A Fleet ( n , also Fleth as well as occurring in many other spellings; from and. Fliot , mnd. Vlêt , vlît , nnd. Fleet , hd. Fließ , to flow ) was the name of a natural watercourse in the Elbmarschen , which flowed into the Elbe or one of its tributaries. The same applies to the Wesermarschen . Canals in this sense have mostly disappeared due to the dike in the marshes in the Middle Ages or have at least been greatly changed; Often only place names such as B. Bahren- , bars- , Beiden- , Bors- , dams , ELS or Wewelsfleth . Today, the North German name Fleet stands primarily for the still existing, but heavily changed or artificially created water connections in Hamburg , Glückstadt and Bremen .) (
Fleete in Hamburg
In Hamburg, the different spellings such as Fleth , Flet or Fleet were standardized by a Senate resolution of September 27, 1946; the spelling Fleet was chosen . It was published in the Law and Ordinance Gazette and thus became valid on January 15, 1947.
The Hamburg canals arose partly from the estuary arms of the Alster and Bille into the Elbe, which were then used for drainage and as city ditches for defense; on the other hand, they were created as further overflow ditches of the later dammed Alster. After all, the canals were increasingly used for the movement of goods .
In contrast to an artificially created canal , the water level in Hamburg's canals was initially not regulated by sluices , but fluctuated with the tide , which led to silt deposits , which the Fleetenkieker ( flat German: Kieker "peeper") profession was tasked with removing . From 1555 onwards, Fleetenkieker had to ensure that the barges and barges had sufficient water depth on behalf of the Düpe Commission ( Plattdt . Düpe "depth") . Later, the name was passed on to all people who searched the canals and their banks for usable waste.
Here the houses of the wealthy merchants - mostly residential, office and warehouse at the same time - were built with the rear facing the canal and the front facing the street, often on both sides with appropriate lifting devices for loads. The cargoes of the ocean-going vessels were initially transferred to smaller barges and brought to their destination via the canals for intermediate storage or further processing. For further dispatch, the goods were later returned by water or laboriously over land.
The canal waterways thus formed an important transport network for the transport of goods. They were also used to remove water and to dispose of faeces and rubbish, which resulted in a corresponding odor development and hygienic problems. As part of renovation measures, smaller or less usable canals of the up to 29 canals were filled in as early as the 19th century, especially after the Hamburg fire , but also after the Second World War to remove the rubble from the houses destroyed by bombs and as part of road expansion .
The canals (and canals in the area of the Bille) opposite the Elbe can be shut off with locks for flood protection after the bad experiences from the storm surge in 1962 . The Nikolaifleet , at the back of Grimm, Catherine Street, as well as the Cremon Deichstraße located and still directly connected to the same falls at low tide usually dry, but can be protected at too high of accumulated flood.
The Alsterfleet and the Herrengrabenfleet connected to it are constantly kept at a minimum water level by the Alster locks due to their navigability. These are the Schaartorschleuse (under the Schaartorbrücke, at the old orphanage) and the Rathausschleuse on Reesendamm / Rathausmarkt (under the Schleusenbrücke).
The Herrengrabenfleet and the Bleichenfleet on the one hand and the Alsterfleet on the other hand include the so-called Fleetinsel , and the border between the old town and the new town also runs here .
Unless otherwise noted, the following canals / canals were filled in after the Second World War . The canals were usually named after the adjacent streets. Since earlier official names are missing, different names appear, or names are missing entirely.
- Hamburg old town and new town
- Klosterfleet , filled in after the fire in 1842. Runs south along the length of the Old Wall from Mönkedammfleet to the Kleine Alster at Johanniskloster on today's town hall market .
- Gerberstraßenfleet , filled in after 1842. Runs south of the undeveloped Gerberstraße on the canal side (on which the stock exchange and town hall are today) from Mönkedammfleet (north of the mill bridge) to the plan at the Johanniskloster (in front of today's town hall) or further to the formerly larger basin of the small Alster.
- Fleet between Mönkedamm- and Klosterfleet , filled in after 1842. Connecting fleet to the west behind Adolphsplatz.
- Rödingsmarktfleet , partially filled in in 1842 and completely filled in in 1886. Runs in the middle of today's Rödingsmarkt street under today's elevated railway viaduct from Graskeller / Großer Burstah with lock to Mönkedammfleet to the south, ending at the lock to the inland port on the quay (at the old orphanage).
- Deichstraßenfleet , led from the inland port between Rödingsmarkt and Deichstraße to Görttwiete at the rear to the Großer Burstah . Today there is the street "Steintwietenhof" with a preserved granary. The former course of the canal can also be seen on the back of the old buildings between Steintwiete and Willy-Brandt-Straße.
- Bäckerstraßenfleet , the western part of Reichenstraßenfleet with the confluence with Nikolaifleet .
- Reichenstrasse Fleet , filled in around 1866 to widen the Great and Small Reichenstrasse. Started with a bend north of the Brauerstraßenfleet and flowed over the Bäckerstraßenfleet into the Nikolaifleet .
- Gröningerstraßenfleet and eastern extension of the Brauerstraßenfleet (to Hopfensack). With the construction of Ost-West-Straße (today on Rödingsmarkt divided into Ludwig-Erhard-Straße and Willy-Brandt-Straße) after the Second World War , the merging canals were filled in. Just like Grönigerstrasse, Brauerstrasse itself also disappeared.
- Klingbergfleet (formerly the eastern extension of the Brauerstraßenfleet ), filled in with the construction of the Ost-West-Straße. The canal west of the Meßberg on the "Klingberg" road was part of the waterway between the Alster and the Oberhafen. In the Middle Ages, the mouth was secured as an opening in the city fortifications by the "Winserbaum". After 1850, mainly farmers from the Vier- und Marschlanden used the canal as access to the market on the Meßberg.
- Steckelhörnfleet partially, cross connection between Nikolaifleet and Zollkanal and on to the Speicherstadt
- Katharinenstrasse Fleet , filled in in 1946 . Today a “half” bridge forms the end.
- Outside the city center
- Hohe-Schaar-Fleet (referred to as Smalenfleet on a map from 1650 ), still shown on the map from 1702. It flowed into the Köhlbrand opposite the Köhlfleet and ran roughly in the area of today's Rethe . Only Hohe-Schaar-Straße still reminds of this name.
- Moorfleet , a former branch of the Elbe, is only remembered as a district name today.
- Alsterfleet , formerly only up to the Graskeller and further as Admiralty Street Fleet
- Bleach fleet
- Neuenwallfleet , connects Alsterfleet and Bleichenfleet
- Mönkedammfleet (parallel to this is the section of the "Ring" line U3 with the steepest gradient , see photo)
- Dovenfleet , originally a connection from the Oberhafen to the Zollkanal , later merged into it
- Kehrwiederfleet ( Speicherstadt )
- Brooksfleet , eastern extension of it
- Kleinfleet , branch to the Zollkanal, opposite the former Steckelhörnfleet
- Wandrahmsfleet , branching off from Kleinfleet
- St. Annenfleet , parallel to it, extends the Brooksfleet to the east
Holländischbrookfleet , further extension until it merges with the Wandrahmsfleet
- Before the construction of the Oberbaum Bridge after the Second World War, the Wandrahmsfleet and Holländischbrookfleet (formerly both still in the Freihafen ) flowed together at the Poggenmühle into the Sülze (already outside the Freihafen), which on the one hand provides access to the Oberhafen directly and via the Ericusgraben at the Teerhof and on the other hand (again in the free port area) was connected to the Brooktorhafen via the so-called Sülzedechfahrt.
- Mühlenfleet , former branch of the Elbe, today the Waltershofer Hafen - northeast of the Eurogate Container Terminal Hamburg (CTH) and southwest of the oldest Hamburg Container Terminal Burchardkai (CTB)
- Köhlfleet , also a former side arm of the Elbe parallel to it, forms the east bank of Finkenwerder and today offers the sole access to the Dradenauhafen. The former connection to the Köhlbrand was filled in, making Waltershof a peninsula
- Finkenwerder Fleet , south of the “Schotstek” road, insignificant as a waterway
- (Hohenwischer) Schleusenfleet , also known as Mahlbusen Hohenwisch , coming from Moorburg , flows into the Alte Süderelbe
Fleete in Bremen
In Bremen there are several, some smaller watercourses that Fleet are called. They usually represent the main drainage ditches of their respective drainage systems.
- Wolfgang Laur : Historisches Ortnamelexikon von Schleswig-Holstein , 2nd edition, Neumünster 1992, p. 251.
- Cf. Claus-Peter Hutter (Ed.): Sources, brooks, rivers and other flowing waters , Stuttgart / Vienna 1996, p. 40.