The Sharon Plain or Valley or Saron Plain ( Hebrew השרון HašŠarōn ) is a plain on the Israeli Mediterranean coast. In older literature (before 1948) and in Christian theological writings, the spelling Saron predominates , which - as with so many Hebrew names - derives from the transliteration first into Greek and then into Latin . Greeks and Romans knew the sh-sound (phonetic: [ ʃ ] ) and not simply handed him the letter " Σ again" or "S".
Location and development
In a north-south direction, the plain extends from the southern foothills of the Carmel Mountains over 50 kilometers along the Mediterranean to the Jarkon River . With an average width of 15 kilometers, it extends in the east to the mountains of Samaria . The largest places in the area of the plain are Hadera , Netanya , Herzlia , and at the southern end Petach Tikwa and Tel Aviv .
Due to the sand dunes on the coast, the plain becomes marshy. In earlier centuries it was still settled due to targeted drainage . In the Song of Solomon ( Hld 2,1 ELB ) and in the book of Isaiah ( Isa 35,2 ELB ) the fertile plain and the rose of Saron are praised, which animated many later poets to imitate. In the dunes comes the dune funnel narcissus ( Hebrew חבצלת החוף), which because of the Hebrew name of the Rose of Sharon (חבצלת השרון) is often identified with it today.
The most famous city was Caesarea Maritima , founded by Herod the Great , which was the capital of the province of Palestine in Roman and Byzantine times . Later the drains fell into disrepair ; In the last few centuries the plain was criss-crossed by swamps, which is why malaria was widespread. The area was accordingly sparsely populated and was used more for pasture farming. There were comparatively few villages of the native Arab population in the coastal strip; the places were mostly further inland on the edge of the mountains.
With the beginning of immigration in the 19th century, new settlements emerged and land was increasingly made usable for agriculture. The beginning was made in 1852 by colonists from West Prussia and the Bergisches Land (including Friedrich Großsteinbeck, 1821–1858, great-uncle John Steinbecks ). Then in 1866 colonists came from Maine and founded the then Adams City (now English American Colony ; Hebrew המושבה האמריקאית, transliterated: haMōšavah haAmerīqa'īt ; Arabic امليكان, DMG Amelīkān ) called settlement before Jaffa , which is now between today's streets Rechōv Eilat (רחוב אילת) and Rechōv haRabbī mi- Bacharach ( Hebrew רחוב הרבי מבכרך) is in Tel Aviv-Jaffa.
After most of the settlers of both initial colonies had emigrated to the USA, the Württemberg Templars took over in 1869 and founded another named Sarona in 1871 , which was named after the plain. With the following Aliyot (Jewish immigration) towards the end of the 19th century, further areas were deliberately drained and many other Jewish settlements mentioned below (in the Atlas Mosheh Bravers, see section Literature ) were founded (initially as Moshavot , later mainly as Moshavim and kibbutzim ).
Today, apart from the major cities, the Sharon Plain is the most densely populated area of Israel. It is used intensively for agriculture, especially for growing citrus fruits , but also avocados , cotton, vegetables and wine . The sharon fruit cultivated in this area, a variant of persimmon , was named after the plain.
Excavations at En Esur by 2019
During 2.5 years of emergency excavations before road works, the remains of a 5000 year old city with a temple were found in the northern part of the Sharon Plain in En Esur . According to a communication from the Israel Antiquities Authority dated October 6, 2019, the excavation directors described the find as "early Bronze Age New York (the) region". The planned built city covers 65 hectares and offered space for around 6,000 residents. Underneath are the remains of a 7,000 year old settlement.
Names after Sharon
- Hod Hasharon , city in the plain of Sharon
- Mishmar Hasharon , kibbutz in the Sharon plain
- Lev Hasharon , district in the heart of the Sharon Plain
- Ramat Hasharon , city in the Sharon plain
- Rose von Saron (see above)
- New Israelite youth library "Saron" , a series of publications by the Leipziger Kaufmann-Verlag (around the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries)
- Societatea culturalǎ «Saron» , cultural association in Bucharest (1st third of the 20th century)
- Sarona , a place founded by Templars on the Sharon plain, in 1947 in Tel Aviv
- Sharon fruit
- Georg Beer : Saron 3 . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume II A, 1, Stuttgart 1921, Col. 32.
- Alexander Brandt: To the Saron Plain and the Saronic Gulf. A. Kriedte in Komm., Graudenz 1896.
- Mosheh Braver (מושה ברוור): אטלס ומדריך, ערי השרון: נתניה, הרצליה, רמת השרון, כפר שמריאהו, כפר סבא, רעננה, הוד השרון, פתח תק הו ו, ראש היוין, אוויר העיוא, דוור הדיןו(translit .: Aṭlas û-mādrîḵ, ʿārê haš-Šārôn: Netanyā, Herṣliyyā, Rāmat-haš-Šārôn, Kefār-Šemaryāhû, Kefār-Sāv'a, Raʿanānā, Hôd-haš-Šāḥrôn, Hôd-haš-Šāḥrôn, Petār-hôn ʿAyin, Ôr-Yehûdā, Qiryat-Ônô, Yehûd, we-ʿôd; Atlas and guides of the cities of Sharon: Netanya, Herzlia, Ramat Hasharon, Kfar -Schmaryahu, Kfar Saba , Ra'anana , Hod hascharon, Petach Tiqua, Rosh HaAjin , Or Yehuda , Kiryat Ono , Yehud etc.). Yavne, Tel Aviv 1985.
- Eli Schiller (אלי שילר): חדרה וסביבתה: פרק השרון(translit .: Ḥadērā û-sevîvātā: parq haš-šārôn; Hadera and its surroundings: The Sharon Park). Ari'el, Jerusalem 1993, erusalem: (Ari'el; Volume 95/96)
- Aryeh Yitzchaki (אריה יצחקי): מדריך ישראל: אציקלופדיה שימושית לידיעת הארץ, השרון, דרום מישור החוף וצפון הנגב(translit .: Madrîk Yiśrā'ēl: enṣîqlôpedyā šîmmûšît le-yedîʿat hā-Areṣ, haš-Šārôn, derôm mîšôr ha-ḥôf û-ṣefôn han-Negev; Israeli Plain: Practical Guide to the Knowledge of the Southern Encyclopedia; North of the Negev). Keter, Jerusalem 1979.
- Gottlieb Cober: Heart-feeling flowers and heart-inducing apples: From the ... pleasure garden of salvation. Writings ... and The Sulamithin, who fell in love with the flower of Saron, In silver bowls foregone. Erasmus Kallenbach, Leipzig 1720.
- The song of the dance at Saron as the little brothers song book Anderer Part. without author, Drukts, in the Brothers Court , Joh.Jacob Würz, London 1754.
- In the Tale Saron: poems with a Jewish-religious content, as well as Hebrew prayers, songs, sayings and Bible passages in free poetic translation. Max Herschel (transfer), M. Poppelauer, Berlin 1905.
- Leo Hirschfeld: The glory of Carmel and Saron's ( Isa 35,2 ELB ) [הדר הכרמל ושהשרון Hadar hak-Carmel we-haš-Šārōn ; German]. Roth, Giessen 1898.
- Ludwig Philippson : Saron: collected seals. 3. Edition. Wallerstein, Leipzig 1857 (book of novels / by Phöbus and Ludwig Philippson; Volume 1).
- Erik Johan Stagnelius : Liljor i Saron och sex andra dikter. Fabel-Förlag Widstrand, Stockholm 1997, ISBN 91-7842-215-9 .
- Jean Tharaud , Jérome Tharaud: La Rose de Saron. Plon, Paris 1927.
- For example, Šimʿōn = Simon, Ješuʿa = Jesus, Jerūšalajim = Jerusalem etc.
- Saron . In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition. Volume 17, Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig / Vienna 1909, p. 616 .
- Saron . In: The Great Brockhaus: Handbook of Knowledge in twenty volumes . 21 volumes. 15th edition. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1928–1935, Volume 16: Roq – Schq, p. 455.
- Ejal Jakob Eisler (איל יעקב איזלר): The German contribution to the rise of Jaffa 1850–1914: On the history of Palestine in the 19th century (Treatises of the German Palestine Association, Volume 22) Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1997, ISBN 3-447-03928-0 , p. 54 f. and footnote 203 on p. 50.
- Ejal Jakob Eisler (איל יעקב איזלר): The German contribution to the rise of Jaffa 1850–1914: On the history of Palestine in the 19th century (= treatises of the German Palestine Association; Volume 22). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1997, ISBN 3-447-03928-0 , p. 77 ff.
- Archaeologists in Israel find a 5,000 year old city orf.at, October 6, 2019, accessed October 7, 2019.
- 5000 year old huge metropolis exposed in northern Israel . afp.com. October 7, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.