Harald Schultz-Hencke

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Harald Alfred Carl-Ludwig Schultz-Hencke (born August 18, 1892 in Berlin ; † May 23, 1953 ibid) was a German psychoanalyst and representative of neopsychoanalysis , son of the chemist Dankmar Schultz-Hencke .


Schultz-Hencke studied medicine, philosophy and psychiatry in Freiburg im Breisgau from 1911 (with Heinrich Rickert , Edmund Husserl , Martin Heidegger , Alfred Hoche and Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer ). In 1914 he went to war voluntarily as a military doctor, and in 1917 he obtained his license to practice medicine.

After graduating from medical school, he turned to psychoanalysis . “Originally, Schultz-Hencke wanted to do an analysis with Freud himself. After Freud had not accepted him (the reasons are not known), he went to Sándor Radó . ”In 1922 he began his training at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute (BPI; Karl Abraham Institute). From 1927 to 1928 he was a lecturer at the BPI. At the BPI, together with Otto Fenichel , he organized the so-called children's seminar, an unofficial discussion group of younger psychoanalysts that existed alongside the official teaching.

Because of his criticism of Freud's metapsychology and libido theory and his active therapeutic method, he was banned from teaching. In Schicksal und Neurose (1931), Schultz-Hencke presented his critique of classical psychoanalysis.

In 1933 he supported the establishment of the German General Medical Society for Psychotherapy by the neurologist Walter Cimbal in order to prevent the National Socialists from dissolving the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy . Matthias Heinrich Göring became chairman of the new company .

Like Felix Boehm , Carl Müller-Braunschweig , Werner Kemper and several other non-Jewish psychoanalysts, Schultz-Hencke became a member of the German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy . "The German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy was founded in May 1936 at the instigation of the Reichsärzteführer Gerhard Wagner and the Reich Ministry of the Interior with the official goal of creating a 'New German Psychological Medicine' from a combination of all three main currents represented at the Institute (Freudians, Jungians, Adlerianer) and various individual research directions to work out, to teach and to maintain a polyclinic. "

At the request of the authorities, the German Psychoanalytical Society (DPG) was dissolved in 1938 , with the result that membership of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPV) also expired.

On May 4, 1945, Schultz-Hencke and Werner Kemper founded the Institute for Psychopathology and Psychotherapy (IPP), which he directed. In 1945 the neoanalytical association was founded. In 1948 he became vice director and head of prophylaxis at the Central Institute for Psychogenic Diseases of the Berlin Insurance Company ( VAB ), which emerged from the IPP . In 1949 he was appointed professor for psychotherapy at the Humboldt University .

After the destruction of the Göring Institute , the DPG was re-established under the name Berliner Psychoanalytische Gesellschaft . Differences in the understanding of psychoanalysis that had remained latent during the Nazi era now came to the fore.

At the first international psychoanalytical congress after the war in Zurich in 1949 a controversy arose between the neo-analysts around Schultz-Hencke and the Freudians around Müller-Braunschweig.

“The International Psychoanalytic Association, the majority of which had suffered directly or indirectly from the Nazi tyranny, now had to deal with two extremely explosive questions:

1. To what extent the representatives of psychoanalysis had been corrupted by National Socialism;

2. whether Schultz-Hencke's position could still count as psychoanalysis.

In the public discussion it was not possible to clearly distinguish the two questions from one another. Schultz-Hencke was suddenly identified with National Socialism. While the criticism of the attitude of the German psychoanalysts attached itself to Boehm's position, the theory of Schultz-Hencke was based on the ideological 'accounting' with the 'collaborators'; for the discussion came to a head that it became clear that the entire German group would only be accepted into the IPA if Schultz-Hencke were excluded. Since Schultz-Hencke was not ready to leave, Müller-Braunschweig founded the German Psychoanalytical Association (DPV) with a small group of psychoanalysts and left the DPG. The greater part stayed with Schultz-Hencke. "

The DPV was accepted into the International Psychoanalytic Association in 1951, while Schultz-Henckes neo- psychoanalysis remained largely isolated internationally. Neopsychoanalysis remained formative for the DPG until the 1960s, before the DPG approached classical psychoanalysis again.


According to his statements, Schultz-Hencke's theory of personality builds on Freud and one third consists of the views of Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung . Among the neo-psychoanalytic theories, his views are considered to be the best empirically verified. Schultz-Hencke coined important psychodynamic terms such as “drive experience ”, “inhibition”, “ neurosis structure ”, “temptation situation” and “failure situation” or introduced them into psychoanalytic terminology.

The possibility of maintaining psychotherapy in the Third Reich within the Göring Institute and the establishment of the Central Institute for Psychogenic Diseases by the Insurance Company in Berlin (VAB) after the Second World War contributed to the development of psychotherapy in Germany. The neo-analysts or Schultz-Henckians in Berlin and Munich were leading in this development .

Through his most important student, Annemarie Dührssen , Schultz-Hencke influenced the psychotherapy guidelines that are relevant for the implementation of statutory health insurance in Germany .

Fonts (selection)

  • The Influence of Military Service on Progressive Paralysis . - Freiburg i. B.: Speyer & Kaerner, 1917
  • The meaning of our time and the free adult education centers as champions of the new educational system: Basics z. Revolutionizing the school a. Classes , Berlin-Wilmersdorf: Volkshaus-Verl., 1920
  • Introduction to psychoanalysis ; Jena: G. Fischer, 1927
  • Fate and neurosis: attempt e. Neurosis from consciousness , Jena: Fischer, 1931
  • The inhibited man: draft of a textbook of neo-psychoanalysis (1940), Thieme, 6th unchanged. Edition, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-13-401806-3
  • Dream Analysis Textbook. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1949


  • Wolfgang Bock : Dialectical Psychology. Adorno's reception of psychoanalysis. VS-Springer, Wiesbaden 2018, ISBN 978-3-658-15324-3 , pp. 556-601.
  • Annemarie Dührssen : A Century of Psychoanalytic Movement in Germany. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1994, ISBN 3-525-45772-3 , pp. 130-134.
  • Regine Lockot: The Purification of Psychoanalysis. The German Psychoanalytic Society as reflected in documents and contemporary witnesses (1933–1951). Diskord, Tübingen 1994, ISBN 3-89295-583-2 .
  • Regine Lockot: Remembering and working through. On the history of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy under National Socialism . Psychosozial, Gießen 2002, ISBN 978-3-89806-171-1 (first edition: Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1985).
  • Josef Rattner : Harald Schultz-Hencke. In: The same: Classics of depth psychology. Psychologie Verlag Union, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-621-27102-3 , pp. 309–338.
  • Gerd Rudolf , Ulrich Rüger (ed.): The psychoanalysis Schultz-Henckes . Thieme, Stuttgart / New York 1988, ISBN 978-3-13-703401-8 .
  • Steffen Schulte-Lippern: Harald Schultz-Hencke, psychoanalyst in Germany. In: Forum of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 6 (1990) H. 6, pp. 52-69.
  • Helmut Thomä : The neo-psychoanalysis Schultz-Henckes. In: Psyche . Jg. 17 (1963), H. 1, pp. 44-80, u. H. 2, pp. 81-128.


  1. Lockot 1985: 130
  2. Lockot 1985: 188
  3. Lockot 1985: 133
  4. Lockot 1985: 134
  5. The inhibited man: draft of a textbook of neo-psychoanalysis (1940), Thieme, 6th unchanged. Edition, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-13-401806-3
  6. Psychotherapy guideline of the G-BA (accessed on July 1, 2011)

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