This continuation of bebop since mid-1950 was understood as an Afro-American counter-movement to West Coast jazz ( cool jazz ). The hard boppers simplified the technically challenging melody sequences of the bebop, but without giving up the intensity. For example, they used the fourth harmonic for this . In addition to the rhythmic drive of bebop, elements from soul and blues were recorded, which resulted in an overall "harder" style of play than the previous style. The traditional elements of the mentioned directions were technically developed to their limits. A subspecies of hard bop is soul jazz , which is even more straightforward.
Art Blakey and his Jazz Messengers were probably the best known representatives of this style for decades. Many hard boppers emerged from this band, such as the pianist Horace Silver (co-founder of the forerunner band of the Jazz Messengers), the trumpeter Clifford Brown and the saxophonist Lou Donaldson . Brown was also the co-director of the Max Roach Quintet, which was also instrumental in the development of this style. Musicians like the saxophonists Dexter Gordon , Sonny Rollins , Cannonball Adderley and the trombonists Curtis Fuller and JJ Johnson should also be mentioned here, but they can be assigned to other jazz styles. The same applies to Miles Davis and John Coltrane , who from 1956 added some hardbop-style pieces to their repertoire.
Important titles and musicians who interpret them
- Blues March (Art Blakey)
- Daahoud (Clifford Brown / Max Roach)
- Dat Dere (Art Blakey)
- Jordu (Clifford Brown)
- Love for Sale ( Miles Davis )
- Milestones (Miles Davis)
- Moanin ' (Art Blakey)
- Mosaic (Art Blakey)
- This Here (Cannonball Adderley)
- Turnpike (Clifford Brown, JJ Johnson)
- Work Song ( Nat Adderley )
- Nica's Dream (Horace Silver)
- Adams Apple (Wayne Shorter)
- 1953: Clifford Brown: Memorial Album (Blue Note Records)
- 1953: JJ Johnson: The Eminent Jay Jay Johnson , Volume 1 ( Blue Note Records )
- 1954: Art Blakey And The Jazz Messengers: A Night At Birdland (Blue Note Records)
- 1954: Horace Silver: Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers (Blue Note Records)
- 1956: Miles Davis, John Coltrane : Relaxin ' , Steamin' , Cookin ' , Workin' (Prestige)
- 1956: Sonny Rollins : Saxophone Colossus ( Prestige Records )
- 1957: John Coltrane: Blue Train (Blue Note Records)
- 1958: Art Farmer and Benny Golson : Modern Art (Blue Note Records)
- 1958: Cannonball Adderley and Miles Davis: Somethin 'Else (Blue Note Records)
- 1959: Curtis Fuller Jazztette: Blues-ette ( Savoy Records )
- 1961: Art Blakey and The Jazz Messengers: Mosaic (Blue Note Records)
- 1963: Dexter Gordon: Our Man In Paris (Blue Note Records)
- 1964: Horace Silver: Song for My Father (Blue Note Records)
- Joachim Ernst Berendt , Günther Huesmann: The jazz book. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt; Edition: 12th edition (1999), ISBN 3-596-10515-3 .
- Carlo Bohländer , Karl Heinz Holler, Christian Pfarr: Reclam's Jazz Guide . 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Reclam, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-15-010464-5 .
- David H. Rosenthal : Hard Bop - Jazz and Black Music 1955-1965 , Oxford University Press 2003, ISBN 0195085566 .