Jazz singing

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Jazz singing describes the interpretation of jazz with the means of singing and to that extent also specific forms of expression that have changed in the history of jazz .

Cassandra Wilson

Nature and definition of jazz singing

Carlo Bohländer sees jazz singing as "the most natural musical expression in jazz and the most important branch of Afro-American vocal music ". It is rooted in the spiritual , in the blues , and as far as swing is concerned, in the ragtime rhythm. “The vocal ideal of jazz is different from that of European music; the two are as different from each other as expression and beauty have always been in the history of art, ”wrote the music critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt in 1953 in the first edition of his jazz book . He notes that the singers (in the parlance of American jazz) are mostly called “vocalists” in order not to measure them against the standards of European tradition, and explains that the English language is particularly related to jazz , in the same way that the aria and the Italian belong together. The syllables of the English language are excellent means of articulation and syncopation in a swing-like manner .

Berendt regards it as a “jazz singing dilemma” to determine when an original jazz singing begins. Jazz originated from sung folk music. Much of the formation of jazz can be explained by the fact that the wind instruments imitated the sound of the human voice on their instruments. This becomes particularly clear in the growl effects of a Bubber Miley or in the bass clarinet play of an Eric Dolphy . On the other hand, jazz in its beginnings in New Orleans jazz is exclusively an instrumental music and has largely remained so, so that its standards and criteria are found from the instrumental side - including the standards of jazz singing.

The jazz vocalist treats his voice like an instrument - like a trumpet , trombone or a saxophone ; therefore the criteria that are important for European (folk) music are irrelevant for jazz singing, such as the purity of the voice or the vocal range, Berendt noted in 1976. Some of the most important jazz singers had rather "ugly" voices, such as Billie Holiday (1915–1959) or Louis Armstrong (1901–1971), who was also an instrumentalist. Since the first recording of Creole Love Call in 1927 with Adelaide Hall , who improvised with her voice obligato to the main melody, it has also been possible to sing without text in jazz.

In all jazz polls of the 1950s Frank Sinatra (1915-1998) was a leader, although he began his career in one of the classic swing bands, in Tommy Dorsey's orchestra. In the opinion of most critics, Sinatra is not a jazz singer, but his sensitivity and musicality set standards for almost everyone who came after him. " Crooners " like Johnny Hartman or Tony Bennett also worked with leading jazz musicians like Bill Evans or Coltrane and delivered significant results, similar to what folk singer Joni Mitchell did later in her collaborations with Jaco Pastorius , Wayne Shorter and other jazz musicians.

A stylistic feature such as scat is only of limited use in defining jazz singing ; One of the most important jazz singers, Sarah Vaughan (1924–1990) hardly used this stylistic device, but set standards through her rhythmic flexibility.

According to Berendt, the distinguishing feature of jazz and popular music is improvisation : “Of course, the song has to be sung so that it remains recognizable as such. Singers are also dependent on the lyrics of their songs. But in a certain sense there is also improvisation here: it lies in paraphrases, exchanges, adjustments, in alterations of the harmonization , in a special phrasing, ”wrote Berendt in 1973.

Billie Holiday

Berendt explained the importance of improvisation using the example of Billie Holiday's style: It “lies in paraphrases, exchanges, misrepresentations, in a special phrasing , in a whole arsenal of possibilities that she, as the most important master of this branch, commands”. Using the example of the song What a Little Moonlight Can Do , which she recorded with Teddy Wilson in 1935 , Berendt explains that in jazz it is less a question of “what” than “how”. Berendt sees Billie Holiday “at the center of jazz singing; her most important recordings with Lester Young and the great musicians of Swingzeit are the best examples of the fact that the dilemma of jazz singing only affects the minor singer and that art can emerge from the - often paradoxical - overcoming of this dilemma ”.

The blues

Joe Williams

Outside the dilemma of jazz singing , Berendt sees the blues as the root; From the beginning, the transitions between folk blues , as an area that is still outside jazz, and jazz were fluid. There were a number of singers who were thoroughly authentic blues vocalists, but were much more jazz than blues, such as Jimmy Rushing (1903-1972), singer with the Basie band in the 1930s. His theme song corresponded to his approach: "Swingin 'the Blues". This line continued Jimmy Witherspoon (1923-1997) or Joe Williams (1918-1999). Big Joe Turner (1911–1985) is linked to blues and boogie woogie , followed by champion Jack Dupree and Otis Spann . When the Blues in the wake of large migration of black people came to the big cities of the north of the USA, the heyday of the blues singers as began Ma Rainey (1886-1939) and Bessie Smith (1894-1937), which before the First World War before who were mainly on the move with minstrel shows , found an audience (also immigrant) in the cities who recognized the homely atmosphere of the south in their blues singing; Singers like Bertha "Chippie" Hill , Victoria Spivey and Sippie Wallace carried this era into the 1950s and 1960s.

Bessie Smith was considered the best known and most popular among the classic blues singers, the Empress of the Blues ; she “was the greatest of them all,” Alberta Hunter once said, “she was pretty wild and loud - but there was also some crying, no, not crying, but sadness in what she did. It was as if there was something that just had to get out of her ”.

In the late 1920s, jazz vocals changed from blues to songs ; this development had its roots in the tradition of Tin Pan Alley and Vaudeville .

Tin Pan Alley, talkies and the big swing bands

Popular songs in the first half of the 19th century often came from the church; with the American Civil War, these Negro Spirituals themselves inspired the marching chants. With industrialization came the invention of the gramophone and other means of reproducible music. At the end of the 19th century ragtime dominated America's musical life, and Scott Joplin sold his first songs in 1895. The military bands turned into orchestras. Music entertainment became an important industry.

In the first two decades of the 20th century, this developed rapidly: The first musical comedy ( musical ) with “Floradora” was created in November 1900. The blues got meaning through WC cell phones, Song Boss Crump . In 1911 Irving Berlin wrote Alexander’s Ragtime Band ; it wasn't a real rag, but it opened the door to the public acceptance of rhythms other than waltz , foxtrot or polka . The Florence Ziegfeld shows were even more influential, such as Showboat in 1927 and the first sound film The Jazz Singer in the same year. With the success of swing in the early 1930s, previously undreamt-of opportunities arose for African-American artists.

Ethel Waters

Ethel Waters (1896–1977) was one of the most successful black singers of the time. In 1933 she was the first black woman to get her own radio program and appeared in the Cotton Club with Stormy Weather ; In 1938 she performed at New York's Carnegie Hall , and the next year she was the first black artist to sing on a television show. Her singing was the inspiration and model for countless talents - both white and black - such as Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Bing Crosby, Mildrey Bailey, Connee Boswell and Maxine Sullivan. Today, Waters is seen as a transitional figure from blues to jazz singing; her early blues repertoire such as Down Home Blues (1921), Dinah (1925), Memories of You (1930) or Stormy Weather (1933) was interspersed with jazz elements. But even if she growled her lyrics , you could understand every word. Jimmy McPartland saw her in the musical comedy Miss Calico in 1927 and later said to Nat Shapiro and Nat Hentoff : “We were fascinated by her. We liked Bessie Smith a lot too, but Waters had more shine; she phrased so wonderfully, the natural quality of her voice was so beautiful ”.

In 1933, white band leader Benny Goodman recorded with Billie Holiday. In 1944, Norman Granz organized his first concert at the Los Angeles Philharmonic , where u. a. the singer Nat King Cole performed; out of this grew the extremely successful touring program JATP , in which there were no longer any racial boundaries. After the war ended, Ella Fitzgeralds was one of the top acts at JATP ; later Granz became its producer. Ella Fitzgerald developed the scat singing that Louis Armstrong had introduced in previously unimagined dimensions; d. This means that the voice was really used on an equal footing with the instrument.

In addition to Ethel Waters, other artists popularized jazz singing: Lena Horne (1917–2010), Maxine Sullivan (1911–1987), who sang in Claude Thornhill's orchestra, Mildred Bailey (1904–1951), who first sang with Paul Whiteman , then himself joined her husband's band Red Norvo , Helen Humes (1913-1981), who worked with Lester Young and Buck Clayton , then turned to rhythm and blues , and Ivie Anderson (1905-1949), who sang in the Duke Ellington Orchestra .

The repertoire that these singers offered were the popular songs of the Great American Songbook , melodies written by the great Tin Pan Alley composers such as Cole Porter , Jerome Kern , Irving Berlin and George Gershwin , all from the field of popular music Musical revues, of sound film and Broadway - musicals , but sung in the typical diction and phrasing manner of jazz.

The pre-war vocal groups

The Mills Brothers

A “footnote” to the rest of the singing genre, as Will Friedwald wrote in his book Swinging Voices , remained the vocal groups of the 30s and 40s. The lines of tradition of polyphonic singing drew less on jazz than on the harmonic systems of European music; "They never represented a serious alternative to solo singing or the instrumental group." Exceptions were the few jazz-influenced vocal groups, some recordings of the Rhythm Boys with Bing Crosby and his partners Harry Barris and Al Rinker , such as their title "Changes" ( Victor 1927) or "Rhythm King" ( Columbia 1928), then the vocal ensemble composed by Ed Kirkeby around the singer Smith Ballew , who took over several titles from the Crosby Trio as Eddie Lloyd and His Singing Boys with the California Ramblers as an accompanying group. Don Redman and Benny Carter formed a short-term vocal duo for the recording of the piece "Six or Seven Times" ( Okeh , 1928) .

The Boswell Sisters around the singer Connee Boswell with her sisters Martha and Vet (actually Helvetia), who began their careers in New Orleans in 1925, followed in the footsteps of the tradition, which was created in particular by Crosby's Rhythm Boys . Another group, the Mills Brothers , tried to imitate an entire orchestra with their different voices. Groups like the Spirits of Rhythm with Leo Watson and the guitarist Teddy Bunn ("My Old Man", 1933 on Brunswick) and the formation Cats and the Fiddle around Tiny Grimes worked similarly .

Bing Crosby (1942)

While the arrangements were in the foreground with the Boswells Sisters and the Mills Brothers, the latter groups put more emphasis on improvisation as well as on gospel and blues references, to be heard in "Shoutin 'in the Amen Corner" by the Spirits (1933) or in “I'd Rather Drink Muddy Water” by the Cats . The latter also realized the idea of ​​four voices as a saxophone setting ( gangbusters ). Friedwald's “Killing Jive”, “Public Jitterbug No. 1 ”and“ When I Grew Too Old to Dream ”, all recorded for Bluebird in 1939 .

These groups worked largely independently of the swing business at the time, even if there were isolated joint projects, such as the Boswell Sisters with the Victor Young Orchestra or the Mills Brothers with Don Redman's Orchestra. Jimmie Lunceford made another experiment when he recruited vocal groups from among his band members and used them in titles such as "Chillun 'Get Up" (1934), "Unsophisticated Sue" (1934) or "Cheatin' on Me" (1939). The Mel Tones around Mel Tormé were guest stars of the Artie Shaw Orchestra (1946, Musicraft) on their most important recordings . In 1947 saxophonist and band leader Charlie Ventura experimented with polyphonic band singing by forming his Bop for the People band and embedding the voices of Jackie Cain and Roy Kral in the context of a small jazz group ("Euphoria", 1947 and "Lullaby in Rhythm ", 1949). He did not focus on the vocalists, but on his soloists like Bennie Green or Conte Candoli .

the post war period

Ella Fitzgerald

In the forties and fifties, on the one hand, jazz singing was represented by song interpreters who adapted to the styles of their accompanying ensembles: in the tradition of Billie Holidays, after the end of the war, the young Sarah Vaughan sang with Earl Hines , Billy Eckstine and from the Bebop environment - Innovators like Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie , Mary Ann McCall (1919–1994), who came from the Woody Herman band, and June Christy (1926–1990), who sang in Stan Kenton's band, as well as Anita O'Day ( * 1919). Other white singers also joined this line of tradition, such as Peggy Lee , Carol Sloane , Chris Connor , Helen Merrill ; other important vocalists of this time were Shirley Horn , Carmen McRae , Dakota Staton and Dinah Washington . On the other hand, the scat singers were important: Ella Fitzgerald (1917–1996) already played a special role back then ; who had already taken over Chick Webb's orchestra (nominally) during the swing period and mainly appeared as a soloist after the war. She "expanded her swing scat with fabulous intonation security and vitality until it matched the bop ( Bob Scat )."

Babs Gonzales

Among the male singers of this era, there were almost only those who were primarily instrumentalists, such as Jack Teagarden (1905–1964) and Louis Armstrong. Most of the others who started somewhere in or near jazz have switched to the commercial sector, such as Bing Crosby , Frankie Laine , Perry Como , Matt Dennis or Mel Tormé , who always wavered between the two elements or combined them; he is considered the master of the songs in the American Songbook with titles like I'll Be Seeing You . Nat King Cole was a fine jazz vocalist as long as he was a pianist; nevertheless, a jazz expression always remained noticeable in his later commercial recordings for Capitol Records ; he influenced later border crossers between soul and jazz such as Ray Charles and Stevie Wonder .

The blues singing of Billy Eckstine (1914–1993) is associated with the emerging bebop by Parker / Gillespie ; Babs Gonzales , Eddie Jefferson , King Pleasure , Joe Carroll , Bob Dorough and Gillespie himself sang similarly . Earl Coleman and Jackie Paris (1926-2004), who experimented with Charles Mingus in the early 1950s , and the vocal conception of bebop, were other vocalists in this direction into cool jazz . Sheila Jordan (* 1928) also came from bebop , whose first works were texts on Parker titles. Lambert , Hendricks and Ross later worked similarly with their vocalese technique in the late 1950s when they sang solos for the Basie band ( Sing a Song of Basie ). The Kirby Stone Four ensemble mixed vocalese elements with swing and rock & roll . The main representative of cool was the extremely successful trumpeter and "gentle singer" Chet Baker with songs like I Remember You , My Funny Valentine or Stella by Starlight, which polls dominated. Later, Aretha Franklin and Betty Carter , as well as Al Jarreau , continued these traditions by various means in the 1970s and 1980s.

Changed sound ideals

Sheila Jordan (1985)

In free jazz there were “no more singing stars”; Orientation towards blues singing as well as the performance of songs became obsolete. Songs came mainly in the form of quotations; on the other hand, the recitation of poems and other, initially often programmatic or religious texts, became important. “Here the vocalist is one musician among others; his voice is nothing but an instrument that is used in a similar way to the other instruments. ”This leads to a previously unknown expansion of the vocal expressive possibilities: Abbey Lincoln was the first to use screaming and groaning (on We Insist! Freedom Now Suite ). Sheila Jordan developed extreme phrasing and heightened Bop Scat through the Tristano -Schule ; Jeanne Lee studied the articulation of noises and the sound and percussiveness of words; Jay Clayton brought experience developed in New Music from John Cage to Steve Reich . Leon Thomas used a “melodic yodel that was eavesdropped on the African pygmies ”. Don Cherry and Alice Coltrane introduced Indian singing techniques. Even Lauren Newton (born 1953), with Mathias Rüegg's Vienna Art Orchestra worked initially came from the new music, but also the free play integral Jazz Frédéric Rabolds , who had the idea, "vocal sounds without reference to a text in a musical concept to integrate “The singers Maggie Nichols (* 1948) and Julie Tippetts or the singer Phil Minton (* 1940) are also influenced by the free jazz movement. The autodidact Urszula Dudziak (* 1943) was initially influenced by Krzysztof Komeda's ideas of jazz and fusion jazz before she used electronic devices to alter her voice and incorporate echo loops into her playing. She was one of the first singers to perform without an accompanying musician since 1982. Sainkho Namtchylak has included overtone singing in her improvisational music since 1988 .

Flora Purim

Using the example of the Brazilian singer Flora Purim , Berendt explained her stylistic principle: “The new singers have expanded the dimension of the voice as an instrument into areas that only a few years ago seemed unimaginable. For her, 'singing' does not mean 'singing', but also everything else: screaming and laughing and crying; the moans of sexual experience as well as childish chatter; the whole body, from the abdomen to the areas of the frontal sinus and the skullcap, becomes an instrument, becomes a vibrating sound exciter, becomes a sound 'body' ”. Sheila Jordan was the first to sing and produce sounds in such a way , with a "terrific satirical" (Berendt) You Are My Sunshine , which she recorded with the George Russell sextet. Later, Bobby McFerrin - beyond free jazz - developed the technique of extremely clean and fast register jumps. More recent singers such as Karin Krog (* 1937), Norma Winstone (* 1941), Dee Dee Bridgewater (* 1950), who became known in the early 1970s Thad Jones / Mel Lewis Orchestra , Cassandra Wilson (* 1955) or Erika Stucky (* 1969), using the new techniques, have re-introduced themselves more strongly to the traditional lines of song and blues interpretation. Tristano student Carla White initially achieved an interesting increase in intensity through permanent scat: “In singing, striving for the same freedom as improvising instrumentalists, she was able to string together seemingly senseless syllables for hours, and this so convincingly that Carla White was perhaps the greatest scat talent among the singers of her generation. ”With her dramatic talent in text interpretation, this resulted in an“ impressive mix ”from the mid-1980s. Dianne Reeves mixes jazz and rhythm and blues singing, sings a catchy scat improvisation style and appears mainly live and among them with symphony orchestras.

Women like the singer Diamanda Galas , who u. a. with Peter Kowald and John Zorn ( The Big Gundown worked), "brings those same total use of the body, emotions, and himself to a certain extent exhibitioniert ," the coordinator of the WDR wrote big band Annette Hauber about women in jazz in 1988 , "The men instill a certain unease and are pushed into the exotic drawer ."

Sidsel Endresen

On the other hand, there are now a number of young vocalists who break the boundaries between jazz , pop and the European (folk) song tradition; such as B. the Scandinavian vocalists Lena Willemark and Mari Boine on their ECM productions or Viktoria Tolstoy , who initially worked with Nils Landgren . Sidsel Endresen can, on the one hand, connect with the Scandinavian song tradition, but on the other hand, like her Polish colleague Marek Bałata, with the achievements of free vocal improvisation. The Portuguese Maria João integrates different styles such as world music , modern jazz, but above all Latin American and Brazilian music as well as avant-garde. Kip Hanrahan acted in a similar way in the 1980s with his ambitious fusion projects between Latin jazz , spoken song, underground lyric and pop, in which he worked with vocalists as diverse as Ismael Reed , Diahnne Abbott , Bobby Womack , Jack Bruce and the blues singer Taj Mahal worked together. So far, Norah Jones and Diana Krall have been most successful commercially at these border crossings . This is where Berendt's “Dilemma of Jazz Singing” comes in.

A selection of classic jazz songs

  • Ivy Anderson: It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing) (1932)
  • Louis Armstrong: When It's Sleepytime Down South (1931)
  • Chet Baker: My Funny Valentine (1954)
  • June Christy: Something Cool (1953)
  • Rosemary Clooney: Sophisticated Lady (1956)
  • Nat King Cole: Too Marvelous for Words (1947)
  • Chris Connor: All About Ronnie (1954), Where Flamingoes Fly (1961)
  • Billy Eckstine: Moonlight in Vermont (1960)
  • Ella Fitzgerald: Oh, Lady Be Good! , How High the Moon (1947), Mack the Knife (1960)
  • Billie Holiday with Benny Goodman: I Wished on the Moon (1935), What a Little Moonlight Can Do (1935)
  • Billie Holiday: Strange Fruit (1939), Don't Explain (1945)
  • Helen Humes: Stardust. I Got It Bad and That Ain't Good (1960) /
  • Peggy Lee: I'm Gonna Go Fishing (1960)
  • Lambert, Hendricks & Ross: I'm in the Mood for Love (1955)
  • Carmen McRae: Yesterdays. Trav'lin Light (1961)
  • Anita O'Day with Roy Eldridge : Let Me Off Uptown (1941)
  • Jimmy Rushing: Every Day I Have the Blues (1955)
  • Joya Sherrill : I'm Beginning to See the Light (1942)
  • Bessie Smith: Work House Blues (1924); Black Water Blues (1927)
  • Sarah Vaughan: Lullaby of Birdland (1954), Send In the Clowns (1973)
  • Dinah Washington: You Go to My Head (1954), What a Diff'rence a Day Makes (1959)
  • Ethel Waters: Dinah (1925), Am I Blue? (1929), Stormy Weather (1933)

Significant albums of jazz singing

  • Louis Armstrong & Ella Fitzgerald: Ella and Louis (1957)
  • Chet Baker: Let's Get Lost: the Best of Chet Baker Sings (1953-1956)
  • Dee Dee Bridgewater: Love and Peace: A Tribute to Horace Silver (1994)
  • Betty Carter: The Audience with Betty Carter (1979)
  • June Christy: Something Cool (1953-1955); The Misty Miss Christy (1955-1956)
  • Nat King Cole: The Vocal Classics 1942-1946. After Midnight (1956)
  • Billy Eckstine: Everything I Have Is Yours (1947–1957)
  • Ella Fitzgerald: Pure Ella (1950/54)
  • Billie Holiday: The Quintessential Billie Holiday 1936-1937
  • Bilie Holiday: Music for Torching (1956)
  • Sheila Jordan: Portrait of Sheila (1962)
  • Karin Krog and John Surman : Bluesand (1999)
  • Lambert, Hendricks and Ross: The Hottest New Group in Jazz (1959) (first as Lambert, Hendricks and Ross )
  • Jeanne Lee & Ran Blake : The Newest Sound Around (1961)
  • Bobby McFerrin: The Voice (1984)
  • Carmen McRae: Carmen McRae Sings Lover Man and Other Billie Holiday Classics (1961)
  • Helen Merrill: Helen Merrill with Clifford Brown and Gil Evans (1954-1956)
  • King Pleasure: King Pleasure Sings (1952–1954)
  • Flora Purim with Chick Corea : Light As a Feather (1973)
  • Jimmy Rushing: Rushing Lullabies (1958/59)
  • Mel Tormé: Mel Tormé Swings Shubert Alley (1960)
  • Sarah Vaughan: Sarah Vaughan with Clifford Brown (1954)
  • Sarah Vaughan: Swinging Easy (1954/57)
  • Dinah Washington: Dinah Jams (1954)
  • Cassandra Wilson: Blue Skies (1988)
  • Norma Winstone: Somewhere Called Home (1986)

See also

Unknown jazz singer in one of the 52nd Street jazz clubs . Photograph by William P. Gottlieb (around 1948)


  • Andre Asriel : Jazz. Aspects and Analysis. Lied der Zeit, Berlin 1985, DNB 890102724
  • Joachim-Ernst Berendt : The Jazz Book . Frankfurt / M., Fischer Bücherei, 1953 and Frankfurt / M., Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag 1973.
  • Joachim-Ernst Berendt, Günther Huesmann: The jazz book . Fischer TB, Frankfurt 1994, ISBN 3-596-10515-3 .
  • Joachim-Ernst Berendt: A window made of jazz. Fischer TB, Frankfurt 1989, ISBN 3-596-23002-0 .
  • Ken Bloom: The American Songbook - The Singers, the Songwriters, and the Songs - 100 Years of American Popular Music - The Stories of the Creators and Performers. Black Dog & Leventhal, New York City 2005, ISBN 1-57912-448-8 .
  • Carlo Bohländer , Karl Heinz Holler, Christian Pfarr: Reclam's Jazz Guide . 4th, revised and supplemented edition. Reclam, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-15-010355-X .
  • Ute Büchter-Römer : New Vocal Jazz: Investigations into contemporary improvised music with the voice on the basis of selected examples . Publishing house Peter Lang, Frankfurt a. M. 1991.
  • Jay Clayton: Sing Your Story: A Practical Guide for Learning and Teaching the Art of Jazz Singing Advance Music 2001.
  • Ian Carr , Digby Fairweather , Brian Priestley : Rough Guide Jazz. The ultimate guide to jazz. 1800 bands and artists from the beginning until today. 2nd, expanded and updated edition. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-476-01892-X .
  • Richard Cook , Brian Morton : The Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD . 6th edition. Penguin, London 2002, ISBN 0-14-051521-6 .
  • Will Friedwald: Swinging Voices of America - A Compendium of Great Voices. Hannibal, St. Andrä-Wölker 1992, ISBN 3-85445-075-3 .
  • Will Friedwald: Jazz Singing: America's Great Voices From Bessie Smith To Bebop And Beyond. Scribners, New York 1990. (also: Da Capo Press, 1996, ISBN 0-306-80712-2 ).
  • Leslie Gourse : Louis' Children - American Jazz Singers. Morrow, New York 1984, ISBN 0-688-02241-3 . (Improved reprint. Coopers Square Press, 2001).
  • Kitty Grime: Jazz Voices. Quartet Books, London 1983, ISBN 0-7043-2390-7 .
  • Annette Hauber: Women in Jazz. In: That's Jazz. The sound of the 20th century . Exhibition catalog. Darmstadt 1988.
  • John Jörgensen, Erik Wiedemann : Jazz Lexicon . Mosaic, Munich 1967.
  • Martin Kunzler : Jazz Lexicon. Reinbek, Rowohlt 1988.
  • Judy Niemack : Hear It And Sing It! Exploring Modal Jazz . 2nd Floor Music, 2004, ISBN 0-634-08099-7 .
  • Arrigo Polillo: Jazz. Piper, Munich 1981.
  • Michele Weir: Jazz Singer's Handbook: The Artistry and Mastery of Singing Jazz . Alfred Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-7390-3387-5 .

Web links

References and comments

  1. Bohländer u. a .: Reclams Jazzführer 1990, p. 390.
  2. Berendt 1953, p. 180.
  3. Bohländer, p. 390.
  4. cit. after Berendt / Huesmann, p. 477.
  5. ^ New edition of the Jazzbuch: Von Rag bis Rock , 1973, p. 295.
  6. Berendt 1973, p. 296.
  7. Kunzler, p. 1218; Asriel, p. 201.
  8. a b quot. after Berendt 1973, p. 307.
  9. Berendt 1973, p. 308.
  10. cit. after A. Hauber, p. 704.
  11. Handy used it in a political campaign; he later called it The Memphis Blues . Bloom, p. 165.
  12. cit. according to Bloom, p. 130 f.
  13. cit. after Bloom, p. 132.
  14. Bloom, p. 162 ff.
  15. A. Hauber, 707.
  16. Quoted from Friedwald, Swinging Voices , p. 132 f.
  17. Friedwald, p. 129.
  18. Friedwald, p. 131 f.
  19. ^ Asriel, p. 204.
  20. Berendt / Huesmann, p. 1991, p. 481.
  21. cit. according to Kunzler p. 65.
  22. ^ Asriel, p. 224.
  23. Büchter-Römer, p. 76.
  24. Berendt, Ein Fenster aus Jazz, pp. 89 ff.
  25. Younger musicians like Michael Schiefel combine these achievements with the electronic loop techniques perfected by Urszula Dudziak, Jay Clayton and David Moss .
  26. Marcus Woelfle Carla White , Jazzzeitung 3/2007
  27. cit. after A. Hauber, p. 701.
  28. The selection of the songs was largely based on the works of Bloom and Cook / Morton.
  29. The selection of the albums was based on The Penguin Guide to Jazz by Cook / Morton.