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Heerlen community
Flag of the municipality of Heerlen
Coat of arms of the municipality of Heerlen
coat of arms
province Limburg Limburg
mayor Emile Roemer ( SP ; acting)
Seat of the municipality Heerlen
 - land
 - water
45.53  km 2
44.97 km 2
0.56 km 2
CBS code 0917
Residents 86,825 (Jan 31, 2019)
Population density 1907 inhabitants / km 2
Coordinates 50 ° 53 '  N , 5 ° 59'  E Coordinates: 50 ° 53 '  N , 5 ° 59'  E
Important traffic route A76 E314 A79 N281 N300
prefix 045
Postcodes 6401, 6411-6419, 6421-6422, 6431-6433
Website Homepage of Heerlen
Template: Infobox location in the Netherlands / maintenance / map

Heerlen [ 'he? Rl? ] ( listen ? / i ) is a town and municipality in the southeast of the Dutch province of Limburg . According to the CBS, 86,825 inhabitants lived here on January 31, 2019, on an area of ​​around 46 km² . Audio file / audio sample


College of Mayors and Aldermen

After the D66 , Ouderen Partij Heerlen, PvdA , SP and the VVD formed a coalition after the local elections in 2014, there is a coalition of CDA , D66, GroenLinks , Ouderen Partij Heerlen, SP and VVD for the period 2018–2022 . Ouderen Partij Heerlen and SP each provide two councilors to the college, while the CDA, on the other hand, contributes one and the D66 and VVD jointly offer one. The coalition party GroenLinks is not represented by an alderman in the college. These were appointed during a council meeting on May 9, 2018. The following people belong to the college and are responsible in the following areas:

function Surname Political party Department annotation
mayor Emile Roemer SP Security and public order, (inter) national cooperation, strategy and lobby, personnel and organization, shortage, Parkstad Limburg, communication, city marketing acting; in office since March 16, 2018; first mayor of the SP in the Netherlands
Alderman Peter van Zutphen SP Probably, social assistance law, public health, poverty reduction, development of the city center, deputy mayor, alderman for the districts of Maria-Gewanden, Molenberg and Zeswegen-Nieuw Husken -
Frank Simons Ouderen Partij Heerlen Earnings, spatial planning, restructuring, councilor for the districts Grasbroek, Musschemig en Schandelen, Heerlerbaan and Hoensbroek Centrum-De Dem -
Martin de Beer VVD / D66 Economy, labor market, participation, sport, councilor for the districts of Aarveld-Bekkerveld, Nieuw-Lotbroek and Welten-Benzenrade -
Charles Claessens CDA Administration and maintenance, mobility, sustainability and the environment, garbage, alderman for the districts of Eikenderveld, Heerlerheide-Passart and Meezenbroek, Schaesbergerveld en Palemig -
Jordy Clemens SP Education, youth, culture, heritage, housing, councilor for the districts of Vrieheide-De Stack, Heerlen-Centrum and Beersdal-Rennemig -
Adriane Keulen Ouderen Partij Heerlen Integral senior citizens policy, quarter-specific work, public services, councilors for the districts of Caumerveld-Douve Weien, Heksenberg and Mariarade -
Community Secretary Marco Wilke - - interim community secretary since May 2018

Distribution of seats in the municipal council

Local elections 2018
Otherwise. j
Gains and losses
compared to 2014
 % p
Otherwise. j
Template: election chart / maintenance / notes
j GroenLinks 4.1% (+1.4%), PvdA 3.8% (-2.4%), Lijst Meijer 0.5% (+0.5%), RPN 0.0% (-2, 8%), 1Parkstad.nl 0.0% (–2.4%)

The municipal council has been formed as follows since 1981:

Political party Seats
1981 a 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018
SP 1 1 3 6th 8th 7th 11 9 11 10
Ouderen Partij Heerlen - - - - 2 1 2 3 6th 7th
CDA 15th 14th 14th 9 8th 8th 5 6th 5 4th
Hart-Leers - - - - - - - 2 3 3
Partij Hoensbroek's concern - - - - - - - - 2 3
VVD 3 3 2 3 4th 3 3 3 2 2
D66 2 0 2 3 2 0 - 2 2 2
PvdD - - - - - - - - - 2
Stadspartij Heerlen b 2 2 7th 7th 6th 6th 4th 4th 2 2
GroenLinks - - 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
PvdA 5 12 7th 4th 5 4th 8th 4th 2 1
Realistic Partij Nederland - - - - - - - - 1 -
Leefbaar Heerlen - - - - - 6th 3 2 - -
Trots op Nederland c - - - - - - - 1 - -
Hart voor Heerlen - - - 2 0 - - - - -
Center Democrats - - - 1 - - - - - -
Politieke Partij Heerlen Hoensbroek the Elder 4th 2 - - - - - - - -
CPN 2 2 - - - - - - - -
PPR 1 - - - - - - - -
PSP 0 - - - - - - - -
EPP - - - - - - - - -
Burger matters - 1 - - - - - - - -
Onafhankelijke Stadspolitiek Scheeren 1 0 - - - - - - - -
Heerlense concerns Gemeenschap 1 - - - - - - - - -
total 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37
  1. Parties that took part in the election but were unable to obtain a seat on the council will not be considered.
a Due to the incorporation of Hoensbroek into Heerlen on January 1, 1982, the municipal council elections took place in 1981.
b Until the local elections in 1994, the Stadspartij Heerlen ran under the name "Groepering Heerlen-Noord".
cThe Trots op Nederland party was absorbed into the Realist Partij Nederland in the 2014 municipal elections.
b In 1981 the Politieke Partij Heerlen Hoensbroek took under the name "Aktiegroep '81 Heerlen / Hoensbroek".

coat of arms

Since merging with Hoensbroek in 1982, Heerlen has had the current city arms:

In the silver coat of arms at the front a red-armored and red-tongued gold-crowned and ornamented lion , which is split in black with gold claws and lies over four red bars .

A golden crown rests on the shield .

The " Limburg Lion " symbolizes the former affiliation to the Duchy of Limburg . The red horizontal bars are from the former coat of arms of the Counts of Hoensbroek and the former municipality of Hoensbroek.



In its current form, Heerlen emerged from two former mining towns: Heerlen and Hoensbroek , which was incorporated in 1982. Heerlen is located in the southeast of Limburg on the A 76 motorway on the northern edge of the southern Limburg chalk-marl hill country (Mergelland, Heuvelland) . The soils in urban areas are usually of medium to good quality (e.g. loess ) and rarely barren (sandy soils). To the north and at fault lines ( tectonic faults ) loess layers are found in many places, which after weathering to loess soils offer a good basis for agriculture. In addition, grassland farming has always been established in the valleys.

Heerlen lies in the area of ​​three streams: Caumerbeek, Schandelerbeek and Geleenbeek. In Heerlen's earth, under an overburden that is a few to over a hundred meters thick, there are seam-bearing carbon layers that descend to greater depths in a northerly direction. Covered by tertiary sediments, there are also thin seams of brown coal that are hardly worth extracting in the north of Heerlen. The tertiary sediments also contain very pure quartz sand deposits, which are mined in the area of ​​the former Oranje Nassau III colliery near Heerlerbaan. In the north, Heerlen borders the nature reserve and recreation area Brunssumer Heide , an area with typical Atlantic heather vegetation . To the south and east, the Heerlen relief becomes increasingly hilly, and to the northwest, it becomes increasingly flat. Neighboring towns of Heerlen are Brunssum in the north, Landgraaf and Kerkrade in the east, the German city of Aachen in the south- east (near the cross-border commercial area Avantis ) , and the communities of Simpelveld and Voerendaal in the south .

Heerlen Woonboulevard stop


There is a train connection from Heerlen station to Maastricht and also northwards via Sittard-Geleen and Roermond to Eindhoven and Venlo . In addition to Heerlen train station, there are also the Heerlen de Kissel stops (closed in 2018) and Heerlen Woonboulevard (opened in 2010). There is also a railway connection via Landgraaf with Kerkrade via Millioenelijn , official passenger traffic between Kerkrade and Simpelveld has been discontinued and has been operated as a museum railway by Zuid-Limburgse Stoomtrein Maatschappij since 1994 . With Herzogenrath to the east, the city is connected to Aachen by the RE18 regional express and a bus line (44). Heerlen is connected to Aachen via the A76 motorway and the N281 city ​​motorway and Maastricht via the A79 motorway . Until 1950 trams ran from Heerlen on the Limburgsche Tramweg Maatschappij to Sittard, Brunssum and Kerkrade.

City and districts

Today's town of Heerlen is divided into four districts, which in turn are subdivided into subordinate districts ( Dutch wijken ) and settlements ( buurten ), which mostly emerge from older villages or miners' colonies. In detail these are:


  • Aarveld / Bekkerveld
  • Douve Weien / Caumerveld
  • Eikenderveld
  • Grasbroek, Musschemig en Schandelen
  • Heerlen-Centrum with the settlements Centrum, Op de Nobel, 't Loon and Lindeveld
  • Molenberg
  • Meezenbroek, Schaesbergerveld en Palemig
  • Worlds / Benzenrade
  • Zeswegen / Nieuw Husken


  • Heerlerbaan


  • Beersdal / Rennemig with the settlements Beersdal, Rennemig and Schelsberg
  • Heerlerheide / Passart
  • Heksenberg / Pronsenbroek
  • Vrieheide / De Stack with the settlements Weggebekker, Uterweg, Nieuw-Einde, Versiliënbosch and Vrieheide


  • Hoensbroek Center / de Dem
  • Mary robes
  • Mariarade
  • Nieuw Lotbroek

Parkstad Limburg municipal association

Heerlen is a member of a municipal association of the municipalities of the former eastern mining district (oostelijke Mijnstreek) , the so-called Regio Parkstad Limburg , in which the neighboring towns of Kerkrade, Brunssum and Landgraaf are also involved. The aim is to merge and rationalize local government, spatial and regional planning and other areas. The aim is to save costs and improve the service for citizens. Parkstad also serves as a brand name for the region, which is increasingly focusing on culture and tourism.



In 1997 dwellings of the Copper Age Michelsberg culture were discovered and archaeologically examined on the Heerlener Schelsberg . They are among the rare finds from the period 4400-3500 BC. Chr. In the Netherlands and document a human settlement of the urban area around 6000 years ago.

Inscription from the thermal bath complex of Coriovallum, which reports on the renovation of the complex by
Marcus Sattonius Iucundus , Decurio of Colonia Ulpia Traiana (copy of the stone in the LVR-RömerMuseum Xanten )

Coriovallum - the ancient Heerlen

Heerlen's history began under Roman rule. Coriovallum , the Roman name of Heerlen, partly of Celtic origin, was founded as a Roman military camp at the intersection of two traffic axes in the province of Germania. Here the important military and trade routes crossed in an east-west direction from Boulogne via Jülich to Cologne ( Via Belgica ) and in a north-south direction from Xanten via Aachen to Trier ( Augusta Treverorum ) .

Relics from that time have been discovered and studied in great numbers. In some cases, remains of Roman buildings were excavated and conserved, such as several Roman country houses (villae) , but also a thermal bath complex (thermae) in downtown Heerlen. The ancient bathing establishment was discovered during earthworks in 1940. This find is unusual because only a few such thermal baths have been documented for the area of ​​what is now the Netherlands, and their existence thus points to a greater importance of garrison and urban settlement. In particular, the trade routes and the garrison are likely to have shaped the function of the settlement as a regional Roman center for supply , administration , handicrafts and trade . Fruit, vegetables, cereals and even wine were grown around the villae in the Heerlen area. Pottery from more than 40 potteries was another commodity that was likely to have found sales outside of Heerlen. In the course of the Middle Ages some of the places that exist today emerged from the surrounding villas.

A museum was built above the thermal bath and opened in 1977. In the thermal bath museum exhibits from Roman times from Heerlen and the surrounding area are presented.

The medieval rule and city of Heerlen

Like many other Roman settlements in what is now the Netherlands ends for Coriovallum after the withdrawal of the Romans and the fall of the Roman Empire evidence for a continuation of the settlement from about the fourth century AD for several centuries. The area may have been temporarily uninhabited. Up to the 10th century there was hardly any historical knowledge about the development of Heerlen. A settlement by the Franks, who controlled the area soon after the Romans, can be assumed. It was only towards the end of the first millennium that there were increasing numbers of indications and evidence that suggest rural settlement in parts of today's urban area. For the valley of the Caumerbeek, the Schandelerbeek and the Geleenbeek both estates and farms as well as mills are occupied. The medieval town of Heerlen is likely to have regained a certain regional importance as a small, medieval farming and trading town after 1100, as is indicated by the mentions of Heerlen in the Annales Rodenses or in other contemporary documents.

The oldest written evidence for the medieval town of Heerlen is a document from Bishop Udo von Toul , from the year 1065, in which he comments on donations, whereby Heerlen is also mentioned in the form of Heerle as an allodium in the diocese of Liège . This allod apparently passed into the possession of the Count of Ahr-Hochstaden in the 11th century. Another allodium with reference to the church in Voerendaal near Heerlen is also mentioned.

Theodoric von Are (a cousin of Udo von Touls ) separated Heerlen from Voerendal and made St. Pankraz the name and patron saint of the church, which is still known today as St. Pancraciuskerk . The Counts of Ahr were probably responsible for building the rogue tower and St. Pancratius Church. They could also have initiated the construction of a castle complex. The construction of fortifications may be a symbol of the growing influence of the Lords of Heerlen, which soon extended to the surrounding manors and villages of Voerendaal, Hoensbroek, Schaesberg and Nieuwenhagen . According to old documents , these fell under the jurisdiction of the Heerlener Schöffenbank and were thus part of the Land van Herle .

In 1244 Heerlen and the surrounding areas fell to the Duchy of Brabant . However, 144 years later (1388) it received a special status together with Hoensbroek within the domain of the Dukes of Brabant .

The modern fate of the city

During the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648) between the Kingdom of Spain and the independent Protestant provinces in the north, Heerlen changed hands several times. Finally, Heerlen became part of the generals land in 1661 and came under the rule of the young republic of the Netherlands. However, Heerlen was largely separated from the rest of the territory as an exclave between Habsburg-Spanish controlled territories. This only changed after the conquest by the French revolutionary army in 1793. The French introduced important innovations, such as a new legal and administrative system. But the end of French rule in Heerlen was sealed in 1814. Heerlen became part of the Limburg Province of the United Netherlands .

In the course of the Belgian Revolution in 1830, Heerlen, like large parts of Limburg, initially sided with the Belgian side and remained Belgian until 1839. There were both geographical and religious reasons for this. Nevertheless, Heerlen became Dutch after the London Conference with the rest of Limburg east of the Meuse and the city of Maastricht .

Coal mining

In the 19th century - unlike in neighboring Belgian and German areas - no successful approach to industrialization developed in and around Heerlen . Only at the beginning of the 20th century began German industrialists and geologists with the exploration of coal seams from which developed the mining, Heerlen developing the city allowed.

Mining monument: headframe of the Oranje-Nassau I colliery (ON-I)

The first coal discoveries in the Heerlen area date back to 1874. In March of that year, hard coal was discovered during excavations on Valkenburgerweg . A mine, however, was not built until a quarter of a century later, as the costs for the concession and the construction of the extraction and transport infrastructure represented immense investments. Only a few concessions were acquired by investors , mostly from Germany. After Heerlen had a railway connection for the first time in 1896 (from Sittard via Heerlen to Herzogenrath ), coal transport was hardly a problem any more. 1894 therefore started drilling the first wells in Heerlen by the newly formed company Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Limburgsche Steenkolenmijnen or short Oranje Nassau Mijnen where the Dutch railway engineer Henri Sarolea that the rail links from Sittard about Heerlen and Hoensbroek Herzogenrath and the German industrialists Eduard and Carl Honigmann were involved. The first coal was mined around 1900.

Oranje-Nassau I was to be the first and in 1974 also the last Heerlener colliery. It was named after the Dutch royal family .

However, Heerlen's development up to the beginning of the First World War was still moderate. This changed from August 1914. When the war began, the energy supply in the Netherlands suddenly became unsafe. The date of the belligerent countries UK and Germany imported to replace coal as possible, considerable efforts have been made since the 1915th The state in particular now invested in mining to increase coal production in the Mijnstreek . During this time, mining by the Oranje-Nassau III mine in the north of Heerlen near Heerlerbaan began in 1917. Other important impulses came from the state: The concessions that had not yet been awarded were used by the newly founded state mining company DSM , which has its headquarters related in Heerlen. Heerlen thus became the center of the eastern Mijnstreek . In 1924, the Oranje Nassau IV was the last new mine to open its doors in the city .

Between 1900 and 1910, Heerlen's population had almost doubled and was now 12,000. By 1930 the city already had 32,000 inhabitants. On January 1, 1995, 96,274 people lived in Heerlen. By January 1, 2005, the number had decreased to 92,542. Most recently, the population was 86,762 (as of January 1, 2018).

In the town of Hoensbroek , which was independent until 1982, there was also a mine, namely the Staatsmijn Emma , one of the most productive and important mines in the Netherlands. Production began there in 1912 and 109,032,000 tons of hard coal had been mined until it was closed in 1973. Unlike the Oranje-Nassau colliery, Emma mainly mined fat and gas coals for coke production instead of lean coals and anthracite. The Emma mine owned a coking plant located a few kilometers away in Beek , from where coke and coal were transported to the north and west of the country via the Meuse and Juliana Canal.

In the course of expanding mining, Heerlen developed into a stately town. Many miners' settlements developed around the older districts of Heerlen. The city center also changed. Many older buildings had to give way to modern structures and so there are only few evidence of the pre-industrial Heerlen in the city center. Because with the coal crisis , which hit the coal mining industry in Western Europe in waves since the late 1950s, the decline of mining in Heerlen and the surrounding area began. One suffered from the triumphant advance of oil and the competition from cheaper imported coal from Poland and the USA . In addition, the Dutch government relied on natural gas from the provinces of Groningen and Friesland and, above all, from drilling platforms in the North Sea as the backbone of the national energy supply. This meant that the government decided to close all Dutch mines and to create replacement jobs in replacement industries and in the service sector .

From the mining center to Parkstad

For Heerlen, the decline in mining initially meant the loss of around a third of all jobs. In total, around 60,000 people lost their jobs in the Mijnstreek. The city received various government administrative and service facilities as part of the so-called herstruktureering (restructuring), such as the Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS). Industrial and commercial areas were also created, especially in the south and west of Heerlen. In the north, a housing estate including infrastructure such as schools was built on the former Oranje-Nassau IV site. The same is happening in a noteworthy urban development project on the site of the former Emma colliery west of Akerstraat in Hoensbroek. Smaller commercial areas and many service facilities give Heerlen the appearance of an industrial and service town today. Their newest flagship is the Zuyd Hogeschool - with branches in Maastricht, Sittard and Heerlen comparable to a German university of applied sciences .

Today there is little to remind us of mining. The spoil dumps were removed or greened and the dump material was mostly used in road construction and dike construction. Almost all of the mines' surface facilities have disappeared. In Heerlen, a Malakow headframe with struts is one of only two remaining examples of its kind that reminds of this era. Today it houses a mining museum.

Landmarks and sights

  • Former landmarks of Heerlen were Lange Jan (1938–1976, 138 m) and Lange Lies (1953–1976, 155 m), the chimneys of the coal-fired power station of Oranje-Nassau I that can be seen from a long way off and that covered the Heerlen skyline until they were blown up and at that time the Lies was the tallest building in Limburg
  • The Hoensbroek Castle in the Hoensbroek district is well worth seeing
  • The Heerlen mills a bit outside are also worth seeing, such as the oil mill (Oliemolen) and the Weltermühle (Weltermolen)
  • St. Pancratius Church, the oldest parts of which, e.g. B. the Schelmentors, date from the 12th century


Cultura Nova

The summer festival Cultura Nova has existed since 1991 . It was founded by Fiedel van der Hijden as a street theater festival. He later got support from Rocco Malherbe, who advocated expansion. In 2016 there were 45 program items with 200 events in and around Heerlen. The main branches are: film, music, theater, dance, street art and circus.

Mural by Super A, Heerlen, Spoorsingel 46B

Street art

Since 2007, Heerlen has developed into the street art capital of the Netherlands, thanks mainly to the “Street Art Heerlen” and “Heerlen Murals” foundations as well as a large number of committed citizens and companies. So far there have been around 70 graffiti or murals by local and international artists, and the number is increasing all the time. Well-founded city tours on foot and by bike take place regularly. Coal mining, which no longer exists, is also a theme in some works of art. The digital platform Streetartcities enables external visitors to find all the places with the pictures themselves around the clock using a street art map and text files, and to read explanations about the artists and the works.


  • The thermal baths , which were built around 120 AD, date from Roman times and were discovered in 1940 and partially excavated and reconstructed ; The Heerlener Thermenmuseum, opened in 1977, was built above the excavation site.
  • In the winding tower, which has been preserved as a mining monument, on the site of the former Oranje-Nassau I colliery, there is a mining museum with exhibits on mining in the Mijnstreek .
  • The Nederlands Mijnmuseum is housed in a former winding tower (Malakow construction) of the Oranje-Nassau I colliery, which is also a national mining monument itself. Most of the exhibits come from Dutch mines.


The heart of Heerlen: The Glaspaleis (right), the Pancratius Church and the music school

In 1935 a very remarkable building was erected in the city, the Glaspaleis by builder Peter Schunck, a local trader. The building is located in the center of Heerlen and is a listed building . After years of decay and subsequent extensive restoration , the Glaspaleis was given a new purpose as a cultural center.

The building is on a list of the Union Internationale des Architectes , which lists the world's one thousand most important buildings from the 20th century. Among other things, due to its energy-saving design, it set standards. The central heating installed in the building for heating in winter was actually never needed. The Glaspaleis has a double meaning symbolically. Once it was a symbol for the arrival of the progress and economic rise of Heerlen, today it is a symbol of the hope for a return of the “golden times” of mining and (late) industrialization for the city.

Public bodies and institutions

Research and education

  • Among the educational institutions in Heerlen, the Hogeschool Zuyd , a technical college with branches in Maastricht, Sittard and Heerlen, is the most important
  • The second university is the Open University of the Netherlands (Open Universiteit - UO) , which is also known as Open University in the Netherlands called leaves, reside with tens of thousands of students throughout the Netherlands, with its head office in Heerlen. The former theological university (Universiteit van Theologie en Pastoraat - UTP) no longer exists. The number of students was too low. However, Heerlen had the largest university in the Netherlands with the OU and the smallest with the UTP
  • In addition, there are various childcare facilities, elementary schools, secondary schools and high schools, vocational training institutions, etc. in Heerlen.
  • The Dutch national statistical authority , the Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek - CBS , was established as a measure to create replacement jobs in Heerlen after the end of mining in the early 1970s on the site of the former Oranje-Nassau mining company near the train station. Numerous publications of the CBS appear annually in Heerlen


  • National Mijnmuseum
  • Thermenmuseum


The health system in Heerlen (and the rest of Parkstad Limburg ) is supported by a foundation, the Stichting Gezondheidszorg Oostelijk Zuid-Limburg (GOZL), a public-law sponsoring community. The Atrium Medisch Centrum Parkstad (Atrium Medical Center Parkstad) is the name of the different hospitals in Parkstad. Atrium is part of the GOZL The atrium in Heerlen was previously known as de Wever ziekenhuis , named after Frans de Wever , who founded the city's first hospital in 1904 together with Joseph Savelberg .

Famous Heerlener

sons and daughters of the town

Other important Heerlener

Web links

Commons : Heerlen  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Heerlen  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand . In: StatLine . Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Dutch)
  2. Coalitiakkoord Gemeente Heerlen, accessed on July 30, 2018 (Dutch)
  3. Portefeuilleverdeling Gemeente Heerlen, accessed on July 30, 2018 (Dutch)
  4. Emile Roemer begins vrijdag aan klus in Heerlen. In: L1. March 14, 2018, accessed July 30, 2018 (Dutch).
  5. Result of the local elections: 2014 2018 , accessed on July 30, 2018 (Dutch)
  6. ↑ Allocation of seats in the municipal council: 1981–2002 2006 2010 2014 2018 , accessed on July 30, 2018 (Dutch)
  7. Stadsdelen en buurten Gemeente Heerlen, accessed on July 29, 2018 (Dutch)
  8. AE 1959, 9 ; on this inscription see: Sattonius Iucundus, Marcus (decurio). rijckheyt.nl, accessed on October 16, 2018. The Decurio is possibly identical to the centurion of the same name, which is attested by the inscription CIL VIII, 2634 from North Africa.
  9. This name is also the former name of Cherbourg . It contains the Celtic component corios 'Heer', 'Army' ( old Irish cuire 'troop', 'army') and the Latin word vallum , which led to "Wall".
  10. cf. u. a. N. Jesse: Orange Nassau Mijnen. Self-published by NV Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Limburgsche Steenkolenmijnen called Oranje-Nassau-Mijnen, Heerlen 1953.
  11. ibid.
  12. a b c Regionale kerncijfers Nederland Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek , accessed on July 29, 2018 (Dutch)
  13. cf. B. Breij: De mijnen went open, de mijnen went tight. de Hoeve, o. O. 1981, passim.
  14. cf. H.Breuer: Free and Planned Developments of Substitute Industries . Investigation of the industrial structural change with special consideration of the southern New England states of the USA and of Dutch South Limburg , RWTH Aachen 1984.
  15. cf. C. Raedts: De opkomst, ontwikkeling en neergang van de steenkolenmijnbouw in Limburg. Heerlen 1974.
  16. cf. Perspectievennotas voor Zuid-Limburg.
  17. cf. Zuyd Hogeschool website
  18. cf. Lists of course offers and educational institutions on the Heerlen portal