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Location in northeast Thailand

Isan ( Thai : อีสาน , pronunciation: [ʔiːsǎːn] , also written Isaan ; from Pali ईशान्य īsānya or Sanskrit ईशान्य īśānya "northeast"; officially "northeast region", Thai ภาค ตะวันออก เฉียง เหนือ , RTGS Phak Tawan-ok chiang nuea ) forms the northeastern one Part of Thailand . It lies on the Khorat plateau and is bounded by the Mekong to the north and east, and by Cambodia to the south . In the west, the Phetchabun Mountains , the mountains of the Dong Phaya Yen and the Sankamphaeng chain separate the Isan from northern and central Thailand.

Agriculture is the predominant economic sector in Isan , but because of the unfavorable circumstances, the yield is lower than in other parts of the country. The Isan is the poorest region in Thailand, but has caught up a lot in recent years.

The main spoken in the region (around 15 million speakers) is Isan , which is very similar to the Lao and Thai languages . The official language Thai is also widespread. The native language in the south of the Isan (Surin) is Khmer Surin, a northern dialect of the Khmer language . Most of the inhabitants are Lao or Isan, but the integration of the Isan into the modern Thai state was largely successful due to the common ethnic roots of the Lao, Thai and Isan.

Well-known aspects of regional culture include “ mor lam ” music, muay thai boxes, and sticky rice dishes with chili that are eaten with the fingers.


Outline map of the Isan with the location of the cities, mountain ranges and rivers.
As a result of the deforestation within the Isan, the borders with Laos and Cambodia can be identified.

The Isan covers an area of ​​about 160,000 square kilometers and is roughly congruent with the Khorat plateau , which slopes down from the Phetchabun Mountains in the west towards the Mekong . The plateau consists of two main plains: the southern plain of Khorat (Nakhon Ratchasima), which is crossed by the Mae Nam Chi and Mae Nam Mun rivers, and the northern Sakon Nakhon plain with the Mae Nam Loei and Songkhram rivers . The two levels are separated by the Phu Phan ridge . The soil is mostly sandy with some salt deposits. The Mekong forms the border between Thailand and Laos to the north and east of the Isan , while the south of the region borders Cambodia .

The most important Thai source river of the Mekong, the Mae Nam Mun , has its source in the Khao-Yai National Park near Nakhon Ratchasima and flows eastward to flow into the Mekong in the province of Ubon Ratchathani . The other main river in the region, the Mae Nam Chi , flows through central Isan before turning south and meeting the Mun at Si Sa Ket . The smaller rivers Mae Nam Loei and Mae Nam Songkhram also flow into the Mekong, the former in a north direction through the province of Loei , the latter in an easterly direction through the provinces of Udon Thani , Sakon Nakhon , Nakhon Phanom and Nong Khai .


The climate in Isan is tropical. In the dry summer from March to May, temperatures rise to 40 degrees. June to October is the rainy season with a lot of precipitation and high humidity. In winter from November to February it gets cool at night and still 20 ° C to over 30 ° C during the day.

Mean rainfall ranges from 2000mm in some areas to 1270mm in the southwestern provinces of Nakhon Ratchasima , Buri Ram , Maha Sarakham , Khon Kaen and Chaiyaphum .

The average temperature is between 30.2 ° C and 19 ° C. The highest temperature ever recorded was 43.8 ° C in Udon Thani Province and the lowest 0.1 ° C in Loei.


Early history

Phanom Rung - a testimony from the Khmer period

Isan has a number of significant Bronze Age sites of cave paintings, artifacts and evidence of early rice cultivation. Bronze tools such as those found in Ban Chiang may be older than similar ones found in Mesopotamia .

In the second half of the 1st millennium AD, the region belonged to the area of ​​influence of Indian states such as Chenla and Canasapura , parallel to the related Dvaravati culture in central Thailand. From this time z. B. the sites of Mueang Sema and Mueang Fa Daet as well as the historically oldest parts of Wat Phra That Phanom . From the 9th to the 13th centuries, large parts of today's Isan were under the influence of the Khmer Empire of Angkor . This left behind the important temple complexes in Phimai and Phanom Rung .

Settlement by Lao

After the disintegration of the Khmer Empire in the 13th century, the Khorat plateau was a buffer area between the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya in what is now central Thailand and Lan Xang , a network of Lao states in the Mekong river valley . Apart from the area around Nakhon Ratchasima (Khorat) itself, which belonged to Ayutthaya as early as 1657, and small Lao outposts, it was hardly populated during this period. After the death of King Sulinyavongsa in 1694, Lan Xang disintegrated. As a result of the erupting succession disputes, Lao aristocrats emigrated several times from the kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane together with their subjects and settled on the Khorat plateau, where they founded new communities ( Müang ) . In 1778 the three Lao kingdoms Luang Prabang, Vientiane and Champasak, which emerged from the broken Lan Xang, had to recognize the Siamese kingdom Thonburi (forerunner of today's Thai state with the capital Bangkok) as suzeran and swear loyalty to its king.

Siam took advantage of the disagreement among the Lao principalities to bring the Müang on the Khorat plain under its direct control. This was made easier by the fact that the individual small states and their respective ruling families were largely independent of one another and had no common ruling structure or a powerful common leader. After the unsuccessful rebellion of Lao King Anuvong of Vientiane in 1827/28, Vientiane lost its autonomy and the Siamese deported over 100,000 Lao to the western side of the Mekong, i.e. today's central and northeastern Thailand, in order to have greater control and to prevent further uprisings . The control of the central government over the area of ​​today's Isan remained patchy until the end of the 19th century.

Integration into the Thai state

In 1893, after the Pak-Nam incident and a brief Franco-Siamese war , Siam had to cede the Lao countries east of the Mekong to France. The Mekong, which until then was the most important connecting artery of the Lao region, now became the border river between a Siamese and a French-controlled part (the latter became today's state of Laos after the end of colonial rule). Around the same time, the Siamese King Rama V (Chulalongkorn) began to integrate the outskirts of his rule into the Siamese state and to subordinate them directly to the central government within the framework of the thesaphiban system. In order to cover up the independent ethnic identity and not to justify further territorial claims of the French colonial empire and its protectorate Laos, the Siamese government increasingly avoided calling its subjects Lao and instead coined the name Isan (Pali for "northeast") for those of ethnic groups Lao populated areas on the Khorat plateau. Initially, from 1900, Isan was used to designate one of the Monthon (large administrative units from several provinces), which had previously been called Lao Kao. From the name of an administrative unit, the name 'Isan' expanded to a general, geographical meaning. From around 1922 it was then used in today's sense for the entire northeast region.

The introduction of the central administration brought radical changes in the social hierarchies and political-economic relations in Isan. This was possibly the trigger for the uprisings led by so-called phu mi bun (“holy men”) in 1901/02. At the same time there was a very similar revolt on the other side of the Mekong, in the French protectorate of Laos. Widespread by traveling Mo-Lam singers, there was a millenarian or messianic belief in impending apocalyptic changes and the appearance of a god-sent "just king". Dozens of men now appeared claiming to be the announced Savior and gathering followers. The uprisings were put down by government forces.

In the 20th century, the incorporation of Isan as an integral part of Thailand was pursued as part of the “ Thaiization ”, whereby the Lao roots of the population were denied. From 1939 the use of the Lao language and the corresponding alphabet was officially pushed back, in schools only the Thai alphabet was taught according to the instructions of the central government. The ultra-nationalist government of Plaek Phibunsongkhram denounced the use of local languages as backward, if not treasonous.

Contemporary history

During the Second World War, the Seri Thai movement ("Free Thailand") was strongly represented in Isan , and it resisted the de facto Japanese occupation and the collaborative government of Phibunsongkhrams. In the short democratic phase after 1945, many constituencies in the northeast were represented by progressive, left-wing populist and socialist politicians who were close to the Sahachip party ("Cooperative Party ") and who supported Prime Minister Pridi Phanomyong . After the military coup of 1947 , important politicians from the Isan - mostly former Seri Thai fighters - were imprisoned or even murdered. The pretext was that they supposedly split off the northeastern provinces from Thailand and wanted to unite them with the states of Indochina to form a communist “Southeast Asian Union”. The veracity of this conspiracy theory is highly doubtful.

In terms of economic development and political participation, the Isan lagged far behind the central region and especially the metropolis of Bangkok for a long time. This condition is described by some authors as " internal colonialism " of the Isan by the Bangkok elites. The dictatorial ruling prime minister and field marshal Sarit Thanarat , who grew up in the province of Mukdahan, wrote during his reign (1959-63) a solution to the “Northeast Problem” in order to prevent the economic backwardness of the region would fuel separatist or communist aspirations. Nevertheless, from the early 1960s to the beginning of the 1980s, the northeast region was one of the main theaters of the uprising of the Communist Party of Thailand and its “People's Liberation Army” against the Thai state. The “Green Isan” (Isan Khiao) program for regional development under the aegis of the Thai Army and its Supreme Commander General Chavalit Yongchaiyudh in the 1980s did not show any resounding success either.

Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra , who ruled from 2001 to 2006, gained popularity in the region with programs for universal access to health care, debt relief for farmers and local small loans for infrastructure development and business start-ups. Since then it has been regarded as the stronghold of his followers and of the movement of the "Red Shirts" (or National Democratic Alliance against Dictatorship ), which is close to him . Since the end of 2010, thousands of villages in Isan have declared themselves "red villages".


Family in a village in Isan
A kha player in a sarong and phakama from Isan

In 2000, the total population of Isan was 20,825,000, of which 40% lived in the populous provinces of Nakhon Ratchasima, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani and Khon Kaen. These provinces surround the four most important cities of Isan, which have the same names: In 2000, the city of Udon Thani had 220,493 inhabitants, Nakhon Ratchasima 204,391, Khon Kaen 141,034, and Ubon Ratchathani had 106,552 inhabitants. In 1996, only 6.3% of the region's population lived in cities. The share was highest in Khon Kaen at 12.4% and lowest in Roi Et at 2.8%. It follows that the inhabitants of the Isan live mostly outside the cities, but are concentrated in the outskirts of the cities.

The inhabitants of the Isan are called Khon Isan ( Thai คน อีสาน , Lao : ຄົນ ອີ ສານ ; "People of the Northeast"). In a broader sense, it can be used to describe anyone who comes from one of the 20 provinces of northeast Thailand. In a narrower sense, however, only the ethnic Lao are meant, who make up the majority of the population in the majority of Isan. As a result of the separation of the Isan from the actual Laos, the integration of the region into the Thai state and the “ Thaiization policy ” of the central government, they have developed their own ethno - regional identity that differs from that of the Lao in the Lao People's Democratic Republic as well also differs from the Thai in central Thailand . Alternative names for this population group are T (h) ai Isan , Thai-Lao , Lao-Isan or Isan-Lao .

The population of the northeast region of Thailand consists almost exclusively of Thai citizens. The majority (around 80%) are ethnic Lao and speak a dialect of the Lao language at home (the dialects of Lao spoken in northeast Thailand are summarized as phasa isan , the "Isan language"). However, these are considered dialects of Thai by the Thai government. Thailand does not collect any data about the ethnicity of its citizens. At least towards outsiders, the ethnic Lao in Isan avoid self-identification as Lao, but usually refer to themselves as khon isan . The independent identity of the khon isan was scientifically investigated and described for the first time in 1967 by the American anthropologist Charles F. Keyes .

Thai, Isan and Lao form a dialect continuum and show a high degree of mutual intelligibility . Most Isan speakers are also proficient in standard (Central) Thai , which is especially true of the younger and better educated. Many people practice code-switching in their everyday life , which means that, depending on the situation, they switch between their local dialect, which they use in family and informal surroundings, and the standard language, which they use in official contexts.

The residents of Isan are almost exclusively Theravada - Buddhists . 99.1% of the population profess Buddhism, 0.9% Christianity, other religions only appear in negligibly small numbers. In no other major region are there so few people of different faiths. In addition to the official religion, many residents of Isan also cultivate animistic elements of the worship of spirits called Phi . They see no contradiction in this to their actual Buddhist creed.

The majority population in the province of Nakhon Ratchasima (around 10% of the population of the entire Isan) is culturally and linguistically closer to the Central Thai (or "Siamese") than the Lao. They are also called Khorat Thai . Another 10% of the Isan's population are ethnic Khmer . They are concentrated in the three southern provinces of Surin , Buri Ram and Si Sa Ket .

Interestingly, there is a striking correlation between the areas where ethnic Lao make up the majority of the population and the areas where sticky rice is the main crop. In the areas that are mostly populated by “Siamese” or ethnic Khmer people, on the other hand, mostly non-sticky types of rice are grown.

In addition to these three larger groups, the Isan region is home to a large number of other, smaller ethnic groups, whose language groups are listed below:

language family speaker distribution
Northern Khmer Mon-Khmer 1,400,000 (2006) Surin, Si Sa Ket, Buri Ram, Nakhon Ratchasima
Phu Thai Tai-Kadai 470,000 (2006) Nakhon Phanom, Ubon Ratchathani, Kalasin, Sakon Nakhon
Kuy Mon-Khmer 400,000 (2006) Buri Ram, Surin, Si Sa Ket, Ubon Ratchathani, Roi Et
So Mon-Khmer 70,000 (2006) Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon, Nong Khai, Kalasin
Nyaw Tai-Kadai 50,000 (1990) Sakon Nakhon, Nong Khai, Nakhon Phanom
Western Bru Mon-Khmer 20,000 (1991) Mukdahan, Amnat Charoen, Ubon Ratchathani
Saek Tai-Kadai 11,000 (1993) Nakhon Phanom
Yoy Tai-Kadai 5,000 (1990) Sakon Nakhon
Eastern Bru Mon-Khmer 5,000 Sakon Nakhon
Nyahkur Mon-Khmer 1,500 (2006) Nakhon Ratchasima, Chaiyaphum
Tai Dam Tai-Kadai 700 (2004) Nong Khai, Nakhon Ratchasima, Loei (and Saraburi )
Aheu Mon-Khmer 450 (speakers)
1,500 (nationals; 2007)
Sakon Nakhon
Nyeu Mon-Khmer 200 Si Sa Ket
Phuan Tai-Kadai Unknown
in all of Thailand 200,000 (2006)
Udon Thani, Loei


A musician in a women's sarong

The culture of the Isan is strongly influenced by the cultural heritage of the Lao and has a lot in common with that of the neighboring country Laos . This affinity is evident in the regional cuisine , clothing , sacred architecture , holidays and the arts .

The traditional clothing is the sarong . The women's version mostly has embroidered hems, while the men's sarongs are adorned with checked patterns. Contrary to the custom in central Thailand, they are not attached between the legs. Finally, the pakama is a length of fabric that is used as a belt, head covering, hammock or as a bath towel.

Isan is the center of Thai silk production . Trade boomed in the post-war period when fashion designer Jim Thompson popularized Thai silk in the West. One of the best-known types of silk from the region is "Mut-Mee", a geometric pattern is applied to the fabric using batik .

Isan cuisine differs from the Central Thai and Laotian cuisine, but they also have a lot in common with them. The most obvious characteristics are the use of sticky rice instead of fragrant rice and the fiery chili seasoning. Popular dishes include Som Tam (also: tammakhung, known as Som Tam Poo Plara in central Thailand ), a salad made from green papaya and dried crab, and grilled chicken ( gai yang ). These dishes have found widespread use all over Thailand, albeit in variants adapted to the respective taste, which lack the extreme sharpness and sour taste that is preferred in Isan. Other popular dishes from the Isan are: Gaeng Hed (mushroom soup), Tom Saep (spicy, sour soup), Gaeng No Mai (bamboo soup ), Larb Moo (salad made from minced pork) or Pla Duk Yang (grilled catfish, also known as catfish ). These Isan dishes are known nationwide and so there are restaurants all over Thailand that specialize in Isan food.

In reverse exchange, the central Thai cuisine in Isan has also achieved a certain popularity. As for the influences of Lao cuisine, Isan completely lacks the elements from Vietnamese and French cuisine found in Laos . The people of Isan are known for the wide range of animals on their menu. This includes lizards , frogs, and fried insects like grasshoppers , silkworms, and dung beetles . What was originally eaten out of necessity is now considered a delicacy.

The library of the temple Tung Sri Muang, Ubon Ratchathani, as an example of the typical architectural style of Isan

The Buddhist temple, or wat , is the most important structure in most of the villages. These temples are not only used for religious worship, but are also used as festival and assembly halls. Architecturally, the Lao style predominates, which is simpler than the ornamental Thai style. The same applies to images of the Buddha .

The people of Isan celebrate a number of traditional festivals, among which the "Bun Bungfai" festival with its fireworks rockets should be emphasized. It goes back to a fertility rite from pre-Buddhist times and is celebrated in several places in Isan and Laos; but the most violent and famous are the celebrations in Yasothon Province . Other well-known spectacles are the Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival, which heralds Buddhist Lent in July, the Khon Kaen Silk Festival , a kind of local handicraft fair, the Surin elephant show and the Bangfai Phayanak or Naga fireballs from Nong Khai .

The traditional folk music of Isan is the Mor Lam . In addition to some local variants, there are also modern varieties that have come to Bangkok since the 1970s thanks to workers who moved from Isan. Many Mor Lam singers have also appropriated the Luk Thung music of central Thailand and developed the hybrid "Luk Thung Isan" direction from it. Kantrum is another traditional form of music that is very popular among the Khmer minority in the south.

Although the language of Isan itself has no written literary tradition, the region was able to produce some notable writers in the second half of the 20th century , among which Khamsing Srinawk and Pira Sudham are particularly noteworthy. Neither of the two uses the local language: the former writes in Thai, the latter in English.

Isan is known as the home of many Muay Thai boxers. Many children from poor families dream of social advancement through success in Thai boxing . The most famous athlete from Isan is not a boxer, but the tennis player Paradorn Srichaphan , whose family comes from the province of Khon Kaen.

The cultural barrier, combined with the well-known poverty of the part of the country and the typical darker complexion of the people of Isan, has led to racist reservations among many ethnic Thais. The novelist Sudham writes: "Some Thai people from Bangkok (...) said that I am not Thai, but (...) a water buffalo or a farmer." Although many people from Isan are no longer working in the fields, but in the big cities they are mostly limited to jobs of low social status, such as unskilled workers or prostitutes , and prejudices against them persist. Nevertheless, the view of Isan is not exclusively colored negatively: The typical music and the cuisine of the region have been enthusiastically received throughout Thailand.

The process of "Thaiization" has somewhat watered down the special character of the Isan culture. This is especially true for cities and provinces that - such as Nakhon Ratchasima - are located near the Thai core area and were subjugated by the Siamese relatively early.


A big elephant festival takes place in Surin in November.

Several ruins of temple complexes in the architectural style typical of this culture date from the time of the Khmer rule over the Isan area.

The best known and largest of these temple complexes is probably Phrasat Khao Phra Viharn , about 150 kilometers southwest of Ubon Ratchathani. The ruins are right on the border, already on Cambodian territory, but can only be entered from Thai soil, as the mountain on which the temple was built drops steeply to the Cambodian side. The rock castle was therefore also considered an impregnable fortress during the time of the Khmer Rouge . The area was long disputed between Thailand and Cambodia, but was awarded to Cambodia by an International Court of Justice in 1965. A Cambodian visa is not required to visit these temples, but you should be in good physical condition to climb several hundred partly ruined steps in the scorching heat to get to the ruins on the top of the mountain.

About 60 kilometers northeast of the provincial capital Nakhon Ratchasima is Prasat Hin Phimai . This well-reconstructed complex, built around AD 1100, is one of the finest examples of Khmer religious architecture outside of Cambodia.

Another important temple complex along this route is Phanom Rung , near Prakhon Chai , Buri Ram Province. This Khmer temple complex was built in honor of the Hindu god Shiva on a 1300 m high extinct volcanic cone and is sometimes referred to as the Angkor Wat of Thailand. The temple complex is probably the most important cultural and historical building in northeast Thailand.

The temple complex Prasat Mueang Tham is located 5 km east of Phanom Rung . This relatively small facility - some researchers believe it was a former royal palace - is on the ground floor, next to a large artificial lake created by the Khmer at the time. The temple has been completely restored in the middle of a well-tended park and gives a good impression of the Brahmanic monastery complex of that time. The approximately 100 x 100 meter rectangle of the complex is surrounded by four compact, almost completely reconstructed walls made of laterite blocks. The first courtyard is framed by four symmetrically arranged water basins, their steps and balustrades end in naga heads . Of the towers in the center of the complex, the main tower has crumbled in the middle, one of the towers in the four corners of the square has completely disappeared, the remaining three have been restored. Many gable stones and lintels have fallen victim to monument raiders and have disappeared. The famous lintel from Phanom Rung with Vishnu depictions appeared at an art exhibition in the USA in 1973 and was returned in 1988 at the request of the Thai Fine Arts Department .

The Prasat Tameeang plant near Ban Kruat , Buri Ram Province gives a good impression of ruins overgrown by the rainforest.


Gross domestic product per capita in US $ by province (2011). The national average was US $ 5,362.
  • under 1,500
  • 1,500 to under 3,000
  • 3,000 to less than 5,362
  • 5,362 to under 10,000
  • 10,000 to under 15,000
  • 15,000 to under 20,000
  • 20,000 and more
  • Isan: water buffalo in September

    The annual economic output of the Isan in 2011 was 48,549 baht (approx. 1200 euros) per capita, less than a third of the Thai average. The six economically weakest provinces of Thailand are all in the northeast region. However, there is also a variance in Isan between the poorest province Amnat Charoen with 30,231 baht per capita and Khon Kaen , which is 81,884 baht, closer to the national average.

    A share of 46% of the population of the Isan is formally employed in agriculture , 76% are at least partially employed in agriculture (e.g. as a sideline or family workers). In contrast, the agricultural sector only contributes 22% to regional income (for comparison: 8.5% share of agriculture in the gross domestic product of Thailand as a whole). Rice is the main crop and is grown on around 60% of the agricultural land. In addition, sugar cane and cassava are being cultivated to an increasing extent . The water buffalo is still an important workhorse for many farmers or serves as an investment. Pigs , chickens , ducks and fish are bred for meat production.

    Despite its dominant role, Isan's agriculture is extremely troubled. The climate often shows periods of drought , while on the other hand the flatland situation, especially during the rainy season, favors flooding . The danger of flooding makes large parts of the country unusable for agricultural use. In addition, the soil is very acidic , salty and partly sterile due to overuse. Since the 1970s, the importance of agriculture has declined in favor of trade and the service sector .

    Many locals seek employment outside the region, especially in Bangkok , where they often do the poorly paid jobs. Many of these people are moving to the metropolis for good.

    Between 2007 and 2011 the region experienced an economic boom with a total economic growth of 40%, significantly more than the national average of 23% in the same period and even more so than the previously economically dominant greater Bangkok area with only 17%. Some of the workers who migrated from the Isan to Bangkok and other regions in search of work have since returned.


    Isan has two railway lines, both of which connect the region with Bangkok . One runs eastwards, from Nakhon Ratchasima through Surin to Ubon Ratchathani, while the other runs northwards via Khon Kaen and Udon Thani to Nong Khai.

    The Isan's road network covers around 15,000 kilometers, the heart of which is the so-called Thanon Mittraphap ("Road of Friendship"), which was laid out by the USA in the 1960s and 70s to supply its military bases. A road bridge over 1,700 meters long, the Saphan Mittraphap Thai-Lao ( สะพาน มิตรภาพ ไทย - ลาว , [ sapʰaːn míttra-pʰâp tʰai-lao ], "Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge"), a development aid project in Australia, connects Nong Khai with the Laotian Vientiane . The Second Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge has been in existence since 2007 and a third Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge was inaugurated in 2011.

    Although the Mekong is navigable, it is rarely used because of the many rapids and currents that make the journey difficult.

    Airports exist in Udon Thani , Ubon Ratchathani , Khon Kaen , Nakhon Phanom , Sakon Nakhon , Roi Et , Loei , Buri Ram and Nakhon Ratchasima .

    Personalities of Isan

    Tony Yeah



    • Thao Suranari (1772–1852), governor's wife, local heroine of Nakhon Ratchasima
    • Sarit Thanarat (1908–1963), Prime Minister, grew up in Mukdahan Province
    • Newin Chidchob (* 1958), politician from the Buriram province




    Isan is divided into 19 provinces ( Changwat ), with the southwestern province of Nakhon Ratchasima being considered by some to be central Thailand. The provinces bear the names of the respective capitals.

    The provinces of Isan
    No. Surname Thai name
    1. Amnat Charoen อำนาจเจริญ
    2. Buri Ram บุรีรัมย์
    3. Chaiyaphum ชัยภูมิ
    4th Kalasin กาฬสินธุ์
    5. Khon Kaen ขอนแก่น
    6th Loei เลย
    7th Maha Sarakham มหาสารคาม
    8th. Mukdahan มุกดาหาร
    9. Nakhon Phanom นครพนม
    10. Nakhon Ratchasima นครราชสีมา
    No. Surname Thai name
    11. Nong Bua Lamphu หนองบัวลำภู
    12. Nong Khai หนองคาย
    13. Roi Et ร้อยเอ็ด
    14th Sakon Nakhon สกลนคร
    15th Si Sa Ket ส รี สะ เก ษ
    16. Surin สุรินทร์
    17th Ubon Ratchathani อุบลราชธานี
    18th Udon Thani อุดรธานี
    19th Yasothon ยโสธร
    20th Bueng Kan บึงกาฬ


    Web links

    Commons : Isan  - collection of images, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. Thailand's Official Poverty Lines from the NSCB ( Memento of the original from June 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (English, accessed December 4, 2011; PDF file; 245 kB)  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    2. The Meaning of Isan
    3. ^ Grabowsky: The Isan up to its Integration into the Siamese State. In: Regions and National Integration in Thailand. 1995, pp. 111-112, 115.
    4. ^ Grabowsky: The Isan up to its Integration into the Siamese State. In: Regions and National Integration in Thailand. 1995, pp. 114-115.
    5. Breazeale, Kennon. Thai provincial minority elites. Aspects of their expansion on the eastern borders in the nineteenth century. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the International Association of Historians of Asia. Chulalongkorn University Press, Bangkok 1979, pp. 1667-1691, at p. 1669.
    6. ^ Grabowsky: The Isan up to its Integration into the Siamese State. In: Regions and National Integration in Thailand. 1995, p. 122.
    7. ^ Grabowsky: The Isan up to its Integration into the Siamese State. In: Regions and National Integration in Thailand. 1995, p. 124.
    8. ^ Grabowsky: The Isan up to its Integration into the Siamese State. In: Regions and National Integration in Thailand. 1995, p. 107.
    9. Paitoon Mikusol: Administrative Reforms and National Integration. The Case of the Northeast. In: Regions and National Integration in Thailand. 1995, p. 150.
    10. Walter Skrobanek: Buddhist politics in Thailand. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1976, p. 82.
    11. ^ Grabowsky: Brief history of Thailand. 2010, pp. 136-138.
    12. ^ Federico Ferrara: The Political Development of Modern Thailand. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2015, p. 128.
    13. Gunter Willing: On the history of the Communist Party of Thailand from its beginnings to 1947. In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement No. 1/2006, pp. 22-36, on p. 28.
    14. ^ Alan Collins: The Security Dilemmas of Southeast Asia. Macmillan, Basingstoke (Hampshire) 2000, p. 65.
    15. Thak Chaloemtiarana: Thailand. The Politics of Despotic Paternalism. Cornell Southeast Asia Program, Ithaca (NY) 2007, pp. 38-39.
    16. ^ David Brown: The State and Ethnic Politics in South-East Asia. Routledge, London / New York 1994, chapter “Internal colonialism and ethnic rebellion in Thailand”, pp. 109–142
    17. General Saiyut Koetphon, 1976, quoted from Luther: Regional Identity versus National Integration - Contemporary Patterns of Modernization in Northeastern Thailand. In: Regions and National Integration in Thailand. 1995, p. 183.
    18. ^ Charles Keyes: Opening Reflections. Northeastern Thai Ethnoregionalism Updated. In: Tracks and Traces. Thailand and the Work of Andrew Turton. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2010, pp. 22-23
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