The term learning culture represents a connection between the terms learning and culture - and thus also between the activity taking place in the individual and the historically grown and changeable setting within which this activity takes place and by which it is influenced in terms of content.
Definitions of the term learning culture
- "(...) the totality of the forms of learning and teaching styles typical for a certain period of time as well as the anthropological, psychological, social and educational orientations on which they are based" (Weinert 1997, p. 12).
- “(...) the entirety of the learning and development potential that is arranged through the cooperation of the members of the interaction and communication processes on the teaching, collegial and organizational level. Learning cultures are thus in and through teaching, learning as well as cooperation and communication processes repeatedly created frames that offer their group members specific development opportunities, but withhold others ”(Arnold & Schüßler 1998, p. 4f.).
- “(...) a certain setting, with certain rules that have been established for learning and in which learning takes place” (Kleber & Stein 2001, p. 3).
“According to a systemic understanding, where everything is connected with everything, the concept of learning culture is the combination, description and criticism of the factors of a socially organized learning space. Such a learning culture thus represents a living environment for those directly involved (teachers, learners) in which content, symbolic and structural dimensions should lead to the cultural memory of the next generation "(Kösel, E. 2007)
Weinberg's (1999) definition suggests that learning culture is constructed. Through interaction and communication processes , framework conditions are created that should enable learning. However, since the processes on which the framework conditions are based are not the same, the learning culture is constantly being constructed anew and is therefore changeable. The basis for the construction of learning culture seem to be elements that have arisen in a historical development process. This is made clear by the definition by Kleber & Stein (2001), in which a temporal component of the term learning culture is introduced. With regard to the cultural aspect of the term learning culture, however, reducing the term learning culture to an established setting does not appear to be sufficient. There is no content-related, socially evaluative dimension. Weinert's (1997) interpretation seems to continue here. This subdivision into setting and underlying scientific and societal foundations even includes two content-related components: firstly, the societal perspective on learning and thus also on the cultural aspect, which describes the knowledge necessary for society; on the other hand, scientific progress with regard to knowledge about the Learning process and the associated methodical implementation within a learning setting are included.
Weinert as well as Arnold & Schüßler and Weinberg manage the entirety of "the learning forms and teaching styles typical for a certain period of time" (Weinert 1997, p. 12) or "the learning and development potential" (Arnold & Schüßler 1996, p. 4; Weinberg 1999, p. 98). This leads to the conclusion that in the same society, learning cultures can have different characteristics in different contexts. This is also shown by the discussion about “new learning cultures”, which is characterized by different social, learning theory and educational policy currents (cf. Schüßler / Thurnes 2005).
In Kösel (2007), a wealth of factors and distinctions of a postmodern learning culture are brought together for the first time to form a system-theoretical overview. The starting point is the basic decision of system theory (Luhmann) between system and environment. The further differentiations then automatically lead to the reference areas core formation and edge formation of a learning culture. In the reference core education, the areas of didactic option, awareness systems of the participants, communication and decision-making processes , patterns of action from society, preference orders of teachers and learners, everyday activities in a school organization, the form of teaching, the myth of the education exchange market, the mode of performance interpretation, Leadership styles in learning cultures, the coherence and contingency of a learning culture, types of learning cultures, etc.
According to Edmund Kösel u. a. To be expected: selectivity and permeability, loyalty, product prestige, product delimitation, resonance areas, incompatible elements, social delimitation, insider language and sponsoring.
- Mittelstraß, Jürgen (1999): culture of learning - culture of learning. In: Competence for Europe. Change through learning - learning in change. (Quem Report Issue 60) Berlin 1999. pp. 49-63
- Weinert, Franz E. (1997): Lernkultur im Wandel. From: Beck, Erwin; Guldimann, Titus; Zutavern, Michael (ed.): Learning culture in change. Proceedings of the Swiss Society for Teacher Education and the Swiss Society for Educational Research. St. Gallen (UVK). Pp. 11-29
- Arnold, Rolf; Schüßler, Ingeborg (1998): Change in learning cultures. Ideas and building blocks for lively learning. Darmstadt 1998 (Scientific Book Society).
- Kleber, Eduard W .; Stein, Roland (2001): Learning culture at the exit of modernity. Baltmannsweiler (Schneider-Verlag Hohengehren).
- Kösel Edmund (2007): The development of postmodern learning cultures. A plea for rebuilding the school. Volume III in the series: The modeling of learning worlds. Bahlingen ISBN 978-3-00-020795-2
- Weinberg, Johannes (1999): culture of learning - concept, history, perspectives. In: Working Group for Qualification Development Management, office of the Working Group on Company Further Education Research (Ed.): Kompetenzentwicklung ‚99. Aspects of a new learning culture. Arguments, experiences, consequences. Münster: Waxmann. Pp. 81-143.
- Schüßler, Ingeborg: Thurnes, Christian M. (2005): Learning cultures in further education. Bielefeld 2005 (W. Bertelsmann Verlag).