List of Jewish festivals

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This enumeration of the festivals in a list gives an overview of Jewish festivals , structured according to the festivals in the annual cycle and day division of the Jewish calendar , the more recent state- Israeli holidays as well as the other holidays and fasting days of Judaism .

Celebrations in the annual cycle

Every feast day begins the evening before, because in the Jewish calendar the day lasts from the evening before to the evening of the day - not from midnight to midnight. This is derived from the 1st book of Moses, Hebrew בְּרֵאשִׁית Bereschit , called Γένεσις Génesis in ancient Greek : "and it was evening and it was morning, one day". For example, Rosh Hashanah (September 19-20, 2020), the New Year festival, begins on September 18th in the evening (at the end of the 29th Elul evening). The evening begins with the word Erev ( Hebrew ערב Evening ), so the name for the previous evening in the example mentioned is: Erev Rosh Hashanah .

The Jewish calendar is based on the moon ( lunar calendar ) when counting the months , and since twelve moons are shorter than a solar year , this is offset by additional leap months. For this reason, the Jewish holidays always fall on different calendar days in the (secular) Gregorian calendar .

Name of the day Hebrew translation meaning Day of the month 2020 2020
Rosh Hashanah רֹאֹשׁ הַשָּׁנָה Head of the year,
beginning of the year
year celebration anniversary of world creation
1st – 2nd Tishri   September 19-20, 2020
Yom Kippur יוֹם כִּפּוּר Day of Atonement Day of Atonement,
deliverance from sin
10. Tishri   September 28, 2020
Sukkot סֻכּוֹת Huts Feast of Tabernacles 15-23 Tishri   October 3 - 9, 2020
Hoshana Rabba הושענא רבה "So help!" the seventh feast day of Sukkot
Palm Festival
21. Tishri   October 8, 2020
Schmini Azeret שְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת Closing
festival the eighth day of the festival ...
... from Sukkot 22. Tishri   October 9, 2020
Simchat Torah שִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה Torah joy Reading of the last section of the fifth
book of Moses and restarting the reading of
the first section of the first book of Moses
23. Tishri   October 11, 2020
Hanukkah חֲנֻכָּה inauguration Festival of Lights
Rededication of the second temple
25. Kislew - 2. Tevet   December 11-18, 2020
Do bischevat ט״ו בשבט
ראש השנה לאילנות
the 15th Shevat
Rosh Hashanah La'illanot
New year festival of trees and bushes. 15. Shevat February 10, 2020  
Purim פורים fate Salvation from Persia
joy festival ("Jewish carnival")
14th or 15th Adar March 10, 2020  
Passover פֶּסַח transgression Exodus from Egypt 15-22 Nisan ,
in Israel until Nisan 21st
April 9-16, 2020  
Lag baOmer ל"ג בעומר 33rd [day] of Omer [time] Bar Kochba uprising against the Romans 18. Ijjar May 12, 2020  
Shavuot שבועות Festival of the week Reception of the Ten Commandments
Thanksgiving Day
6-7 Siwan May 29-30, 2020  
Tischa beAv תשעה באב the 9th aw Day of mourning for the destruction of
the Jerusalem temple
9. Aw July 30, 2020  
Do B'Av ט׳ באב the 15th aw Victory of the Pharisees over the Sadducees 14.-15. Aw 5th August 2020  

Recent Israeli memorials and holidays

Name of the day Hebrew meaning Day of the month 2020
Yom Hasho'a יום השואה Holocaust Remembrance Day 27. Nisan April 21, 2020
Yom HaSikaron יום הזיכרו Memorial day for fallen Israeli soldiers 4. Ijjar April 28, 2020
Yom HaAtzma'ut יום העצמאות Israeli Independence Day 5. Ijjar April 29, 2020
Yom Yeruzhalayim יום ירושלים Celebration of the reunification of Jerusalem after the Six Day War in 1967 28. Ijjar May 22, 2020

Other holidays

  • Shabbat (שבת weekly rest day)
  • Brit Mila (ברית מילה Clipping)
  • Bar Mitzvah ((בר מיצוה for boys) or Bat Mitzvah (בת מיצוה for girls) religious maturity)
  • Rosh Chodesh (ראש חודש monthly day of the appearing crescent moon)

Fasting days

In Judaism, fasting means nothing to eat or drink on the fast day from the evening before until the evening of the day (about 25 hours, but no longer). Smoking is also prohibited. Tisha beAv and Yom Kippur are considered to be these “long” fast days. But there are also “short” days of fasting. Fasting on them does not start the evening before, but only at dawn, and then last until nightfall. Pregnant and breastfeeding women do not have to fast. Sick people ask a rabbi whether fasting is compatible with their illness. Girls from 12 years of age and boys from 13 years of age should fast. But younger children should also be introduced to fasting, for example by not necessarily eating “full” and by avoiding sweets.

Name of the day Hebrew Day of the month 2020
Assara beTevet עשרה בטבת 10. Tevet January 7, 2020
Ta'anit Esther תַּעֲנִית אֶסְתֵּר 13. Adar March 9, 2020
Fasting the Firstborn תענית בכורות 14. Nissan April 8, 2020
Shiva Assar beTammus שבעה עשר בתמוז 17. Tammuz July 9, 2020
Tischa beAv תשעה באב 9. Aw July 30, 2020
Zom Gedaliah צוֹם גְּדַלְיָה 3. Tishri September 21, 2020
Yom Kippur יוֹם כִּפּוּר 10. Tishri September 28, 2020

See also


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Passover ( Memento from January 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Central Council of Jews in Germany; Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  2. Fast days , Chabad. Retrieved January 7, 2020.