  • Supplements to the author's dictionary. In: Middle Latin Yearbook. Volume 2, 1965, pp. 205-214.
  • Medieval specialized prose of Artes. In: Wolfgang Stammler (Ed.): Deutsche Philologie im Aufriß. 2nd Edition. Volume 2, Berlin 1960 (reprinted there 1966), Col. 1103-1216.
  • Master Albrant's horse drug book. Constance 1960.
  • On the development of old German poetry. Literary-historical proportions. Berlin 1962.
  • Medieval specialist literature. Stuttgart 1962; 2nd edition ibid. 1967 (= Metzler Collection. Realienbücher für Germanisten , Dept. D: Literaturgeschichte, 14).
  • Old German magic spells. Berlin 1964.
  • Before and after Paracelsus. Investigations into Hohenheim's ties to tradition and news about his followers. Stuttgart 1965 (= Medicine in History and Culture. Volume 8).
  • Master Hertwig's ointment. In: Centaurus. Volume 12, 1967, pp. 135-137. Also in Gerhard Eis: Research on specialized prose. Selected posts. Bern / Munich 1971, pp. 35–37 and 364.
  • as ed. with Wolfram Schmitt: Das Asanger Aderlaß- and recipe booklet (1516–1531). Stuttgart 1967 (= publications of the International Society for the History of Pharmacy. New Series, Volume 31).
  • To Heinrich von Rees. In: Centaurus. Volume 13, 1969, pp. 285-290.
  • Research on professional prose. Selected contributions. Francke, Bern / Munich 1971.
  • Writings on old German poetry. Amsterdam 1979 (= Amsterdam publications on language and literature. Volume 38).
  • Medical prose from the late Middle Ages and early modern times. Amsterdam 1982 (= Amsterdam Publications on Language and Literature , 48).
  • as ed. with Hans J. Vermeer : Gabriel von Lebenstein's booklet 'From the burned waters'. Stuttgart 1965 (= publications of the International Society for the History of Pharmacy , New Series, 27).


  • Ice, Gerhard. In: Christoph König (Ed.): Internationales Germanistenlexikon 1800–1950. 3 volumes, De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003 (= publications of the office for research into the history of German studies in the German Literature Archive in Marbach. Without volume); Reprint 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-090805-3 , Volume 1, pp. 424-425 ( chargeable from de Gruyter ).
  • Gundolf Keil: Gerhard Eis 70 years old. In: News sheet of the German Society for the History of Medicine, Science and Technology. Volume 29, No. 1, 1979, p. 9 f.
  • Gundolf Keil: On the death of Gerhard Eis. In: News sheet of the German Society for the History of Medicine, Science and Technology. Volume 32, 1982, pp. 53-55.
  • Richard Zimprich: University Professor emeritus Dr. Dr. hc Gerhard Eis - founder of specialist prose research. Attempt to appreciate the work of the Sudeten German scholar. In: Sudetenland. Volume 23, 1981, pp. 45 f.
  • Richard Zimprich: Prof. Dr. Dr. hc Gerhard Eis †. In: Sudetenland. Volume 24, 1982, p. 231 f.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Jörg Riecke: A History of German Studies and German Research in Heidelberg. Universitätsverlag Winter , Heidelberg 2016, p. 102.
  2. See, for example, Josef Domes, Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Christoph Weißer, Volker Zimmermann (eds.): Light of nature. Medicine in specialist literature and poetry. Festschrift for Gundolf Keil on his 60th birthday. Kümmerle, Göppingen 1994, ISBN 3-87452-829-4 .
  3. ^ Gerhard Eis: The Middle High German specialist prose as an object of German research. In: Researches and Advances. Volume 24, 1948, pp. 82-84.
  4. Gerhard Eis: The seven own arts and their old German literary monuments. In: Researches and Advances. Volume 26, 1950, pp. 269-271.
  5. ^ Gerhard Eis: Middle High German Literature: Specialist prose. In: Ludwig Erich Schmitt (Hrsg.): Brief outline of Germanic philology up to 1500. II: History of literature. Berlin 1970, pp. 528-572.
  6. ^ Gundolf Keil: Concept of literature and specialist prose research. In: Hans-Gert Roloff (Hrsg.): Yearbook for International German Studies. Athenaeum, Frankfurt am Main 1970, pp. 95-102.
  7. Gundolf Keil: "blutken - bloedekijn". Notes on the etiology of the hyposphagma genesis in the 'Pommersfeld Silesian Eye Booklet' (1st third of the 15th century). With an overview of the ophthalmological texts of the German Middle Ages. In: Specialized prose research - Crossing borders. Volume 8/9, 2012/2013, pp. 7–175, here: pp. 51 f.
  8. Wolfram Schmitt: Theory of health and 'Regimen sanitatis' in the Middle Ages. Medical habilitation thesis Heidelberg 1973.
  9. ^ Gundolf Keil: Honorary doctorate in veterinary medicine for Gerhard Eis. In: News sheet of the German Society for the History of Medicine, Science and Technology. Volume 26, 1976, No. 2, pp. 52-54.
predecessor Office successor
Eugen Fehrle Chair of German Philology and Folklore, Heidelberg University
Oskar Reichmann