Immanuel Johann Gerhard Scheller

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Immanuel Johann Gerhard Scheller. Engraving after a painting around 1800

Immanuel Johann Gerhard Scheller (born March 22, 1735 in Ihlow , Electorate of Saxony ; † July 5, 1803 in Brieg , Silesia ) was a German classical philologist and lexicographer .

Live and act

Immanuel Johann Gerhard Scheller was born as the youngest of nine children of Johann Gerhard Scheller and Anna Christina Scheller. Beyen was born. The mother was the daughter of a preacher in Taupadel near Jena . The father was the son of a preacher in Drakendorf, tutor in Stockholm from 1705 to 1707 , traveled to Lapland from 1707 to 1708 and later became a preacher in Mellingen , Dornburg , Hermstedt , Stoben and Ihlow. Shortly before his death at the age of 65 in 1740, he expressed the wish that his youngest son should study. After the father's death, the mother and the children moved to Dahme , then to Weißenfels , and later to Apolda , where the boy always attended school.

Scheller was particularly influenced by the rector Schneegass in Apolda, who taught him the Latin and Greek languages . In 1747 the family moved to Eisenberg , where he attended the Lyceum until Easter 1752 . From 1752 he was a Thomas student in Leipzig under Rector Johann August Ernesti and Vice Rector Johann Friedrich Fischer , both philologists. From 1757 to 1760 he studied theology and philology at the University of Leipzig ; there, too, Ernesti was his teacher. In 1761 he accepted a position as rector of the Lyceum in Lübben in Niederlausitz . He was also given six sermons a year there. At the suggestion of the Prussian school minister Karl Abraham von Zedlitz , he became rector of the royal high school in Brieg in Silesia in 1772 and worked there until his death. He also worked there as a librarian.

In November 1761 he married Johanna Eleonora geb. Schliebner, daughter of the landowner Johann Joachim Schliebner, with whom he had five children: Eleonore Friedrike Wilhelmine married von Schollitz (died in 1788 at the age of 25), Caroline Gottliebe (died early, in Lübben), Gottfried Traugott (died early, in Lübben) , Christian August and Carl Friedrich (born in Brieg, died in April 1786). Only Christian August survived the father. From about 1795 he was the royal Prussian government, consistorial and pupil council in Peterkau, later in Kalisch.

With Scheller the "now time of Latin lexicography" began; practically all Latin dictionaries today are based on his work. He was the first to enforce a strictly alphabetical principle and structure the meanings of words with numbers and letters.

Scheller was a doctor of philosophy and an honorary member of the learned society in Frankfurt an der Oder and the Latin society in Jena.



Small dictionary

  • Small Latin dictionary in which the most well-known words are listed, the most common meanings of the same are presented as precisely, clearly and precisely as possible, and the most common idioms are listed and explained. Fritsch, Leipzig 1779; 3rd edition, 1790; posthumously: from 4th edition 1811 edited by Georg Heinrich Lünemann ; 6th edition 1826 edited by Heinrich Ludwig Julius Billerbeck ; from 7th edition 1841 completely reworked by Karl Ernst Georges

Detailed lexicon

Handlexicon (= excerpt from the detailed Lexicon )


German title

  • Instructions to explain the ancient Latin writers philologically and critically and to properly imitate the Cicero, along with an appendix of a similar type of teaching in the Greek and Hebrew languages. Curt, Hall 1770; 2nd edition, 1783
  • Extensive Latin language teaching or so-called grammar. Fritsch, Leipzig 1779; 4th edition, 1803
  • Thoughts on the characteristics of the German writing style and recommendations of the German language in sermons, in speaking and writing, in philology and in schools. Curt, Halle 1772
  • Brief thoughts on the formation of the heart, whether it is possible without the formation of the mind. Wroclaw 1780
  • Concise Latin language teaching or grammar for schools. Fritsch, Leipzig 1780; 3rd edition, 1785 ( digitized, 1793 ); posthumously: 4th edition, Hahn, Leipzig 1811
  • Speech in which it is shown that it is very beneficial for the state if the school class enjoys considerable income and honor. Korn, Breslau 1780

Latin title

  • Compendium praeceptorum stili bene Latini in primis Ciceroniani seu eloquentiae Latine declarandae. Fritsch, Leipzig 1780; 2nd edition, 1785 ( digitized version ); 3rd edition, 1795 [excerpt from: Praecepta stili bene latini ]
  • Historiae antiquae utilitas. Leipzig 1760
  • Observationes in priscos scriptores quosdam. Fritsch, Leipzig 1785
  • Praecepta stili bene latini in primis Ciceroniani seu eloquentiae romanae, qvatenvs haec nostris temporibvs in dicendo et scribendo vsvrpari potest, svmma diligentia maximoqve perspicvitatis stvdio tradita et illvstrata. 2 volumes, Fritsch, Leipzig 1779; 2nd edition, 1784 (digitized: Volume 1 , Volume 2 ); 3rd edition, 1797 (digitized: Volume 1 , Volume 2 , Volume 2 )
  • [Anonymous] Somnium, in quo, praeter caetera, Genius Seculi cum Moribus Eruditorum vapulat. Richter, Altenburg 1761

In addition, he published several detailed reviews in the Leipzig Library of Fine Sciences, school programs in Lübben and Brieg, as well as invitations to exams, the introduction of new teachers, farewell speeches for outgoing high school students, etc. in Brieg.

Known students

  • Johann Gottlieb Kunisch (1789-1852) was a German high school teacher at the Collegium Fridericianum in Breslau, author and editor.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Johann Gerhard Scheller: Description of the trip to Lapland and Bothnia. Jena 1713, 1727, 1748
  2. Dietfried Krömer : Self-evident? Bilingual dictionaries since the 16th century , see