Ekkehard Jost describes the audience's interest in neobop by saying that "after the times of uncertainty caused by free jazz and the years of overstimulation caused by electric jazz " it appeared like "an oasis of peace, relaxation, security"; the neobop fit “quite obviously” to this “state of consciousness and ... the needs resulting from it”. The neobop built on a kind of bebop revival, which was largely shaped by the new quintet by Dexter Gordon and his record Homecoming (1976), when he appeared again in the USA for the first time after a long absence.
Training of the neobop
In its new edition of the book Jazz from 1991 describe Joachim-Ernst Berendt and Gunther Huesmann the neo-bop jazz both as a further development of a main stream, the groups were already twenty years earlier, and secondly as a style newly formed ensemble. The neobop movement of the 70s also spawned new groups, such as the quintet of Woody Shaw , who died in 1989 , which "made a significant contribution to the reconciliation of bebop on the one hand and modal play on the other".
For the numerous ensembles of the 1980s, which Berendt / Huesmann described as "groups of classicism of bebop", Blakey's various jazz messenger editions were considered a springboard for the groups that stylistically refined and expanded the bebop-oriented style of playing: the Wynton Marsalis Band , the Branford Marsalis Quartet, the Terence Blanchard / Donald Harrison Quintet, the Mulgrew Miller Band and the trumpeter Wallace Roney's group . The authors name the “idea of musical integration”, “to create cohesion and communicative density in a group” as the aim of these bands. The role model for the Blanchard / Harrison quintet was the second Miles Davis quintet of the 1960s.
Then came other bands like Nicholas Payton or Joshua Redman . Regardless of whether classic bebop themes are accepted or not, it is by no means a simple “ revival ”. Rather, the game differs significantly from that of the 1940s, as harmonic achievements of the intervening period (e.g. modal jazz improvisation ), new instrumental techniques (e.g. multiphonics or cluster chords ), but also better amplification (e.g. B. the use of flageolet tones or percussive effects allowed) significantly influence the structure and development of the pieces. A special attribute of neobop is the straight-ahead game.
- Joachim Ernst Berendt, Günther Huesmann: The jazz book. From New Orleans to the 21st century . Fischer, Frankfurt / M. 2005, ISBN 3-10-003802-9
- Ian Carr , Digby Fairweather , Brian Priestley : The Rough Guide to Jazz. Rough Guides, 2004. ISBN 1843532565 .
- Ekkehard Jost : Social history of jazz in the USA. Extended new edition 2001: Frankfurt 2003. ISBN 3-86150-472-3 .
- Carlo Bohländer , Karl Heinz Holler, Christian Pfarr: Reclam's Jazz Guide . 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Reclam, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-15-010464-5 .
- Wicke and Ziegenrücker wrote in the Handbuch der popular Musik (revised and expanded new edition, 2001, p. 354) about Neo-Bop : “... Jazz was played in the USA in the 1980s, which was essentially the bebop of the 1940s founded, which has been rediscovered by a generation of young musicians and combined with influences from contemporary jazz. Main representatives are the trumpeters Wynton Marsalis (born 1961), Terence Blanchard (born 1962), Brian Lynch (born 1972) [sic!] And Roy Hargrove (born 1970) as well as the saxophonists Kenny Garrett (born 1964), Bob Berg (1951–2002) and Courtney Pine (born 1964). "
- Jost, Social History of Jazz, p. 282
- You name groups around bebop musicians such as Art Blakey or Dizzy Gillespie , who processed the experiences made in the meantime as well as the band of McCoy Tyner , the Phil Woods Quartet and Herbie Hancock's formation VSOP with Wayne Shorter , Freddie Hubbard , Ron Carter and Tony Williams . The authors particularly describe the McCoy Tyner band as “a source of strength for the entire scene” - Berendt / Huesmann, p. 547 f.
- Carlo Bohländer comes to a similar definition in his Reclams Jazzführer (2000) on contemporary bebop (neobop): "Playing styles that make use of the experience of contemporary developments in jazz on the rhythmic and harmonic basis of bebop."
- Berendt / Huesmann, p. 556.
- Quoted from Berendt / Huesmann, p. 557 f.
- Jost, Social History of Jazz, p. 284