|antique||[ s, z ] |
|modern||[ s ] |
|From the ancient world||s|
|From the modern||s|
1 at the end of the word
The Greek letter Sigma ( Greek neuter Σίγμα , majuscule Min , minuscule in the word σ , minuscule at the end of the word ς ) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet and, according to the Milesian system, has the numerical value 200. In the Greek language it is called the voiceless “ S " spoken.
Origin and derivatives
The Phoenician alphabet had four letters for sibilants . The Greeks adopted two of them for their S-sound, but they never appeared at the same time in one of the different ancient Greek alphabets. The letter Samech was used in the Ionic alphabet as X with the sound value ksi . His name, however, was transferred in a slightly modified form to the Phoenician letter "Sin", which was now called Sigma in Greek.
In Hellenistic times , the letter in manuscripts to today as was lunares Sigma (lunar " crescent-shaped ") simplified form designated (originally only as Majuskel Σ for Unziale , from the minuscule ς ), which in late antiquity and the Byzantine Empire to most used form and is still common today in the ecclesiastical context ( Orthodox churches ). Both the Coptic semma ( Ⲥ / ⲥ ) and the Cyrillic Es ( С / с ) are derived from this letter form , while the Latin S is derived from the common capitals via the Etruscan form .
- as a small sigma σ
- in quality management Six Sigma (3.4 errors per million possible errors)
- in physics
- in materials science
- a very brittle phase in the Fe-Cr system
- the tension
- in computer science
- in math
- in the statistics for the standard deviation of the population
- in mathematical number theory for a partial sum
- in functional analysis for the spectrum of a linear operator
- in measure theory that a property or axiom extends from finite to countable index sets .
- for number walls as a designation for the number of basic cells
- in chemistry
- in biology
- in phonology
- for one syllable
- in microeconomics
- as a sign of the elasticity of substitution
- in structural geology
- to name a clast type (see Sigma-Klast )
- as a capital sigma Σ
- Identifier in physics for a Σ-baryon .
- Symbol in physics for a frame of reference .
- Symbol in mathematics for sum or signature .
- Symbol in statistics for the covariance matrix
- Symbol in theoretical computer science for an alphabet
- In astronomy , the sigma is the speed at which the stars move at the very edge of a galaxy .
- as a word sigma
- Socrates ( Σωκράτης , ancient Greek pronunciation Sōkrátēs , today's Greek Sokrátis )
- Lunar Sigma:
Unicode output of the variants
- Majuskel Σ (Unicode U + 03F9: "GREEK CAPITAL lunate SIGMA SYMBOL")
- Minuscule ϲ (Unicode U + 03F2: "GREEK LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL")
There is also a dotted version of this:
- Majuskel Ͼ (Unicode U + 03Fe: "GREEK CAPITAL DOTTED lunate SIGMA SYMBOL")
- Minuscule ͼ (Unicode U + 037C: "GREEK SMALL DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL")
- Majuskel Ͻ (Unicode U + 03FD "GREEK CAPITAL REVERSED lunate SIGMA SYMBOL")
- Minuscule ͻ (Unicode U + 037B: "GREEK SMALL REVERSED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL")
- Majuskel Ͽ (Unicode U + 03FF "GREEK CAPITAL REVERSED DOTTED lunate SIGMA SYMBOL")
- Minuscule ͽ (Unicode U + 037D: "GREEK SMALL REVERSED DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL")