List of mixed natures

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The following list, including thematic explanations and additional information, also on Talmudic development, includes the 60 and 63 tracts of the Mishnah .

The three tracts Bava qamma , Bava metzi'a and Bava batra in the order Nesiqin / Damages originally formed a treatise, as did the treatises Sanhedrin and Makkot.

The tracts for which there is a Gemara in the Babylonian Talmud have been marked with a b ; if there is a Gemara in the Jerusalem Talmud, j . An asterisk denotes an incomplete Gemara in the respective Talmud.

Order Seraʿim סֵדֶר זְרָעִים (Seeds, seeds)

Talmud, Berachot.

1.1 Treatise Brachot מַסֶּכֶת בְּרָכוֹת("Blessings", "Blessings") bj ; comprises 9 chapters: Benedictions and other prayer regulations, agricultural regulations, naming the name of God in the greeting; also contains a “dream book” (bT 55a-57b, but already has Palestinian sources). The only mixed treaty of the Zeraim order, for which there is Gemara , apparently because the laws related to agriculture only applied in Palestine. In the narrower sense, the treatise does not belong to the order Zera'im , but rather it is at the beginning of the entire Mishnah because of its special meaning. It is therefore explained in both the Talmud Bavli and the Talmud Jeruschalmi .

1.2 Treatise Pe'a מַסֶּכֶת פֵּאָה("Corner") j ; 8 Chapter: Field corners / field corners for the poor, poor law in general; Gleanings; Forgotten; the poor tenth; the traveling poor

1.3 Tract Dmai מַסֶּכֶת דְּמַאי("Doubtful") j ; 7 chapters: doubtfully titled, fruit titled or not; when later?

1.4 Treatise Kil'ajim מַסֶּכֶת כִּלְאַיִם(“Two things”, “heterogeneous”, “different”, “mixtures”) j ; 9 Chapter: deals with the unauthorized mixing of different species of a genus, especially plants (mixed seeds) and animals (animal crossbreeds), mixed fabrics [Mixing prohibited in three areas: Animals: Animals of different species should not mate (use but permitted). Do not clamp ox and donkey together in front of the plow (according to Dtn 22.10  EU , "ox and donkey" refers to all animals in all places). Plants: The fields should not be sown with two different types. Trees are not meant to be grafted to improve the species. No other plants may be grown in the vineyard (use of such a yield is strictly prohibited). Clothes / fabrics: When mixing fabrics, the Torah only forbids mixing wool and flax / linen (in one item of clothing; they can be worn together, e.g. wool sweaters over linen shirts). Such a mixed fabric is called Schatnes (Schaatnes). Those who strictly observe the prohibition also apply it to sofas, armchairs and other upholstered furniture]; about bastards

1.5 Schviʿit treatise מַסֶּכֶת שְׁבִיעִית(“Seventh”, “Seventh Year”) j ; comprises 10 chapters: the seventh year, sabbath year ; Schemitta / Schmitta, "Decree", in the Pentateuch law - year of fallow (rest) of the soil, recurring every seven years (after seven sabbatical years a jubilee year ); False year (year of jubilee): In Judaism, the number seven has a very special weight. The seventh day is the holy day of rest; the seventh year (fallow year) is the year the land is fallow. The laws for the fallow year are extensive and complicated. Above all, we are dealing with three things here: 1) the ban on cultivating the land in the seventh year; 2) renouncing the harvest and fruits of that year; 3) debt relief at the end of the seventh year; Prosbul, statement in court = pros boulen that one can claim back the debt at any time; the regulations for the fallow year are closely related to those for the Jubilee year. - Jubilee year: It takes place after seven seven-year cycles once every 50 years. In that year the purchased land will be returned to its original owner, Hebrew slaves will be released and day laborers laid off, the land will not be cultivated and the harvest will be foregone as in the seventh year. The law on the Jubilee year does not apply again until all of Israel lives in its own country. The Jubilee year is announced by shofar blowing

1.6 Trumot treatise מַסֶּכֶת תְּרוּמוֹת("Charges", "Lifting", "Lifting gifts") j ; 11 chapters: about the lifting / priest lifting, fees to priests ( Kohanim ) and Levites

1.7 Tract Maʿasrot / Maʿaser rischon מַסֶּכֶת מַעֲשֵׂרות(“First tenth” / “ tenth ”) j ; Chapter 5: Tithe, tithing, taxes on the landless Levites

1.8 Maʿaser Scheni מַסֶּכֶת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי(second tithe (s), submission of the second tithe) j ; includes 5 chapters; to consume the second tithe or its monetary value in Jerusalem; the fourth year of the vineyard; The removal (bi'ur) of the tithe

1.9 Treatise Challah מַסֶּכֶת חַלָּה(“First Cake”, “Dough”) j ; Chapter 4: Dough lifting ( Challah ): Separation of the firstfruits gift from the bread dough, only commanded in Israel, and only when the whole people have come there. But it has already been followed abroad so that it is not forgotten. The challah is separated from the dough after kneading. It consists only of the dough of one of the five types of grain and water. The minimum amount from which a challah must be secreted is around 1,700 grams. For this purpose it is called a blessing . If the amount of dough is less, but at least 1,200 grams, challah is secreted, but in this case no benediction is spoken. The amount secreted today is the size of an olive. It is generally burned. No challah is set on Shabbat or on public holidays. The secretion of the challah is a housewife's duty. In bakeries, pastry shops and public kitchens, a man has to take on this task if there is no woman in the entire establishment. The commandment to set apart the challah is one of three commandments that only apply to women (1. secreting the challah, 2. the nida and 3. lighting the lights on the Sabbath evening)

1.10 treatise Orla מַסֶּכֶת עָרְלָה("Foreskin", "uncircumcised") j ; 3 chapters: "Foreskin" of trees, tree pruning, over three years of closed season for tree fruits etc. ( Lev 19,23-25  EU )

1.11 Treatise Bikkurim מַסֶּכֶת בִּכּוּרִים("First Fruits") j ; Chapter 3: Offering the First Fruits to Shavuot ; many Mishna and Talmud texts add a fourth chapter on the hermaphrodite (androgynous)

Okay Mo'ed סֵדֶר מוֹעֵד (Festival times, festival day)

2.1 Treatise Shabbat מַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּת(Shabbat, Sabbath = "rest", "pause") bj * ; includes 24 chapters, regulations on Shabbat

2.2 Eruvin's treatise מַסֶּכֶת עֵרוּבִין("Mixtures") bj ; Chapter 10: Shabbat areas, Shabbat boundaries, is about the Eruv , (Hebrew "union"), a construction to facilitate the strict Sabbath regulations; z. B. Theoretical connection between the private and the public areas of the house and yard in order to enable objects to be carried within an entire urban area - otherwise only allowed in the house; by placing food at the end of the Sabbath path (2000 cubits) one establishes a “residence” from which one can walk another Sabbath path; Through the fictitious mixing of the courtyards, one can move from one private area to another after a meal made from joint contributions has been deposited in one of the apartments

2.3 Treatise Psachim מַסֶּכֶת פְּסָחִים("Pesachlämmer", "Pesachopfer") bj ; 10 chapters: deals with Passover a . from the Pesach offering; Removing the sourdough; Preparation of unleavened bread ; the bitter herbs; work permitted on set-up day ; Slaughter of the Pesach lamb and its preparation; Order of the Passover meal etc .; Fol. 49 a f. contemptuous reflections on the "common people"

2.4 treatise Schqalim מַסֶּכֶת שְׁקָלִים(“Shekel”, “Taxes”) j ; 8 chapters: about the temple tax (half shekel ) for the maintenance of the sanctuary ( 2nd temple ); Offering boxes in the temple, ark of the covenant , cleaning of the temple curtain , preciousness of the curtain in front of the sanctuary; this treatise contains a Gemarah only in T. Jeruschalmi

2.5 Tract Joma מַסֶּכֶת יוֹמָא(Aramaic “the day” = day of atonement) bj ; 8 chapter: deals with Yom Kippur ; Preparation of the high priest; Drawing of the two goats; three confessions of sins of the high priest and his three entry into the most holy place; Prohibitions for the day of atonement; through which there is atonement: sin offering, guilt offering, death, day of atonement, repentance

2.6 Treatise Sukkah מַסֶּכֶת סֻכָּה("Tabernacle", also plural: Sukkot) bj ; comprises 5 chapters: on the tabernacle and the feast of tabernacles ; Manufacture and condition of the festival hut; from eating and sleeping in her; the festive bouquet, lulav , etrog ; drawing water; the 24 priestly departments, their work with the offerings, their share in the offerings and showbread

2.7 Treatise Betza and Jom tov מַסֶּכֶת בֵּיצָה("Egg", after the first word; (less often) Jom tob , feast day, called) bj ; includes 5 chapters: about work on the Sabbath and feast day, about Sabbath food; Buying food on holidays, transporting food, prohibiting, making fire, etc.

2.8 Treatise on Rosh Hashanah מַסֶּכֶת רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה(New Year, New Year Festival) bj : 4 chapters; 4 × New Years: Nissan, Elul, Tischri, Schwat; Witnessing and sanctifying the new moon, shofar bubbles; Order of praise for the New Year : ten Malkhijjot, Bible verses in which the Kingdom of God is mentioned; ten zikhronot, Bible verses on the remembrance of God; ten shofarot, verses in which the shofar is mentioned

2.9 treatise Ta'anit or Ta'anijot מַסֶּכֶת תַּעֲנֶית / מַסֶּכֶת תַּעֲנִיּוֹת("Mortification", "fasting" / also plural Taanijot) bj ; 4 chapters: fasting, fast day, fasting regulations, etc. Ä .; when do you start praying for rain, when do you fast for rain? The seven-day fasts and associated prayers; on which days no fasting; when else is fasting; Choni the circle puller (famous anecdote, Choni draws a circle on the earth, stands in it and swears not to leave this circle until rain falls, which then comes: first too little, then too much, then the right amount ...); when to break the fast when it starts to rain; Regular memorial days: 17th Tammuz , 9th Ab , 15th Ab

2.10 Treatise Megilla מַסֶּכֶת מְגִלָּה("Scroll") bj ; 4 chapters: Esther scroll, scrolls, scripture reading, on the lecture of Megillat Esther on Purim, details on the Purim festival and on the interpretation of the Esther scroll; from selling sacred things; which texts are not allowed to be read publicly, which are not allowed to be translated

2.11 Tract Moʿed Qatan מַסֶּכֶת מוֹעֵד קָטָן("Half holiday") bj ; 3 chapters, qatan, small, distinguishes the Moed treatise from the order of the same name, sometimes also called Mashqin after the first word, “one irrigates”; over the interim holidays, days between the 1st and 7th day of Pesach or between the 1st and 8th day of the Sukkot festival, on which certain work is permitted. The treatise contains the few poetic texts that the Talmudim have handed down to us as a rarity: various mourning songs of a profane nature.

2.12 Chagiga treatise מַסֶּכֶת חֲגִיגָה("Festfeier", "Festofffer") bj ; Chapter 3: the three pilgrimage festivals, deals with the main duties at the three main festivals (shalosh regalim) Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot (which were observed by all Israel in Jerusalem at the time of the temple existence); Two biblical chapters that are not taught to everyone: Creation and Ezekiel's vision ; Differences of opinion regarding the smicha; ritual hand washing; 7 levels of purity and purity regulations

Okay Naschim סֵדֶר נָשִׁים (Women)

3.1 Jevamot treatise מַסֶּכֶת יְבָמוֹת(" Sisters -in-law", also vocalized as Javmut or Jabmut : " Schwägerschaft "; sometimes called Naschim: "Women"; Gemara ; 16 chapters): Levirate marriage (Jibbum: legally required marriage of a childless widow with the brother of the deceased man, Dt. 25 , Subject of the biblical Tamar and Ruth story ; the levirate marriage could be replaced by Chaliza [Ḥaliẓah "taking off": namely the shoe]; this ceremony later replaced the levirate entirely); Marriage bans; in addition, acceptance of Ammonites and others into the church; Position of proselytes; Refusal of a minor to stay with her husband; Witness to the death of a husband

3.2 Ktubbot treatise מַסֶּכֶת כְּתוּבוֹת(Marriage contracts, marriage certificates; actually: "the written", "wedding prescriptions") bj ; Chapter 13: deals with the marriage contract , kiddushin, formal engagement in which the marriage contract (ketuba) is signed, with which the woman is already legally married, although she is not yet allowed to live with the man before the repatriation, the actual wedding ( nissuin) took place under the chuppah (cf. further Kiddushin, 3rd order, 7th treatise); Ketubba is both the prenuptial agreement and the sum that it contains for the woman in the event of divorce or the death of the man; further: about the marriage of virgins; Penalty for rape of a girl; Duties of man and woman to one another; Possession of woman; Right of inheritance according to woman; Widow's rights

3.3 Tractate Nedarim מַסֶּכֶת נְדָרִים("Vows") bj ; Chapter 11: on vows [here the “commandment of patriotism” for the Jew, loyalty to the state is a religious regulation , is the law of God, Nedarim 28b]; Cancellation of vows; Qorban; four vows invalid from the outset; White lies; Interpretation of vows; what vows can a scholar make? Who can cancel the vows of a wife or daughter, which vows?

3.4 treatise Nasir or treatise Nesirut מַסֶּכֶת נָזִיר / מַסֶּכֶת נְזִירוּת("Nazarite") bj ; 9 chapters, also: Nezirut, "Nazarite vow": about the Nazarite, the Nazarite and his vow / asceticism at the time of the temple; Nasir = "consecrated", Nazarite who has made a voluntary vow to abstain from wine for a certain period of time and not to shear his hair but to let it grow long (Nu 6); also about Nazarite vows of women and slaves

3.5 (also: 3.6) Tract Sota מַסֶּכֶת סוֹטָה("The dissolute", "unfaithful": the woman suspected of adultery) bj ; 9 chapters; Laws on adultery (cf. No. 5); Execution of the order of jealousy before the great court of justice; Differences between Israelites and priests in rights and punishments; when do you not give the "water of jealousy" to drink? Formulas to be said in Hebrew only; Killing of a calf by breaking the neck if a killer remains unknown / not found (this custom later stopped with the rampant murder cases); in the appendix: Sign of the Messiah

3.6 (also: 3.5) treatise Gittin מַסֶּכֶת גִּטִּין("Divorce letters", "Divorce certificates") bj ; 9 Chapter: Divorce Law (Divorce, Issuance of the Get ); Also includes the story of Kamza and Bar-Kamza as an illustration of baseless hatred (ssinat chinam) ; some explanations on the main topic: Get, plural Gittin; Sefer keritut, the man's letter of divorce to woman. The woman must agree to the divorce. She can also put conditions on signature and monthly alimony payments before accepting the deed of divorce. - Aguna = "Chained", an abandoned wife whose husband refuses to grant a religious divorce, a get (there have been cases in which attempts have been made to force the man to agree to the divorce through - sometimes years - imprisonment ). The "aguna" is not allowed to remarry after the halacha as long as the death of the man has not been proven (a big problem, e.g. for those who disappeared in war). A religious divorce is only possible with the consent of the husband. From a religious point of view, women without a get (divorce letter) are still tied to their husbands despite civil divorce. They cannot remarry within Orthodoxy, and if they do it outside, any children from that marriage will not be recognized as legitimate. Men, on the other hand, can remarry without facing any consequences for them or any offspring. - Mamser, Mamserim: descendant (s) from a halachically forbidden relationship, e.g. from certain blood-related relationships, or the illegitimate (not illegitimate) child of a Jewish woman with a Jew. Mamser are considered to be Jews and have equal rights in all legal matters, but are not allowed to marry Jews of irreproachable origin, only other Mamser or proselytes. Their children and grandchildren are also forever regarded as mamserim.

3.7 Qiddushin treatise מַסֶּכֶת קִדּוּשִׁין("Entrustment", "engagement"; literally: "sanctifications") bj ; Chapter 4: deals with marriage and other marriage issues

Okay Nesiqin סֵדֶר נְזִיקִין (Damage)

Treatise Awot

4.1 treatise Bava qamma מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא קַמָּא(“First gate”, “first gate” [of the originally uniform treatise Nesiqin with 30 chapters]) bj ; the three “gates” / Bavot formed only one treatise, also called the Neziqin order; It is only because of its size that the treatise was already divided into three parts in Talmudic times, namely, purely mechanically, into three “gates” of ten chapters each, regardless of what they belong together; Baba qamma comprises 10 chapters: Damage law including theft, robbery, bodily harm, damage by the pushing ox, the uncovered pit, by grazing and fire; Assessment of damage, replacement; questionable purchase; Waste belonging to the manufacturer or the craftsman

4.2 Bava meziʿa treatise מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא מְצִיעָא("Middle gate", "middle gate") bj ; Chapter 10: Right to find property, entrusted goods, purchase, sale, rent, loan; Deposit; Wage claims; Claims arising from the collapse of a building, etc.

4.3 treatise Bava batra מַסֶּכֶת בָּבָא בָּתְרָא(“Last gate”, “last gate”) bj ; Chapter 10: questions of ownership, inheritance law, presidency (chazaqa); Movables, real estate (use, sale, measurement of land), issuing of certificates; Guarantee; Wedding gifts; also contains a treatise on miracles and visions (bT 73a-75b)

4.4 Treatise on the Sanhedrin מַסֶּכֶת סַנְהֶדְרִין(from the Greek synhedrion , “court of justice”) bj ; Chapter 10: Criminal Law and Judiciary, Principles of Faith; Court of three men; small Sanhedrin of 23 members, large Sanhedrin of 71 members; Selection of arbitrators; Testimony; who can neither be a judge nor a witness; Difference between civil and criminal trials; Types of death penalty; the disobedient son; the burglar; the recidivist; Execution without judgment; who has no part in the world to come; the stubborn teacher (zaqen mamre) and the false prophet.

4.5 Treatise on Makkot מַסֶּכֶת מַכּוֹת("Beats") bj * ; 4 Chapter: Regulations on corporal punishment; Reward the commandments

4.6 Schvuʿot treatise מַסֶּכֶת שְׁבוּעוֹת("Oaths", "oaths") bj ; 8 chapters: on swearing, importance of the oath and its discussion, types of oaths; four types of guardians (with or without wages, borrowers, tenants)

4.7 Treatise Edujot מַסֶּכֶת עֵדֻיּוֹת("Certificates", "Statements"); 8 chapters: Testimony, 100 sentences of older authorities / testimonies of later teachers about the sentences of earlier masters, also called Bechirta, "selection"; In addition, 40 cases in which the Shammaites make it easier, the Hillelites more difficult (most of the sentences in the Mishnah are still elsewhere in accordance with the classification)

4.8 Treatise Avoda sara מַסֶּכֶת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה("Idolatry") bj ; Chapter 5: Cult of foreigners, (keeping away from) idolatry, separation from Greco-Roman paganism, dealing with idolaters

4.9 Treatise Avot מַסֶּכֶת אָבוֹת("[Proverbs of the] fathers"); Chapter 5: The Abot tract, to which there is a parallel collection in the small Talmudic tracts (the Abot de Rabbi Natan ), contains at the beginning the Tannaitic chain of traditions from Moshe to the end of the Tannaitic period and also the mottos and maxims of the scribes and Tannaiten, so factually does not belong in this collection of laws; in fact it was only inserted later (around 300?); was then often commented on in terms of the respective tendencies in Jewish ethics; contains great wisdom; read a lot; most popular piece of the Mishnah; Part of the liturgy; the only Mishnah treatise purely Haggadic

4.10 Tractate Horajot מַסֶּכֶת הוֹרָיוֹת("Teaching", "decisions") bj ; Chapter 3: erroneous decisions (of the courts of justice), corrections of judgments and their atonement

Order Qodaschim סֵדֶר קָדָשִׁים (Holy things)

Masechet Bechorot (Treatise Bechorot) from the Talmud, Shanghai, 1942

5.1 Svachim's treatise מַסֶּכֶת זְבָחִים(“Sacrificial Slaughter”, sacrifice, laws on animal sacrifices) b ; 14 chapters; about the required intention; whereby a sacrifice becomes unfit and with what oversights it remains fit nevertheless; Blood blasting, bird sacrifices, priority of certain victims over others; Cleaning the vessels; Share of the priests in the victims; Burning of bulls and rams; History of the sacrificial sites

5.2 Treatise Menachot מַסֶּכֶת מְנָחוֹת(“Mehlopfer”, actually “gift, present”) b ; Regulations on the offerings made from flour to the temple and the wine offerings usually associated with them, 13 chapters.

5.3 Chullin's treatise מַסֶּכֶת חֻלִּין("Profane" = profane slaughter): Slaughter regulations, food regulations b ; 12 chapters; Shekhita; clean and unclean animals; do not cook meat in milk; Donations of slaughtered goods to the priests; Firstlings of the sheep shearing; Law of the Bird's Nest

5.4 Treatise Bechorot מַסֶּכֶת בְּכוֹרוֹת(“Firstborns”) b ; 9 chapters; Laws on the (male) first births of cattle and humans.

5.5 Treatise Arachin מַסֶּכֶת עֲרַכין(“Estimated Value”) b ; 9 chapters; Estimates of (the temple) praised values; Obligation of the heir; Garnishment if the equivalent is not paid; Removal of the land inherited, bought or sold; walled cities.

5.6 Treatise Tmura מַסֶּכֶת תְּמוּרָה("Swap" or Temurot, "Swap") b ; 7 chapters; about compensation, sacrificial animals or the exchange of the same (Lev. 27,10)

5.7 Treatise Kritut or Kretot מַסֶּכֶת כְּרֵיתּוֹת / מַסֶּכֶת כְּרִיתּוּת("Exterminations", "Separations") b ; 6 chapter: deals with the divine punishment of Karet (extermination), which is based on willful violation of the religious and ethical basic commandments (Sabbath desecration, fornication, etc.; a total of 36 different cases of transgression, whereby intent is required); the punishment is interpreted as "natural" death without offspring between the ages of 20–50.

5.8 Meʿila tract מַסֶּכֶת מְעִילָה(“Misappropriation”, “attacking” [the sanctified]) b ; 6 Chapter embezzlement of the sanctified, from temple property; sacrilege

5.9 Tamid treatise מַסֶּכֶת תָּמִיד("Constant", "daily"): the constant [2 × daily] sacrifice; 7, originally 6 chapters (later subdivision of chapter 6) b * ; Night watch of the priests in the sanctuary; cleaning up the altar; the various duties of the priests; the offering of the sacrificial lamb; the morning prayer; the incense offering; the high priest at the sacrificial service; the priestly blessing and the chants of the Levites

5.10 Middot's treatise מַסֶּכֶת מידות("Dimensions"); Chapter 5: deals with the dimensions and arrangement of the temple in Jerusalem and its vessels; no Gemarah

5.11 Tract Qinnim מַסֶּכֶת קִנִּים("Nests", "bird nests"); 3 chapters: about the sacrifice of pigeons (Lev. 12,8 and above), which poor women and men have recently given birth in general in the event of certain misconduct and which is also possible as a voluntary burnt offering Complications when birds belonging to different people or species of prey get mixed up

Okay Toharot סֵדֶר טְהָרוֹת (Cleanings)

Group of Kohanim studying the Halachot of Tame and Tahara .

6.1 Treatise Kelim מַסֶּכֶת כְּלִים("Equipment"); Chapter 30: About the ritual impurity of objects of daily use (devices, vessels, etc.)

6.2 Treatise Ohalot מַסֶּכֶת אֹהָלות("Tents"), also: Ahilot ("Bezeltungen"), 18 chapters: on the contamination of rooms, contamination by touching a corpse (or contamination of people and things that are with the corpse under one roof / in the same " Tent ”); which openings prevent or promote the penetration of the impurity? Finding corpses; Places of worship; Houses of pagans

6.3 Negative treatise מַסֶּכֶת נִיגְעִים("Plagues"); Chapter 14: deals with the plague of leprosy = skin diseases; Leprosy in people, clothes, houses

6.4 Tract Para מַסֶּכֶת פָּרָה("Young cow"); Chapter 12: Atonement Through the Ashes of a Red Cow (Num 19)

6.5 Toharot treatise מַסֶּכֶת טְהֹרוֺת("Purities"), euphemistic for: impurities; comprises 10 chapters: light pollution until sunset; animals not ritually slaughtered (nebela); Degrees of pollution from touching impure; dubious impurity; Contamination by liquids; Contamination of oil and wine during pressing and pressing

6.6 Mikwa'ot tract מַסֶּכֶת מִקֶוַאוֹת("Immersion baths"); Chapter 10: Immersion baths, ritual ablutions, about bath and mikveh (immersion bath). A mikveh may only contain "living" (= swelling = river) or rain water collected in pits and must contain at least 3 cubic cubits = approx. 800 liters of water; Mikvah is also used for dipping new vessels before use.

6.7 Treatise Nidda מַסֶּכֶת נִדָּה(“The menstruating woman”, “woman's impurity”) bj * : about menstruation and blood flow, deals with the cleansing instructions for women .

6.8 Machschirin treatise מַסֶּכֶת מַכְשִׁירין(“Suitable”, “suitable”, namely: to make impure; comprises 6 chapters): contamination by liquids; Also: Maschkin / Maschqin ("liquids") called: after moistening with one of seven liquids, dry food can become unclean through contact with something unclean

6.9 Tract on Zabim מַסֶּכֶת זָבִים("Those afflicted with semen flow"): those afflicted with discharge (male + female), on the provisions of Lev. 15; includes 5 chapters; from counting the seven clean days until the Zab is considered clean again; Questions when examining the discharge; Contamination from a zab (those with unclean discharge); Comparison with different types of impurities; List of things that make Hebe unsuitable (pasul)

6.10 Treatise Tvul jom מַסֶּכֶת טְבוּל יוֹם("Bathed / submerged [but unclean] for the time of day"; "who took an immersion bath on the same day"); Chapter 4: Status of a purified person between immersion bath and sunset (as long as he is unclean); He may touch the profane; But he renders lift, challah and sanctified unfit / pasul, if not unclean; how does touching a part affect the whole?

6:11 treatise Yadayim מַסֶּכֶת יָדַיִם("Hands"); Chapter 4: Uncleanness of the hands, ritual uncleanness limited to the hands; Hand cleaning; what contaminates the hands? Writings that make the hands unclean, d. H. The biblical canon includes: Debate on Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes; the Aramaic in Ezra and Daniel; Differences Between Pharisees and Sadducees

6.12 Treatise Ukzin or Ukzim מַסֶּכֶת עֳקָצִים / מַסֶּכֶת עֻקְצִין("Stalk", "stalk" [of the fruit]); Chapter 3: the impurity of by-products or waste products in fruits; Stems, shells, and seeds that can transmit impurity

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Heinrich W. Guggenheimer: The Jerusalem Talmud - Fourth Order: Neziqin - Tractates Sanhedrin, Makkot, and Horaiot , Walter de Gruyter, 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-021960-9 , pp. 1 ff.
  2. Mishnayot. The six orders of the Mishnah . Part V Order Kadaschim translated and explained by John Cohn, 3rd edition, Victor Goldschmidt Verlag Basel 1986, p. 95f.
  3. Mishnayot. The six orders of the Mishnah . Part V Order Kadaschim translated and explained by John Cohn, 3rd edition, Victor Goldschmidt Verlag Basel 1986, p. 235f.
  4. Mishnayot. The six orders of the Mishnah . Part V Order Kadaschim translated and explained by John Cohn, 3rd edition, Victor Goldschmidt Verlag Basel 1986, p. 291f.
  5. Mishnayot. The six orders of the Mishnah . Part V Order Kadaschim translated and explained by John Cohn, 3rd edition, Victor Goldschmidt Verlag Basel 1986, p. 367f.

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