district of Würzburg
|Residents||4237 (December 31, 2016)|
|Population density||782 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation||Jan. 1, 1974|
It is bordered to the north by the Würzburg district Heuchelhof , on the east by the district of the county municipality Winterhausen . The districts of Reichenberg , Lindflur and Fuchsstadt are adjacent to the west and south .
The formerly rural place has developed very dynamically since it was incorporated into the city of Würzburg on January 1, 1974, but especially in the recent past. Through the connection to the Würzburg tram network and the designation of new building areas, Rottenbauer Nord and Nord-Ost, the place is developing into a coveted residential area with a village character, surrounded by greenery, but with an urban infrastructure.
According to the population statistics of the city of Würzburg, the district exceeded the 2000 inhabitant mark in 1999 and had 3876 inhabitants as of December 31, 2011. This makes it the fastest growing district in Würzburg.
The development consists mainly of one and two-family houses and only a few multi-family houses.
History and buildings
The ending of the place name Rotten bauer (formerly Roten bur ) suggests a foundation during the Franconian conquest , which was completed at the end of the 8th century. The mention of vineyards on the Bronnberg in AD 779 in a certificate from Charlemagne also falls during this period . In 1212, Fridericus de Rotenbur is named as a witness in a document, which seems to be the oldest known mention of the family in Rottenbauer. In the oldest fief book of the Würzburg monastery (1303-1345) Rottenbauer appears several times in different spellings (Rottenbauer, Rottenbur, Rottenbaur, Rotenbür, Rotenbur).
But people should have settled here long before this time. During the construction of the disabled center in today's Heuchelhof district, located around 1.5 km to the north, traces of a settlement were discovered in 1974 that date back to the era of the band ceramics . Approx. 3000 BC The first farmers and cattle breeders lived here.
The oldest surviving building is the Trinity Church , which is over 500 years old . Today's Protestant church was initially built as a Catholic church in 1493 by the imperial baron Wolf von Wolfskeel and his wife Barbara von Truchseß . Today it still holds four tombs and an epitaph . The baptismal font with its octagonal basin and the round shaft , which rises with rotating channels , testifies to the art of stonemasonry . The basin bears the year 1581. The Holy Communion chalice, which is still used today, dates from the mid-15th century and bears the name Maria and the two marriage coats of arms Wolfskeel- Lentersheim , which probably refer to the founders Eberhard von Wolfskeel and Mathilde von Lentersheim . The church first became Protestant when the Wolfskeels converted to Protestantism with the entire village in 1580 . In 1690 the Rottenbaurer line of the Wolfskeels switched back to Catholicism , because the Würzburg bishop had offices for the sons - the farmers of the place remained Protestant. The rivalry between the two denominations continued in some cases well into the 20th century. Even in the new central school building, which we moved into in 1964, classes were initially taught separately according to denomination.
Another important building is the Catholic Church of St. Joseph , built from 1818 to 1823 and consecrated in 1824 , the tower of which marks the highest point of the old town. Only recently, at the beginning of the 21st century, have the houses in the higher-lying Rottenbauer Nord building area tower over it.
The old castle , which is mentioned in a document in 1376 with the owners, the lords of Rebstock , is only preserved in its foundations . Around 1575, the Wolfskeel Castle ( Lower Castle ) , which is still preserved today, was added to it. The legend of the white woman has grown up around the castle . According to legend, which can be found in the church registers for centuries, the husband who was missing during the crusades and was finally declared dead appeared again at the castle one night. But he mysteriously disappeared that same night. The lady of the castle soon celebrated her wedding with a new man, but both died just a few years later. Since then, a white woman is said to float around the castle tower regularly at midnight . At the beginning of the 20th century, during repair work on the castle, the skeleton of a man walled in a wall niche was found who was still wearing his sword. Apparently it was the lords of the castle who had returned at the time.
Between the Lower Castle and the Catholic Church is the Upper Castle , which was also built by the Wolfskeels around 1700. It is built as a country house in the baroque style and appears more like a stately home than a castle. It is now used as a residential building on an agricultural / commercial property.
During the Second World War, five days before the end of the war on April 1, 1945, American troops reached Rottenbauer.
The incorporation agreement is dated November 12, 1973.
Location and landscape
Located on the northern edge of the gently rolling Ochsenfurt Gäulößland , brown soils favor the arable use of the fields surrounding Rottenbauer. Few remaining farmers cultivate the deep and productive soil. Mainly different types of grain and sugar beets are grown , which are brought to the sugar factory in nearby Ochsenfurt for further processing . In the meantime, the cultivation of maize dominates, which is used as a raw material for generating energy in the biogas plant built between Rottenbauer and Fuchsstadt in 2007 .
To the north of Rottenbauer on the Heuchelhöfer plateau stretches an approximately 30 hectare dry grassland biotope with semi-arid areas that extends down to the Main Valley , where a ferry connection with Eibelstadt existed from 1407 to 1954 . It is listed as a nature reserve Bromberg-Rosengarten on the Green List of the Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection (NSG600.046 Bromberg-Rosengarten). It is the largest, contiguous nature reserve in the city of Würzburg.
The development of Rottenbauer, which in 1903 had a railway stop opposite Eibelstadt (which existed until 1966), was shaped by the settlement of natural stone mining and processing companies between 1900 and 1950, benefiting from its location on the edge of an outcropping shell limestone facies . Eight quarries for the extraction of shell limestone were in operation in the former area of the town . After all of these were closed in the middle of the 20th century, two quarries are now again in operation between Rottenbauer and the municipality of Winterhausen.
The stone cutter (colloquially Steehawer ) was a common occupation until the recent past. The sturdy Steehawers from Rottenbauer had a pronounced rivalry with the main municipalities of Winterhausen and Randersacker , which is still evident today in football disputes. Today there are only a few stone-working companies in the area, but several wayside shrines in Rottenbauer and the Rottenbaurer Flur document the centuries-old stonemasonry.
Rottenbauer is the birthplace of the resistance fighter against National Socialism Anna Ebermann (born February 10, 1891 as Anna Ziegler, † March 17, 1944 in Berlin-Plötzensee ). Her arrest, which ultimately led to her execution, took place while on vacation in her birthplace, after she made "statements critical of the regime" in a restaurant and was subsequently denounced.
Since July 2016 a stumbling stone in Lilienweg (in front of house no.6) has been a reminder of the house where she was born.
- TSV Rottenbauer - sports club with the departments: football, tennis, table tennis, gymnastics and marksmen.
- Readiness Rottenbauer of the Bavarian Red Cross
- Rottenbauer volunteer fire department
- Men's choir Concordia 1922 eV Rottenbauer
- Rottenbauer Settlers Association
- German Scouting Association Sankt Georg - Wolfskeel tribe
- Square Dance Club - Würzburg Whirlers
- JFG Würzburg South
- German Youth Red Cross
- Rottenbauer civic association
- History: Protestant parish Rottenbauer: 500 years Trinity Church Rottenbauer - a village celebrates its birthday , Rottenbauer, 1993
- History: From the history of Rottenbauer (published by the Office for Public Relations of the City of Würzburg, 1974)
- Location and landscape: Konrad Schliephake, Egon Kitz: Urbanization and suburbanization on the southern edge of the city of Würzburg , Würzburger Geographische Manuskripte, issue 18, 1987.
- Wolfgang Weiß , Siegfried Wenisch: The development of Rottenbauers from the 19th century to the present. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1133-1152 and 1365-1369.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 734 .
- Sybille Grübel: Timeline of the history of the city from 1814-2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1225-1247; here: p. 1243.
- Sybille Grübel: Timeline of the history of the city from 1814-2006. 2007, p. 1226.
- Sybille Grübel: Timeline of the history of the city from 1814-2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1225-1247; here: p. 1240.
- Weiß, Wenisch (2007), p. 1365, note 2.
- Weiß, Wenisch (2007), p. 1365, note 4.
- Winfried Schenk, Rüdiger Glaser , Moritz Nestle: Würzburg's environment in the transformation from the pre-industrial era to the service society. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2 (I: From the beginnings to the outbreak of the Peasant War. 2001, ISBN 3-8062-1465-4 ; II: From the Peasant War 1525 to the transition to the Kingdom of Bavaria 1814. 2004, ISBN 3 -8062-1477-8 ; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 ), Theiss, Stuttgart 2001–2007, Volume III (2007), Pp. 351-368 and 1295 f., Here: p. 365 f. ( Würzburg's nature as reflected in the biotope mapping ).
- Sybille Grübel: Timeline of the history of the city from 1814-2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1225-1247; here: p. 1234 and 1243.