List of Jewish festivals
This enumeration of the festivals in a list gives an overview of Jewish festivals , structured according to the festivals in the annual cycle and day division of the Jewish calendar , the more recent state- Israeli holidays as well as the other holidays and fasting days of Judaism .
Celebrations in the annual cycle
Every feast day begins the evening before, because in the Jewish calendar the day lasts from the evening before to the evening of the day - not from midnight to midnight. This is derived from the 1st book of Moses, Hebrew בְּרֵאשִׁית Bereschit , called Γένεσις Génesis in ancient Greek : "and it was evening and it was morning, one day". For example, Rosh Hashanah (September 19-20, 2020), the New Year festival, begins on September 18th in the evening (at the end of the 29th Elul evening). The evening begins with the word Erev ( Hebrew ערב Evening ), so the name for the previous evening in the example mentioned is: Erev Rosh Hashanah .
The Jewish calendar is based on the moon ( lunar calendar ) when counting the months , and since twelve moons are shorter than a solar year , this is offset by additional leap months. For this reason, the Jewish holidays always fall on different calendar days in the (secular) Gregorian calendar .
|Name of the day||Hebrew||translation||meaning||Day of the month||2020||2020|
|Rosh Hashanah||רֹאֹשׁ הַשָּׁנָה||Head of the year,
beginning of the year
year celebration anniversary of world creation
|1st – 2nd Tishri||September 19-20, 2020|
|Yom Kippur||יוֹם כִּפּוּר||Day of Atonement||Day of Atonement,
deliverance from sin
|10. Tishri||September 28, 2020|
|Sukkot||סֻכּוֹת||Huts||Feast of Tabernacles||15-23 Tishri||October 3 - 9, 2020|
|Hoshana Rabba||הושענא רבה||"So help!"||the seventh feast day of Sukkot
|21. Tishri||October 8, 2020|
|Schmini Azeret||שְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת||Closing
festival the eighth day of the festival ...
|... from Sukkot||22. Tishri||October 9, 2020|
|Simchat Torah||שִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה||Torah joy||Reading of the last section of the fifth
book of Moses and restarting the reading of
the first section of the first book of Moses
|23. Tishri||October 11, 2020|
|Hanukkah||חֲנֻכָּה||inauguration||Festival of Lights
Rededication of the second temple
|25. Kislew - 2. Tevet||December 11-18, 2020|
ראש השנה לאילנות
|the 15th Shevat
Rosh Hashanah La'illanot
|New year festival of trees and bushes.||15. Shevat||February 10, 2020|
|Purim||פורים||fate||Salvation from Persia
joy festival ("Jewish carnival")
|14th or 15th Adar||March 10, 2020|
|Passover||פֶּסַח||transgression||Exodus from Egypt||15-22 Nisan ,
in Israel until Nisan 21st
|April 9-16, 2020|
|Lag baOmer||ל"ג בעומר||33rd [day] of Omer [time]||Bar Kochba uprising against the Romans||18. Ijjar||May 12, 2020|
|Shavuot||שבועות||Festival of the week||Reception of the Ten Commandments
|6-7 Siwan||May 29-30, 2020|
|Tischa beAv||תשעה באב||the 9th aw||Day of mourning for the destruction of
the Jerusalem temple
|9. Aw||July 30, 2020|
|Do B'Av||ט׳ באב||the 15th aw||Victory of the Pharisees over the Sadducees||14.-15. Aw||5th August 2020|
Recent Israeli memorials and holidays
|Name of the day||Hebrew||meaning||Day of the month||2020|
|Yom Hasho'a||יום השואה||Holocaust Remembrance Day||27. Nisan||April 21, 2020|
|Yom HaSikaron||יום הזיכרו||Memorial day for fallen Israeli soldiers||4. Ijjar||April 28, 2020|
|Yom HaAtzma'ut||יום העצמאות||Israeli Independence Day||5. Ijjar||April 29, 2020|
|Yom Yeruzhalayim||יום ירושלים||Celebration of the reunification of Jerusalem after the Six Day War in 1967||28. Ijjar||May 22, 2020|
- Shabbat (שבת weekly rest day)
- Brit Mila (ברית מילה Clipping)
- Bar Mitzvah ((בר מיצוה for boys) or Bat Mitzvah (בת מיצוה for girls) religious maturity)
- Rosh Chodesh (ראש חודש monthly day of the appearing crescent moon)
In Judaism, fasting means nothing to eat or drink on the fast day from the evening before until the evening of the day (about 25 hours, but no longer). Smoking is also prohibited. Tisha beAv and Yom Kippur are considered to be these “long” fast days. But there are also “short” days of fasting. Fasting on them does not start the evening before, but only at dawn, and then last until nightfall. Pregnant and breastfeeding women do not have to fast. Sick people ask a rabbi whether fasting is compatible with their illness. Girls from 12 years of age and boys from 13 years of age should fast. But younger children should also be introduced to fasting, for example by not necessarily eating “full” and by avoiding sweets.
|Name of the day||Hebrew||Day of the month||2020|
|Assara beTevet||עשרה בטבת||10. Tevet||January 7, 2020|
|Ta'anit Esther||תַּעֲנִית אֶסְתֵּר||13. Adar||March 9, 2020|
|Fasting the Firstborn||תענית בכורות||14. Nissan||April 8, 2020|
|Shiva Assar beTammus||שבעה עשר בתמוז||17. Tammuz||July 9, 2020|
|Tischa beAv||תשעה באב||9. Aw||July 30, 2020|
|Zom Gedaliah||צוֹם גְּדַלְיָה||3. Tishri||September 21, 2020|
|Yom Kippur||יוֹם כִּפּוּר||10. Tishri||September 28, 2020|
- Efrat Gal-Ed : The Book of the Jewish Annual Feasts. Insel, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 978-3-458-34297-7 .
- Susanne Galley : The Jewish year: celebrations, commemorative and public holidays. Beck, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-406-49442-0 .
- Jakob Petuchowski : Holidays of the Lord: the world of Jewish festivals and customs. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1987, ISBN 3-451-20266-2 .
- Heinrich Simon : Jewish Holidays. Holidays in the Jewish calendar. Hentrich and Hentrich, Berlin 2003, ISBN 978-3-933471-56-7 .
- Marc Stern : Lived Jewish festivals. Remembering, celebrating, telling. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 1999, ISBN 3-579-02236-9 .
- Friedrich Weinreb : The book of time and eternity: the Jewish calendar and its festivals. Thauros, Weiler im Allgäu 1991, ISBN 3-88411-042-X .
- Jewish holidays and festivals - talmud.de
- Jewish festivals / fasting days and memorial days - haGalil online
- Jewish Holidays and more - de.chabad.org/feiertage
- List of public holidays of the current year (PDF) Embassy of the State of Israel in Berlin