District of Sorau (Lausitz)

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The district area 1905

The district of Sorau (Lausitz) (until 1939 the district of Sorau ) was an administrative unit in the Prussian province of Brandenburg on both sides of the Lusatian Neisse . It existed from 1816 to 1946 and included the cities of Christianstadt (Bober) , Gassen , Pförten , Sorau and Triebel, and in the 1930s 140 other communities and two forest estate districts.

Today, the area is mostly in the Żary district of the Polish Lebus voivodeship , and a small part in the Spree-Neisse district in the state of Brandenburg .

Administrative history

The Sorau district was re-established in 1816 as part of a comprehensive administrative reform in the Kingdom of Prussia . It was detached from the previous Guben district and included the lordships of Sorau and Triebel and the lordship of Forst-Pförten. In addition, there were a few places from the Spremberg , Cottbus , Krossen and Sagan districts . The new district was incorporated into the Frankfurt administrative district in the Brandenburg province .

On April 1, 1897, the city of Forst i./L. from the Sorau district and from then on formed its own urban district .

On September 30, 1929, a regional reform took place in the Sorau district in line with developments in the rest of the Free State of Prussia , in which almost all manor districts were dissolved and assigned to neighboring rural communities. The name of the district fluctuated between Sorau and Sorau (Nd. Lausitz) until October 10, 1940, when the name of the district was finally set to Sorau (Lausitz) . Since January 1, 1939, the district has been referred to as a district in accordance with the now unified rule .

In the spring of 1945 the district was occupied by the Red Army . The territory of the district east of the Oder-Neisse line was placed under the administration of the People's Republic of Poland by the Soviet Union after the end of the war . Here the gradual immigration of Polish migrants began, some of whom came from areas east of the Curzon Line . The local Polish administrative authorities drove the local population here .

The rest of the district, now only encompassing the area west of the Neisse, existed for a short time until it was dissolved with effect from April 1, 1946 and divided between the districts of Cottbus and Spremberg and the independent city of Forst .

Population development

year Residents source
1816 39,148
1840 57,328
1871 86,189
1890 108,542
1900 82,423
1910 87,866
1925 87,472
1933 89.231
1939 91,099

District administrators

1817–1824 Karl Keck von Schwartzbach
1824–1840 Ludwig von Diederichs
1840–1888 Rudolf von Lessing
1888–1906 Erich Haenel von Cronenthal (1856–1906)
1906–1917 Joachim von Bredow (1872–1926)
1917–1934 Jobst von Schönfeldt
1934–1937 Martin Stumpf (1886–1974)
1937–1939 Rudolf Kriele (1900–1973)
1939–1943 Hans-Jürgen Scheringer († 1942)
1943–1944 Richard Sarrazin (interim)
1944–1945 Werner Groß (acting)

Local constitution

With the introduction of the Prussian Municipal Constitutional Law of December 15, 1933 and the German Municipal Code of January 30, 1935, the leader principle was enforced at the municipal level on April 1, 1935 . A new district constitution was no longer created; The district regulations for the provinces of East and West Prussia, Brandenburg, Pomerania, Silesia and Saxony from March 19, 1881 continued to apply.


In the district of Sorau, rail traffic began in 1846 with the Guben – Sommerfeld – Sorau – Kohlfurt line of the Lower Silesian-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft (NME), which connected Berlin with Wroclaw ›121.0 + 123.0‹.

Around 25 years later, further important east-west connections were added: From 1870, the Märkisch-Posener Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft only grazed the north of the Guben district with the Guben – Rothenburg section “122.b”. From 1871/72, the Forst – Sagan line of the Halle-Sorau-Gubener Railway or the Lower Silesian Branch Company “153.0” ran through the middle of the Sorau district . It crossed with the NME in the district town, where an important junction was created, which could be bypassed from 1875 by the direct connection of the Prussian State Railway (KPStE) from Gassen to Sagan ›121.0‹.

The KPStE added the following branch lines to the network:

1895/96: Sorau – Benau – Christianstadt and further
1904 to Grünberg ›122.e‹,
1914: Sommerfeld – Crossen ›122.d‹

Two more routes were built by the local railway company Munich and the Lausitzer Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft founded by it and operated as private railways until 1938, namely

1895: Hansdorf – Priebus ›123.g‹ and
1897/98: Sommerfeld – Teuplitz – Muskau ›154.d‹

The numbers in ›‹ refer to the German course book 1929.

cities and communes

Cities and municipalities east of the Neisse

The following towns and municipalities in the Sorau district were east of the Neisse and came to Poland after the Second World War, where they now largely belong to the powiat Żarski in the Lubusz Voivodeship .

In the eastern part of the Sorau district there were also the two community-free forest estate districts Christianstadt and Pförten Wald.

Communities west of the Neisse

The following municipalities in the Sorau district were located west of the Neisse and thus in the Soviet Zone after the Second World War . The area in question now belongs to the Spree-Neisse district .

Name changes

In the course of the Germanization of originally Sorbian place names, the Reich government changed the spelling of some names in 1937 or issued completely new ones:

  • Buckocka: Beech Mountains
  • Koyne: Keune
  • Nablath: Nahberg
  • Sablath: Raudenberg / Niederlausitz
  • Tzschacksdorf: Schacksdorf
  • Tzschecheln : Eichenrode
  • Tzscheeren: Grünaue (Lower Lausitz)
  • Zschorno: Hirschwinkel
  • Zukleba: Steinfelde (Lower Lausitz)


  • Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State. 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 104-105, item 13.
  • Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population . Part II: Province of Brandenburg , Berlin 1873, pp. 224-235.
  • Topographical-statistical manual of the government district of Frankfurt a. O. Verlag von Gustav Harnecker u. Co., 1867, pp.223-244.
  • Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Mark Brandenburg and the Markgrafthum Nieder-Lausitz , Volume 3, Brandenburg 1856, pp. 676-719 ( online ).
  • Topographical-statistical overview of the government district of Frankfurt ad Oder. Compiled from official sources . Frankfurt ad O. 1844, pp. 186-207.
  • W. Riehl and J. Scheu (eds.): Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg with the Margraviate Nieder-Lausitz in their history and in their present existence . Berlin 1861, pp. 572-593.
  • von Schönfeldt, E. Stein (Ed.): The district of Sorau N.-L. Deutscher Kommunal-Verlag GmbH, Berlin-Friedenau 1925.
  • Götz Frhr. v. Houwald : The Niederlausitz manors and their owners. Volume II: District of Sorau. (= Library of Family History Sources, Volume 26). Degener Verlag, 1981, ISBN 3-7686-4094-9 ( abstract )
  • Saalborn: The prehistoric map of the Sorau district . In: Journal of Ethnology , Volume 11, Berlin 1879, pp. 403-435 ( online ).
  • Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. sorau.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).

Web links

Commons : Landkreis Sorau  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Sorau district. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  2. genealogy.net: District of Sorau
  3. ^ Heinrich Berghaus: Land book of the Mark Brandenburg and the Markgrafthum Niederlausitz in the middle of the 19th century . Adolph Müller, Brandenburg 1854, chap. 3 VI., P. 44 ( digitized version [accessed on May 5, 2016]).
  4. ^ Carl Heinrich Ludwig Pölitz: History and Statistics of the Kingdom of Saxony . Hinrichs, Leipzig 1809, chap. State Constitution, p. 257 ( digitized version [accessed on May 5, 2016]).
  5. ^ Official Journal of the Royal Prussian Government in Frankfurt ad Oder . No. 12 , 1816, p. 107 ( digitized version [accessed on May 5, 2016]).
  6. ^ The Sorau district at genealogy.net
  7. ^ Provincial administration Mark Brandenburg (ed.): Ordinance sheet of the Provincial Administration Mark Brandenburg No. 14 of September 23, 1946 . Resolution of the Presidium of the Provincial Administration of Mark Brandenburg on the dissolution of the remaining Sorau district and change of the boundaries of the Cottbus and Spremberg districts and the forest district.
  8. ^ Christian Gottfried Daniel Stein: Handbook of Geography and Statistics of the Prussian State . Vossische Buchhandlung, Berlin 1819, The administrative district of Frankfurt, p. 210 ( digitized version [accessed on May 5, 2016]).
  9. Topographical-statistical overview of the administrative district of Frankfurt ad O., Harnecker, 1844, p. 30
  10. ^ The municipalities and manor districts of the Province of Brandenburg and their population in 1871