Karl Karmarsch

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Karl Karmarsch

Karl Karmarsch (born October 17, 1803 in Vienna , † March 24, 1879 in Hanover ) was a German technologist and for many years the first director of the Polytechnic School, later the Technical University of Hanover .


Karl Karmarsch came from a small family: he was the son of a Viennese master tailor, the second of twelve children. He studied at the Polytechnic Institute in Vienna and was Georg Altmütter's assistant there from 1819 to 1823 . In 1830 he went to the newly founded Higher Trade School in Hanover as the main teacher and became its first director in 1831. The expansion of the trade school into a polytechnic school (1847) and technical college (1879) is closely linked to Karmarsch's name.

In addition to Karmarsch, Georg Wilhelm Glünder became the second director of the polytechnic school.

Karmarsch was the main teacher in the technological-chemical subject and represented the teaching areas of mechanical technology and theoretical chemistry with applications to technology (until 1840) and construction technology (since 1869). Karmarsch was one of the founders of scientific mechanical technology , which is about the connection of the exact sciences with their technical application. His main work Grundriß der mechanical Technologie appeared in the 1st edition in 1837.

In 1846, at the same time as Friedrich Heeren , Heinrich Kirchweger and Moritz Rühlmann , Karmarsch received honorary citizenship of the city of Hanover (this meant that citizenship was granted free of charge). He was a judge at the first world exhibitions in London and Paris (1851 and 1867) and from 1845 to 1855 Vice-President of the Trade Association for the Kingdom of Hanover , from 1869 he was a Privy Councilor.

He turned down appointments as professor at the University of Tübingen (1840) and as director of the trade institute in Berlin (1856).

Karl Karmarsch temporarily lived on the first floor above the Hanoverian bathing establishment on Friedrichstrasse, which was built by the architect Theodor Gersting between 1865 and 1867 .

After retiring in 1875 at his own request, he set up the Karmarsch Foundation for Scholarships, which in 1926 was merged with other foundations to form the Karmarsch Collective Foundation . His grave (with portrait medallion) is in the Engesohde city cemetery , Dept. 25a, in Hanover.


  • The road breakthrough in Hanover from 1879 to 1898 from Georgstrasse (from today's Kröpcke ) to Friedrichstrasse (today: Friedrichswall ) was named Karmarschstrasse and in 1894 Karmarschgasse in Vienna- Favoriten was named after him.
  • The Karmarsch memorial coin was donated in 1925 by the Hanover University Association (today Leibniz Universitätsgesellschaft Hannover eV). It is awarded to personalities who have made merits in promoting technology and business in scientific research or in promoting economic development.

Publications (selection)

  • Introduction to the mechanical lessons of technology . 2 volumes, Wallishausser, Vienna 1825.
  • The higher trade school in Hanover. Explanations of the purpose, establishment and use of the same . Hahn, Hanover 1831.
    • The polytechnic school in Hanover , second, very expanded edition with three sheets of pictures of the institution building, Hanover: Verlag der Hahnschen Hofbuchhandlung, 1856; ( Digitized version ).
  • Mechanical technology floor plan. As a guide for technological instruction at polytechnic institutes and trade schools . Helwing, Hanover 1837.
    • 2nd, greatly increased edition: Manual of Mechanical Technology . Helwing, Hanover 1851
    • 3rd, increased edition Helwing, Hanover 1857–1858.
    • 4th edition Helwing, Hanover 1866-1867.
    • 5th, revised edition, edited by Ernst Hartig . Helwing, Hanover 1875–1876.
  • 6., reworked u. extended edition, edited by Hermann Fischer . Baumgärtner, Leipzig 1888–1905.
  • History of technology since the middle of the eighteenth century . Oldenbourg, Munich 1872 ( [1] ; Reprint Johnson, New York / Olms, Hildesheim 1965).
  • with Friedrich Heeren : Technical dictionary or handbook of industrial customers in alphabetical order . Adapted from Dr. Andrew Ure 's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures and Mines, 3 volumes, Prague 1843–1844.
    • 2nd, completely revised edition, 3 volumes, Prague 1854–1857.
    • 3rd, supplemented, revised (new) edition: Friedrich Kick , Wilhelm Gintl : Karmarsch and Heeren's technical dictionary , 11 volumes, Verlag der Bohemia, Prague 1876–1892.


  • Karl Karmarsch. A picture of life; drawn from the “memories of my life” that he left behind . With additions by Egbert Hoyer. Helwing, Hannover 1880, 3rd edition 1903.
  • Moritz RühlmannKarmarsch, Karl . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 15, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1882, pp. 400-409.
  • Wilhelm Rothert : General Hannoversche Biography , Volume 2: In the Old Kingdom of Hanover 1814–1866 . Sponholtz, Hannover 1914, pp. 266-274
  • Ludwig Meyer: The work of Karl Karmarsch in the trade association for Hanover. A tribute to the 50th anniversary of his death on March 28, 1929 . Hanover 1929.
  • Paul Trommsdorff: The faculty of the Technical University of Hanover 1831-1931 . Hanover 1931, pp. 47-48.
  • Karmarsch Karl. In: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 3, Publishing House of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1965, p. 243 f. (Direct links on p. 243 , p. 244 ).
  • Karl-Heinz Manegold:  Karmarsch, Karl. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 11, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-428-00192-3 , p. 279 ( digitized version ).
  • Catalogus professorum 1831–1981 (= Festschrift for the 150th anniversary of the University of Hanover, Vol. 2). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-17-007321-4 , pp. 136-137.
  • Bernd Thiele: Karl Karmarsch (1803–1879) . In: by Gerhard Banse (et al.) (Ed.): Biographies of important technicians, engineers and technical scientists . Volk und Wissen publishing house, Berlin 1983, pp. 142–148.
  • Hansjürgen Gubrecht, Helmut Gubrecht: Karl Karmarsch. The first director of the Polytechnic School in Hanover . In: Department of Chemistry at the University of Hanover (ed.): The history of chemistry at the Technical University and University of Hanover . Hannover 1999, pp. 16-29.
  • Klaus Mlynek : Karmarsch, Karl . In: Dirk Böttcher , Klaus Mlynek, Waldemar R. Röhrbein, Hugo Thielen : Hannoversches Biographisches Lexikon . From the beginning to the present. Schlütersche, Hannover 2002, ISBN 3-87706-706-9 , pp. 193-194.
  • Catalogus professorum 1831–2006 (= Festschrift for the 175th anniversary of the University of Hanover, Vol. 2). Olms, Hildesheim 2006, ISBN 3-487-13115-3 , p. 239.
  • Wolfhard Weber : Karl Karmarsch (1803-1879) . In: Technikgeschichte, Vol. 76 (2009), H. 4, pp. 311-317.

Web links

Commons : Karl Karmarsch  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Karl Karmarsch  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Karl Karmarsch: The polytechnic school in Hanover . 2nd, very enlarged edition. Hahn, Hanover 1856, p. 154 et al . ( online via Google Books ).
  2. ^ Franz Rudolf Zankl : The Hannoversche Badehalle on Friedrichstrasse. Photograph around 1875. In: Hanover Archive , sheet S 149
  3. ^ The statue of Karl Karmarsch . In: Prussian Ministry of Public Works (Ed.): Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung . tape 20 , no. 42 . Ernst & Sohn , October 20, 1883, ISSN  0372-8021 , p. 381 ( digitized version [accessed January 25, 2019]).