from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A licentiate (also licentiate ; derived from Latin licentiatus , abbreviated lic. ) Is the holder of an academic Licentia docendi (permission to teach). It is an academic degree that was originally acquired following the bachelor's degree and then partly as a prerequisite for the master's degree or doctorate or as an equivalent. The period, the country, the university and the faculty must also be taken into account in the position of the licentiate in relation to other academic degrees.

About the word usage

" The licentiate" or " the Lizentiatin" refers to the degree holders, " the licentiate" the degree itself. "The Lizentiatur" in the narrower sense of the acquisition or the awarding of the degree, analogous to the promotion , but also synonymous with Licentiate used for the degree itself.


In the Middle Ages , the licentiate was a bachelor's degree with a license to teach . Today the title is awarded as the completion of postgraduate studies (similar to the doctoral degree of a doctorate ). Like the doctoral degree, the abbreviation "Lic." (Optionally with or without the faculty designation) is used in front of the name. An entry in the driver's license, passport or identity card is not possible.

Evangelical theology

Until 1944/45, most of the Protestant theological faculties in Germany awarded the degree as part of a doctoral procedure .

Catholic theology

The licentiate (or doctorate ) is the academic prerequisite in church university law for teaching at church universities. It can be sought (usually based on a state examination , diploma or master’s degree ) at universities and church colleges with faculty rank. In the Catholic Church , a theological, biblical or ecclesiastical doctorate (e.g. lic. Theol., Dr. theol.) Is a prerequisite for appointment as vicar general , auxiliary bishop or bishop ; this can be dispensed with if there is a great deal of experience in these specialist areas (cf. Can. 378 and 478 of the Codex Iuris Canonici [CIC] of 1983). An official (court vicar), diocesan judge, church attorney or marriage bond defender must have obtained a doctorate in canon law ( lic. Jur. Can., Dr. jur. Can., JCL ) (cf. Can. 1420f and 1435 CIC). Roman ecclesiastical universities award the licentiate partly with a specialist title, for example in biblical studies ( lic. Bibl. ).


The Free University of Berlin awarded the academic degree Lic. Rer. publ. (Licentiatus rerum publicarum) to journalists and publicists after successfully completing a six- to eight-semester postgraduate course with a specialization in law as well as economics, history, politics and communication . In addition to course-related performance assessments, an extensive scientific thesis had to be written and defended in an oral examination in order to obtain the licentiate. A maximum of 40 applicants per academic year were admitted to this degree program at the Institute for Media and Communication Studies according to strict selection criteria. The last study started in 2002; the course can no longer be taken at the FU today.

law Sciences

Until the 1990s, Saarland University offered a degree as licentiate in law ( lic. Iur. ). The licentiate corresponded to a master's degree or diploma after five to seven years of study and entitle the holder to pursue a doctorate. However, this authorization was denied by some faculties outside the Saarland, such as the law faculty of the Rheinische-Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn in 1988. For political reasons, the degree was abolished after reunification and the associated integration of the qualified lawyers of the GDR, mainly because the state examination was viewed as the relevant degree for a lawyer. The licentiate essentially corresponded to the first state examination in law, but went beyond this in terms of its requirements for admission to the examination and in the examination components, even though it did not entitle the holder to admission to the legal preparatory service. The examination consisted of a scientific (eight-week) paper, four exams from the areas 1. Civil law, 2. Public law, 3. Criminal law 4. Commercial law and an oral examination lasting several hours. The examination board was made up of professors / lecturers from the faculty who were also examiners from the judicial examination office. In addition, the licentiate in the examination area of ​​scientific work and oral examination allowed additional specialization in areas of law not covered by the state examination, for example in church law, etc. (Regulations for the award of the university degree of a licentiate in law dated February 11, 1981, last amended with effect from September 9, 1981 June 1993).


In Switzerland , in addition to the diploma , the licentiate completed a university degree until the Bologna Process was implemented in 2011/12. Depending on the subject (and partly also on the university), different degrees of licensing were distinguished: lic. iur. , lic. nat., lic. oec., lic. phil., lic. phil. hist., lic. phil. nat., lic. phil. hum., lic. theol., lic. rer. pol., lic. rer. publ., lic. rer. soc. etc. The licentiate is equivalent to the Master’s title newly introduced in Switzerland . It was - together with a licensing grade (average) defined by the respective university - the prerequisite for starting a doctoral degree .

Spain and Portugal

In Spanish- speaking countries, the Licenciatura was the standard graduate degree, for example in the social sciences, which, among other things , is on an equal footing with the Masters or the German diploma . Licenciatura or Licenciatura Superior (the abbreviation for the addition to the name is Lic. Or Ldo. / Lda. (For licenciado / -da )) in Spain and Portugal denotes a former state university degree (Título oficial) that entitles the holder to obtain a doctorate . It corresponds roughly to the German diploma . The course was scientifically oriented, the standard duration of study is between four and six years, which are divided into two levels ( primer (o) ciclo and segundo ciclo ). Some Licenciatura courses (e.g. pedagogy , anthropology ) could only be studied in segundo ciclo (a 2 to 3 year main course), whereby a Diplomatura or the primer ciclo of a Licenciatura course must first be acquired.

This degree expired as part of the Bologna Process . A Spanish Licenciatura that has already been awarded is usually recognized as a Master 's.

In most Latin American countries, the Licenciatura is a first degree, which is comparable to the German diploma and entitles you to a doctorate, but is usually only supplemented by a Maestría or a Master’s degree. In Brazil, the Licenciatura was previously divided into " Licenciatura Curta " (after 3 years of study) and " Licenciatura Plena " (4 years of study, state university degree); the “plena” authorized the teachers to teach in the upper school. This practice and the inconsistent awarding of titles (after 4 or 5 years) make a comparison with the German education system difficult.

Other countries

While the French license or the Polish licencjat are academic degrees at Bachelor level, in Belgium it is a degree equivalent to the Master , which is awarded after 4 or 5 years of university studies.

In Finland and Sweden , the licentiate (Finnish: lisensiaatti ; Swedish: licentiatexamen ) is a research-oriented degree between master's and doctoral degrees. This degree is awarded as part of the so-called researcher training after around half of a doctoral program in these two countries.

In some English-speaking countries, a licentiate is also awarded by scientific societies on the basis of studies in their specialist field, without this being an academic degree in the narrower sense. Examples are the licentiate from the Royal College of Physicians in London and Edinburgh (LRCP or LRCPE, until 1999) and the licentiate from the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada (LRHSC).

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Certificate of equivalence. Retrieved September 26, 2019 .
  2. Equivalence between the “Pre-Bologna Process” and the “Post-Bologna Process” degrees in Spain (Spanish) ( Memento from October 31, 2015 in the Internet Archive )