|Part of the country (landsdel) :
|Province (län) :
|Värmlands län , Örebro län , Västra Götalands län
(December 31, 2008)
|14 inhabitants per km²
Värmland (obsolete Vermland , Wermland or Wermeland ) is a historical province ( Swedish landskap ) in Sweden . It borders Västergötland and Dalsland in the south, Norway in the west and Dalarna , Västmanland and Närke in the east .
The largest north-south extension of Värmland is around 245 kilometers and the largest east-west extension is around 175 kilometers. On the border with Norway lies a part of the Scandinavian Mountains that are called Kölen . The foothills of this ridge surround Värmland. The western foothills have an average height of 350 meters with mountain peaks that are 500 to 700 meters above sea level. The eastern extension is less pronounced and rises up to 476 meters above sea level. In the southern part of Värmland there is a hilly flat land, where the mountains do not rise more than 50 meters above the surroundings. The bank of the Vänern part of Värmland is characterized by many bays and numerous islands.
The oldest archaeological finds are stone axes that date from the Stone Age . But these were only found in the western part of Värmland. The settlement took place in the post-glacial period from Västergötland , when even larger parts of the landscape were under water. At first, zones near the banks were preferred and later the plains were also populated. Since there are a similar number of finds from the Bronze Age , it is assumed that there was no significant immigration during this period.
Rock paintings have been preserved from prehistoric times . Various rune stones are known from the Iron , Vendel and Viking ages , whereby the rune stone from Järsberg Järsbergsstenen near Kristinehamn aroused particular interest. The runes could not be clearly interpreted so far, but since they are in an older font, which was mainly used in Götaland , it is assumed that Värmland belonged to Götaland during this time. The finds from the younger Iron Age show a clear correspondence with objects from Norway and suggest a connection between these areas. From the 7th century there are also written records such as the Icelandic legend Heimskringla . According to this, the Ynglinger prince Olaf Trätelgja, who fled from Sweden around 600, is said to have established a kingdom in Värmland, until around 800 Värmland remained under the rule of his Norwegian successors who ruled in Vestfold . After that, Värmland briefly fell under Swedish rule, but was reunited with Norway from 870 under the Norwegian King Harald Fairhair . Värmland remained Norwegian at least until around 1000, before it was Christianized from Västergötland in Sweden . Around 1025 it belonged to the kingdom of the Norwegian King Olav II. Haraldsson .
When and how Värmland was separated from Norway is unclear. It was not until 1101 that the borders between the three kingdoms were fixed in a Danish-Norwegian-Swedish Treaty of the Three Kings. There was intensive trade even after this separation and parts of the population of Värmland were still involved in internal Norwegian disputes well into the 13th century. For the time after the Icelandic sources were created, information about Värmland is limited. Large areas were largely deserted and the population was low. The countryside had a legal head ( lagman ) who presided over the ting meetings . On the other hand, no representatives from Värmland were involved in the election of the king and the new kings could not be confirmed on site, as was customary in other parts of the country. A division of the area in Harden has been known since the 14th century.
Christianization took place from Västergötland and partly from Norway. After that, Värmland belonged to the monastery of Skara . During the Kalmar Union , Värmland was a separate administrative unit administered by a Vogt who resided at Edsholm Castle. This castle and another one were destroyed in the Engelbrekt uprising . The people of Värmland also rebelled against Charles VIII and in 1521 were among the first to join Gustav Wasa's liberation struggle.
According to Gustav Wasa's will, Värmland belonged to the duchy of his son Charles , but under Erik XIV's reign it was ruled by the king. In the course of the Three Crowns War , Värmland was often a victim of destruction. After Erik's dismissal in 1568, Duke Karl took over the administration of Värmland again and tried to keep it out of the war as far as possible.
Around 1580 a large number of Finns , the so-called forest fins , immigrated to Värmland. While the previous population preferred areas near the coast, the Finns also settled on the barren moraines inland, which led to the settlement of large areas. By slash and burn, the immigrants created new arable land and thus revived the previously moderate grain production. Even after his rise to the rank of king, Karl advocated revitalizing the mining industry . But that led to new burdens for the farmers and thus to several unrest. After Karl's death, the duchy passed to his son Karl Filip . But shortly before 1622, when it was finally taken over by the Crown, it was run by Karl Filip's mother.
In the 17th century, a large part of Värmland became taxable through purchases and pledges against various noble houses. When the first län were established in Sweden , Värmland was united with Närke to form Örebro län . It was not until 1779 that most of Värmland was transferred to the province of Värmlands län . In the wars of the following time there was some fighting on the border with Norway. The greatest burdens, however, were the obligation to provide soldiers for the Swedish army and the taxes paid to the royal family. Many farms in Värmland were soon empty. There was a certain improvement in the economic situation at the beginning of the 19th century, when iron products were increasingly in demand.
In 1809 General Georg Adlersparre went from Karlstad to Stockholm to capture King Gustav IV Adolf , who was considered unfit by some high-ranking Swedes. Many soldiers from Värmland were also involved in Sweden's last war, the Norwegian campaign of 1814. The campaign ended with a union agreement between the two states that was imposed on Norway and which lasted until 1905.
coat of arms
Description: In silver, a blue, red stand and red-tongued eagle with a red beak.
Cities in Värmland
- Glaskogen , nature reserve in Värmland
- Varmland . In: Theodor Westrin, Ruben Gustafsson Berg, Eugen Fahlstedt (eds.): Nordisk familjebok konversationslexikon och realencyklopedi . 2nd Edition. tape 33 : Väderlek – Äänekoski . Nordisk familjeboks förlag, Stockholm 1922, Sp. 310 (Swedish, runeberg.org ).
- Official website (English, Swedish)