Confession of the German professors to Adolf Hitler

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The commitment of the professors at German universities and colleges to Adolf Hitler and the Nazi state was founded on November 11, 1933 to celebrate the " National Socialist revolution" of the year at a ceremony in the Albert Hall in Leipzig as a pledge of German scholars - mostly in the civil service  - carried forward . But not all of the signatories were professors; there are also private lecturers, lecturers, lecturers and even individual students among them. The title was “With Adolf Hitler for the German people's honor, freedom and justice!” Other names in the journalism of the time, in official documents and thus in historiography are “Demonstration of German Science” or, for short, the professors' professorship and call to the Educated in the world .

Alberthalle Leipzig, around 1890


The rally was hosted and published by the National Socialist Teachers' Association of Saxony. The event took place on the day before the “referendum” on the departure of the League of Nations on October 14th , which was coupled with the Reichstag election of November 1933 and a sham election because there were only NSDAP candidates. The confession was thus also a call for elections. In several speeches, Germany's alleged will to peace was emphasized, which should be striven for alongside freedom and honor. The withdrawal from the League of Nations was justified with the striving for equality of Germany on the international stage, which could only be achieved by withdrawing without the discriminatory provisions of the League of Nations. The scientists signed despite the fact that the National Socialist state had previously massively interfered with the academic freedom of teaching of universities through the law to restore the professional civil service , by expelling scholars of Jewish faith or origin or democratic convictions from office. The self-determination of the universities had also been abolished by the introduction of the Führer principle , and the NSDAP had gained a decisive influence there.

Front page

The Saxon NSLB governor Arthur Hugo Göpfert , in cooperation with the State University of Leipzig , called for a “Confession of Free and Politically Unbound German Scholars” to be published, a “Call to the world's educated”. This “reputation” promised a “ people-related cultivation of science” from which alone the power of science to unite people could grow. It went on: “Based on this conviction, German science appeals to the educated around the world to show the struggle of the German people, united by Adolf Hitler, for freedom, honor, law and peace with the same understanding that it does for its own people expect". The accompanying speeches were given one after the other by the rector of Leipzig University, the veterinarian and animal breeder Richard Arthur Golf , who had been the liaison professor of the NS student union even before the seizure of power , as well as Eugen Fischer , Martin Heidegger , Emanuel Hirsch , Wilhelm Pinder , Ferdinand Sauerbruch , Eberhard Schmidt , the theologian Friedrich Karl Schumann and the Germanist Friedrich Neumann .

Göpfert, a teacher, b. In 1902, he became Ministerialrat in 1933 , from March 1935 head (without a ministerial title) of the Ministry of Education in the State of Saxony alongside his party functions.


Overview of the universities represented

In the document, almost all the names of the signatories are assigned to their universities. At the end there are still a few unassigned scientists, most of them from the University of Leipzig, which is not listed in the overview, although its rector was one of the speakers. Most of the names came from Hamburg University, then from Göttingen and Marburg. Among the universities there are four Catholic Church universities in Bavaria, all of which have rectors signed: Adolf Eberle , Franz Heidingsfelder , Max Heuwieser and Michael Rackl .

A page with signatories of the confession, especially from Marburg and Hamburg


individual scientists

Names of scientists

A total of around 900 people signed.

In his analysis of the signatures of Hamburg professors, the ethnologist Hans Fischer explains that it is not clear "how the 'signatures' for this creed came about, nor what exactly the creed is". He refers to the fact that the preceding “Call to the educated of the world”, to which the signatures presumably apply, essentially speaks of “unlimited intellectual development and cultural freedom”, while the National Socialist content is mainly contained in the speeches be. He also believes that there are “doubts about the authenticity of Hamburg's 'signatures'”. He points out that the Hamburg signatures include "earlier or later opponents of Hitler like Flitner and Degkwitz ".

Among others signed:


Karl von der Aa (Leipzig business educator ), Narziss Ach (Göttingen psychologist), Eberhard Ackerknecht (Leipzig veterinarian), Gustav Aeckerlein (Freiberg physicist), Friedrich Ahlfeld (Marburg geologist), Karl Albrecht (educator) (Hamburg), Karl Alnor (Kieler History didactician), Hermann Altrock (Leipzig sports educator), Friedrich Alverdes (Marburg zoologist), Georg Anschütz (Hamburg psychologist), Christian Aretz (Bonn scientist, 1887–1960), Emil Artin (Hamburg mathematician, dismissed in 1937), Richard Augst (Dresden history educator , 1884–)


Ernst Baars (Marburg chemist), Adolf Bach (Bonn Germanist), Heinrich Barkhausen (Dresden physicist), Sophie Barrelet (Hamburg foreign language professor), Julius Bartels (Eberswalde geophysicist), Karl Hugo Friedrich Bauer (Leipzig chemist), Lorenz Bauer (Dillingen theologian) , Friedrich Baumann (Marburg surgeon), Karl Baumann (Bonn physics educator), Max Baur (Marburg pharmacist), Werner Bavendamm (Dresden botanist), Fritz Beckert (painter) (Dresden), Hermann Beenken (Leipzig art historian), Paul Johannes Beger (Hanoverian Mineralogist), Johannes Behm (Göttingen theologian), Carl Julius Peter Behr (Hamburg ophthalmologist), Hans Hermann Bennhold (Hamburg internist), Ewald Berge (Leipzig veterinarian), Walther Bergt (Dresden mineralogist), Erhard Berndt (Leipzig agricultural economist, SA member ), Georg Berndt (Dresden physicist), Luise Berthold (Marburg Germanist), Helmut Berve (Leipzig ancient historian), Theodor Beste (Dresden business economist), Erich Bethe (Leipzig classical philologist ge), Kurt Beyer (Dresden civil engineer), Robert Bierich (Hamburg doctor), Wilhelm Biltz (Hanoverian chemist), Ludwig Binder (Dresden electrical engineer), Lothar Birckenbach (Clausthal chemist), Herbert Birtner (Marburg musicologist), Fritz Blättner (Hamburg pedagogue ), Max Le Blanc (Leipzig chemist), Edwin Blanck (Göttingen soil scientist), Wilhelm Blaschke (Austrian mathematician, Hamburg), Hermann Block (Hamburg educator), Otto Blum (civil engineer, Hanover Technical University), Werner Blume (Göttingen anatomist and NS lecturer leader ), Paul Böckmann (Hamburg Germanist), Ernst Boehm (Leipzig educator), Gerhard Bohne (religious educator) (Kiel), Gerrit Bol (Dutch mathematician, Hamburg), Otto Friedrich Bollnow (Göttingen philosopher), Conrad Borchling (Hamburg Germanist), Bruno Borowski (Leipziger Anglist), Wilhelm Böttger (Leipzig chemist), Kurt Brand (Marburg pharmacist), Erich Brandenburg (Leipzig historian), Wilhelm Braeucker (Hamburg surgeon), Gusta v Brandes (Dresden zoologist), Ludolph Brauer (Hamburg aeronautical doctor), Friedrich Braun (Leipzig Germanist), Hermann Braune (Hanoverian chemist), Erich Bräunlich (Leipzig orientalist), Gustav Bredemann (Hamburg agricultural scientist), Hellmut Bredereck (Leipzig chemist), Franz Brenthel (Freiberg metallurgist), Roland Brinkmann (Hamburg geographer, later Nazi opponent), Georg Brion (1873–1950, Freiberg), Joachim Brock (Marburg pediatrician), Johannes Brodersen (Hamburg anatomist), Ernst Broermann (Bonn psychologist and sports pedagogue) , Paul Brohmer (Kiel biology didactic), Leo Bruhns (Leipzig art historian), Otto Brunck (Freiberg chemist), Curt Brunst (Dresden), Eberhard Buchwald (Danzig physicist), Günther Budelmann (Hamburg internist), Alfred Burgardsmeier (Bonn church historian), Felix Burkhardt (Leipzig statistician), Otto Burmeister (Rostock pedagogue), Werner Burmeister (Hamburg art historian), Adolf Busemann (engineering scientist) (Dresdner Aircraft designer), Adolf Butenandt (Danzig chemist, later Nobel Prize winner)


Hans Freiherr von Campenhausen (Göttingen theologian), Ernst Carlsohn (Leipzig chemist), Wilhelm Cauer (Göttingen mathematician), Peter Claussen (Marburg botanist), Paul Cohrs (Leipzig veterinarian), Hermann Cranz (mechanic at the TU Hannover), Nikolaus Creutzburg ( Geographer at TH Danzig), Rudolf Criegee (Marburg chemist), Adolf Dabelow (Marburg doctor), Hans Dachs (historian) (Regensburg), Petrus Dausch (Dillinger Catholic theologian), Rudolf Degkwitz (senior) (Hamburg doctor), Friedrich Delekat (Dresden theologian and religious educator), Alfred Dengler (Eberswalder forester), Georg Dettmar (Hanoverian electrical engineer), Gustaf Deuchler (Hamburg educator), Paul Deutsch (economist) (Leipzig), Max Deutschbein (Marburger Anglist), Hans Diller ( Hamburg classical philologist), Rudolf Dittler (Marburg ophthalmologist), Ottmar Dittrich (Leipzig linguist), Walter Döpp (Marburg botanist), Hans Dörries (Göttingen geographer, later in Münster), Carl Dolezalek ( retired civil engineer n der TH Hannover), Heinz Dotter Weich (Dresden zoologist), Friedrich Drenckhahn (Rostock pedagogue), Johannes von den Driesch (Bonn pedagogue), Karlfried Graf Dürckheim (Kiel psychologist), Herbert W. Duda (Leipzig orientalist), Gerhard Duters


August Eber (Leipzig veterinarian), Margarete Eberhardt (Hamburg pedagogue), Adolf Eberle (Dillingen moral theologian), Georg von Ebert (Nuremberg), Friedrich August Ebrard (Hamburg legal historian, Swiss), Heinrich Eddelbüttel (Rostock biologist and pedagogue), Richard Egenter ( Passau Catholic theologian), Rudolf Ehrenberg (Göttingen biologist, later victim of the Nazi regime), Walter Ehrenstein (Danzig psychologist), Hermann August Eidmann (Hannoversch Mündener entomologist), Karl Eimer (Marburg doctor), Otto Eiselin (Danzig civil engineer), Ludwig Eisenhofer (Eichstätter Liturgiewiss.), Curt Eisfeld (Hamburg business economist), Ernst Elster (Marburg Germanist), Otto Emicke (Freiberg mineralogist), Josef Engert (Regensburg dogmatist), Willi Enke (Marburg psychiatrist), Wilhelm Ernst (geologist) (Hamburg) , Ben Esser (Bonn music educator, 1875–1950), Erich Everth (Leipzig publicist and Nazi opponent)


Theodor Fahr (Hamburg pathologist), Rudolf Fahrner (Marburg Germanist, later contact with the resistance), Ferdinand Fehling (Lübeck-Hamburg historian), Karl Feist (Göttingen pharmacist), Friedrich Feld (business educator) (Berlin), Rainer Fetscher (Dresden hereditary hygienist) , Fritz Fichtner (Dresden art historian), Paul Ficker (Dresden elementary school teacher), Otto Fiederling (Hanoverian architect), Carl August Fischer (economist) (Hamburg), Eugen Fischer (medical practitioner) (medical practitioner), Friedrich Fischer (architect) (TH Hannover) , Otto Flachsbart (mechanical engineer TU Hannover), Ulrich Fleck (Göttingen neurologist), Hans Fliege (Marburg dentist), Wilhelm Flitner (Hamburg pedagogue), Karl Florenz (Hamburg Japanologist), Gustav Flügel (engineer) (Danzig), Johann Ulrich Folkers ( Rostock historian and folklorist), Alfred Forke (Hamburg sinologist), Günther Franz (Marburg historian), Otto Franzius (civil engineer and Rector TH Hannover), Hans Freese (Dresden architect), Julius Fress el (Hamburg gynecologist), Joseph Freundorfer (Passauer cath. Theologian, later Bishop of Augsburg), Hans Freyer (Leipzig sociologist), Walter Freytag (Hamburg mission director), Ernst Friedrich (Leipzig geographer), Johannes Friedrich (ancient orientalist) (later Leipzig rector), Theodor Frings (Leipzig Germanist), Otto Emil Fritzsche (Freiberg engineer), Gotthold Frotscher (Danzig musicologist), Hugo Fuchs (Göttingen anatomist), Vinzenz Fuchs (Dillingen theologian), Erwin Fues (Hanoverian physicist)


Hans-Georg Gadamer (Marburg philosopher), Kurt Gaede (Hanoverian civil engineer), Paul Gast (Hanoverian geodesist), Julius Gebhard (Hamburg educator), Arnold Gehlen (Leipzig philosopher, sociologist), Willy Gehler (Dresden civil engineer), Hans Gehrig (Dresdner Economist), Oscar Gehrig (Rostock art historian), Karl August Geiger (Dillingen church lawyer), Otto Geißler (Hanoverian civil engineer), Wilhelm Geißler (engineer) (Dresden civil engineer), Felix Genzmer (legal scholar) (Marburg), Herbert Gernahm (1892–, Rostock geographer), Ernst Gehrhardt (forest scientist in Hannoversch Münden), Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg (forest scientist in Hannoversch Münden), Gustav Giemsa (Hamburg chemist), Wilhelm Giese (Romanist) (Hamburg), Josef Giesen (Bonn art historian, later Vechta), Otto Glauning (head of the Leipzig University Library), Engelhardt Glimm (1877 agrochemist from Danzig), Hermann Gmelin (Danzig Romanist, later Kiel), Otto Goebel (Hanoverian he economist), Kurt Göcke (Dresden orthopedist), August Götte (Clausthal mineralogist), Arthur Golf (Leipzig rector), Fritz Goos (Hamburg physicist), Hugo Grau (Leipzig veterinarian), Georg Grimpe (Leipzig zoologist), Waldemar Grix (Danziger E-Techniker), Franz Groebbels (Hamburg doctor), Walter Große (Leipzig national economist), H. Großmann (Göttingen hygienist), Hermann Großmann (economist) (Leipzig University of Economics ), Rudolf Grossmann (Romanist) (Hamburg), Eduard Grüneisen (Marburger Physicist), Georg Wilhelm Grüter (Marburg ophthalmologist), Herbert Grundmann (Leipzig historian), Georg Grunwald (Regensburg religious educator), Adolf Güntherschulze (Dresden physicist)


Rudolf Habermann (1884–1941, Hamburg dermatologist), Fedor Haenisch (Hamburg radiologist), Reinhard Haferkorn (Danziger Anglist), Konstantin von Haffner (Hamburg zoologist), Jörgen Hansen (Kiel geographer), Karl Hansen (pedagogue) (Hamburg speech therapist), Richard Hanssen (Hamburg ophthalmologist), Richard Harder (biologist) (Göttingen), Helmut Hasse (Marburg mathematician), Kurt Hassert (Dresden geographer), Edwin Hauberrisser (Göttingen dentist), Herbert Haupt (Leipzig veterinarian), Johann Nepomuk Hebensperger (Dillingen historian ), Erich Hecke (Hamburg mathematician), Otto Heckmann (Göttingen astronomer), Enno Heidebroek (Dresden mechanical engineer and rector 1946), Martin Heidegger (philosopher), Robert Heidenreich (Leipzig archaeologist), Georg Heidingsfelder (Eichstätt theologian), Alfred Heiduschka (Dresden native Food chemist), Willi Heike (1880–1944, Freiberg Metallurg), Franz Hein (chemist) (Leipzig), Wilhelm Heinitz (Hamburg musicologist), Rudolf Heinz (geologist) (Hamb urg), Heinrich Heiser (Dresdner Wasserbauer), Emil Heitz (botanist) (Hamburg), Sven Helander (Swede and Nuremberg economist), Gustav Heller (chemist) (Leipzig chemist), Karl Helm (Marburg Germanist and dean), Eberhard Hempel ( Dresden art historian), Johannes Hempel (Göttingen theologian), Friedrich Hempelmann (Leipzig zoologist), Ernst Hentschel (Hamburg zoologist), Eduard Hermann (Göttingen linguist), Ernst Hertel (Leipzig ophthalmologist), Johannes Hertel (Leipzig indologist), Julius Herweg (Hanoverian Physicist), Alois Herzog (Dresden textile technologist), Franz Heske (Dresden forest manager), Herbert Hesmer (Eberswalder forest manager), Paul Hesse (Göttingen agricultural scientist), Theodor Hetzer (Leipzig art historian), Max Heuwieser (Passau church historian), Johannes Erich Heyde (Rostocker Philosopher), Theodor Heynemann (Hamburg gynecologist), Emil Hilarius (Dresden pedagogue), Heinrich Hildebrand (forensic doctor) (Marburg), Leo von Hibler (English studies in Leipzig and Dresden, later Vienna), Emanuel Hirsch (Göttingen theologian), Alexander Höfer (Dresden sculptor), Emil Högg (Dresden architect), Otto Hölder (Leipzig mathematician), Cornelius Hölk (Marburg school principal and didactic), Robert Höltje (Danzig chemist), Alexander Hoffmann (Leipzig business economist), Hans Hoffmann (Hamburg), Walter Hoffmann (economist) (Freiberg), Albert von Hofmann (Marburg historian), Erich Hofmann (Göttingen linguist), Johannes Hofmann (librarian) (head of the Leipzig City Library), Paul Hofmann ( Hygienist) (Dresden), Gustav Hopf (Hamburg dermatologist), Carl Horst (Marburg art historian), Joseph Anton Huber (Dillingen), Alfred Hübner (Göttingen Germanist, later Leipzig), Valerius Hüttig (Dresden engineer for ventilation), Reinhard Hugershoff (Dresden Geödät), Karl Humburg (Hanoverian electrical engineer)

Pages with individual signatures mainly from the University of Leipzig


Edgar Irmscher (Hamburg botanist), Otto Israel-Oesterhelt (Dresden geodesist), Bernhard Iversen (Kiel music teacher), Arnold Jacobi (Dresden zoologist), Eduard Jacobshagen (Marburg anatomist), Peter Jaeck (Marburg sports scientist), Fritz Jäger (Hamburg sinologist) , Erich Jaensch (Marburg psychologist), Walther Jaensch (Berlin sports medicine specialist), Eduard Jahn (Hannoversch Münder botanist), Maximilian Jahrmärker (Marburg psychiatrist, director of the state hospital), Eduard von Jan (Leipzig Romanist), Christian Janentzky (Dresden Germanist), Heinz Janert (Leipzig soil scientist), Harro de Wet Jensen (Marburger Anglist, in Heidelberg 1936–1945), Christian Jensen (meteorologist) (Hamburg physicist), Peter Jensen (Marburg Hittite scientist), Gerhard de Jonge (Danzig engineer), Wilhelm Hermann Jost ( Dresden architect), Erich Jung (Marburg legal philosopher), Heinrich Junker (Leipzig linguist), Hubert Junker (Passau Catholic theologian)


Felix Kämpf (Leipzig physicist, 1877-), Alfred Kaestner (Dresden zoologist), Alfred Kalähne (Danzig physicist), Paul Kanold (Hanoverian architect), Helmuth Kanter (Hamburg geographer), Oskar Fritz Karg (Leipzig Germanist, dismissed in 1934 for theft) , August Karolus (Leipzig physicist), Walter Kayser (Berlin sports scientist), Eduard Keeser (Hamburg pharmacologist, rector 1941–1945), Karl Kegel (Freiberg mining engineer), Erwin Kehrer (1874–1959, Marburg gynecologist), Egon Keining (Hamburg dermatologist ), Gustav Keppeler (Hanoverian chemist), Otto Kestner (Hamburg doctor and physiologist), Karl Kiefer (Eichstätter theologian), Hans Kienle (Göttingen astronomer), Sebastian Killermann ( PTH Regensburg , theologian and natural scientist), Heinz Kindermann (literary scholar) (Danzig ), Karl Kindler (Hamburg pharmacologist), Paul Kirn (Leipzig historian), Walter Rudolf Kirschbaum (Hamburg neurologist), Otto Kirschmer (Dresden physicist), Julius Kister (Hamburg Bacteriologist, 1870–1942), Rudolf Klapp (Marburg surgeon), Heinrich Klebahn (Hamburg mycologist), Johannes Klein (Germanist) (Marburg), Ludwig Klein (Hanoverian mechanical engineer and Rector of the TH), Otto Klemm (Leipzig psychologist), Wilhelm Klemm (Chemist) (Danzig), Felix Klewitz (Marburg doctor), Martin Klimmer (Leipzig veterinarian), Erich Klinge (sports scientist) (Berlin-Charlottenburg), August Klingenhaben (Hamburg Africanist), Friedrich Klingner (Leipzig classical philologist), Otto Kloeppel (Danziger Architect), August Klughardt (1887–1970, Dresden optician), Friedrich Knauer (physical chemist) (Hamburg), Alfred Kneschke (Dresden mathematician), Hans Otto Kneser (Marburg physicist), Werner Kniehahn (Dresden mechanical engineer), Hugo Wilhelm Knipping (Hamburg Internist), Wilhelm Knoll (physician) (Hamburg sports physician), Emil Koch (Hamburg geographer), Peter Paul Koch (Hamburg physicist), Carl Walter Kockel (Leipzig geologist), Paul Koebe (Leipzig mathematician and Deka n), Franz Kögler (Freiberg civil engineer), Walter König (chemist) (Dresden), Max Koernicke (Bonn agricultural scientist), Alfred Körte (Leipzig classical philologist), Rudolf Kötzschke (Leipzig economic historian), Friedrich Kolbeck (Freiberg mineralogist), Willy Kolz (Rostock pedagogue), Harald Koschmieder (Danzig meteorologist), Walter Kossel (Danzig physicist), Franz Kossmat (Leipzig geologist), Gerhard Kowalewski (Dresden mathematician), Maximilian Krafft (Marburg mathematician), Werner Krauss (Romanist) (Marburg, later im Resistance), Erich Krenkel (Leipzig geologist), Ernst Kretschmer (Marburg psychiatrist), Julius Krieg (Regensburg canon lawyer), Martin Kröger (Leipzig chemist), Felix Krueger (Leipzig psychologist), Fritz Krüger (Romanist) (Hamburg), Gerhard Krüger ( Philosopher) (Marburg), Friedrich Küch (Marburg archivist), Karl Küpfmüller (Danzig electrical engineer), Hermann Kümmell (Hamburg surgeon), Josef Kurzinger (Eichstatter theologian), Hans Kuhn (Marburg Germanist), Friedrich Kutscher (physiologist) (Marburg), Karl Kutzbach (Dresden mechanical engineer)


Max Otto Lagally (Dresden mathematician), Albrecht Langelüddeke (Hamburg psychiatrist), Otto Lauffer (Hamburg folklorist), Fritz Laves (Göttingen mineralogist), Joseph Lechner (Eichstatt canon lawyer), Kurt Leese (Hamburg philosopher), Bruno Lehmann (Dresden), Max Rudolf Lehmann (Nuremberg economist), Rudolf Lehmann (Leipzig ethnologist), Walther Lehmann (Hamburg hygienist), Erich Lehmenick (Kiel teacher), Hans Lemmel (Eberswalde), Wilhelm Lenz (Hamburg physicist), Philipp Lersch (Leipzig psychologist), EH Lieber , Otto Lienau (Danzig shipbuilder), Paul Lindemann (journalist) (Hamburg), Joseph Lippl (Regensburg Old Testament scholar), Hans Lipps (Marburg philosopher), Friedrich Lipsius (philosopher), Theodor Litt (philosopher) [signature doubtful], Helmut Loebell ( Marburg medic), Ernst Lommatzsch (Marburg classical philologist), Hans Lorenz (mechanical engineer) (Danzig), Alexander Lorey (Hamburg radiologist), Alfred Lottermoser (Dresden chemist), Heinrich Lottig (Hamburg ger aviation physician), Rudolf Lütgens (Hamburg economic geographer), Robert Luther (chemist) (Dresden)


Gerhard Mackenroth (Marburg lawyer), Johannes Madel (Freiberg geologist), Dietrich Mahnke (Marburg philosopher), Erich Manegold (Göttingen chemist), Johann Wilhelm Mannhardt (folk scientist), Otto Mattes (Marburg zoologist and leader of the teaching staff), Eduard Maurer (Freiberger Metallurg), Friedrich Mauz (Marburg psychiatrist, later T4 reviewer for Aktion T4 ), Kurt May (Göttingen Germanist), Martin Mayer (Hamburg tropical medicine specialist, dismissed in 1934), Franz Xaver Mayr (natural scientist) (Eichstätt), Hans Mayer-Wegelin ( Hannoversch Münder Forstwirt), Harry Maync (Marburg Germanist), Rudolf Meerwarth (Leipzig statistician), Hans Meerwein (Marburg chemist), Carl Meinhof (Hamburg Africanist), Edwin Meister (Dresden textile technologist), Konrad Mellerowicz (Berlin economist), Gerhard Menz ( Leipzig economist), Heinrich Menzel (Dresden chemist), Eugen von Mercklin (Hamburg archaeologist), Walther Merk (Marburg lawyer and rector), Adolf Meyer (Hamburg biologist), Hans Mey he (Hamburg), Heinrich Meyer-Benfey (Hamburg Germanist), Adolf Meyn (Leipzig veterinarian), Fritz Micheel (Göttingen chemist), Eugen Michel (Hanoverian architect), Heinrich von Minnigerode (Marburg lawyer), Hermann Mirbt (Göttingen lawyer), Waldemar Mitscherlich (Göttingen political scientist), Max Mitterer (Passau canon lawyer), Walther Mitzka (Marburg linguist), Willy Möbius (Leipzig physicist), Hans Georg Möller (Hamburg), Eugen Mogk (Leipzig Nordist), Bruno Moll (Leipzig economist), Wilhelm Mommsen (Marburg historian), Max Momsen (Kiel pedagogue), Lorenz Morsbach (Göttingen Anglist), Adolf Muesmann (Dresden architect), Peter Mühlens (Hamburg hygienist), Conrad Müller (Hanoverian mathematician), Erich Müller (chemist, rector of the TU Dresden ), Friedrich Müller (chemist) (Dresden), Kurt Müller (archaeologist) (Göttingen), Wilhelm Müller-Lenhartz (Leipzig agricultural scientist), Paul Mulzer (Hamburg dermatologist), Karl Mylius (medical doctor) (Ha mburger ophthalmologist)


Alwin Nachtweh (Hanoverian mechanical engineer), Adolph Nägel (Dresden mechanical engineer), Emil Naetsch (Dresden mathematician), Ernst Georg Nauck (Hamburg tropical medicine), Hans Naujoks (Marburg gynecologist), Friedrich Neesen (1888–1945, Danzig railway engineer), Walter Nehm ( Clausthaler Markscheider), Harald Nehrkorn (Hamburg mathematician, sp. Headmaster), Friedrich Wilhelm Neuffer (Dresden civil engineer), Willy Neuling (Hamburg economist), Ernst Richard Neumann (Marburg mathematician), Friedrich Neumann (Germanist) (Göttingen), Johannes Neumann ( Hamburg veterinarian), Kurt Neumann (engine builder) (Hanover), Rudolf Otto Neumann (Hamburg bacteriologist), Karl Nieberle (Leipzig veterinarian), Arthur Philipp Nikisch (Dresden lawyer), Hermann Noack (philosopher) (Hamburg), Johannes Nobel (Marburg indologist ), Bernhard Nocht (Hamburg tropical medicine specialist), Max Nordhausen (Marburg botanist)


Karl Justus Obenauer (Leipzig Germanist, later teacher of Hans Rößner in Bonn ), Erich Obst (Hanoverian geographer), Franz Oehlecker (Hamburg hematologist), Julius Oelkers (Hannoversch Münder Forstwirt), Fritz Oesterlen (Hanoverian engineer), Wolfgang Ostwald (Leipzig chemist ), Max Pagenstecher (Hamburg lawyer), Georg Pallaske (Leipzig veterinarian), Giulio Panconcelli-Calzia (Hamburg phonetician), Erwin Papperitz (Freiberg mathematician), Erich Parnitzke (Kiel art educator), Enrique Paschen (Hamburg tropical doctor), Siegfried Passarge (Hamburg Geographer and ethnologist), Walther Pauer (Dresdner Energiewiss.), Gustav Pauli (Hamburg art historian), Friedrich Peemöller (Hamburg doctor), Balduin Penndorf (Leipzig economist), Hans Pesta (Hamburg educator), Rudolf Peter (Hamburg educator), Ulrich Peters (Pedagogue) (Kiel Rector of the LBA), Richard Petersen (Danzig engineer), Hans Petersson (Hamburg mathematician), Robert Petsch (Hamburg Germanist), Heinrich P ette (Hamburg neurologist), Wilhelm Pfannenstiel (Marburg racial hygienist), Georg Pfeilschifter (Munich church historian), Kurt Pietzsch (Leipzig geologist), Wilhelm Pinder (Munich art historian), Hans Plischke (Göttingen ethnologist), Ernst Pohlhausen (Danzig mathematician), Hermann Potthoff (Hanoverian mechanical engineer), Georg Prange (Hanoverian mathematician), Julius Precht (Hanoverian physicist), Heinrich Prell (Dresden forester), Anton von Premerstein (Marburg ancient historian), Edgar Pröbster (Leipzig orientalist), Arthur Pröll (Hanoverian flight technician), Arthur Prüfer (Leipzig musicologist)


Paul Rabe (Hamburg), Michael Rackl (Eichstätter theologian), Georg Raederscheidt (Director of the Pedagogical Academy Bonn), Berthold Rassow (Leipzig chemist), Fritz Rauda (Dresden architect), Hans Rebel (Göttingen dentist), Otto Reche (racist Leipzig anthropologist ), Joachim von Reckow (Marburg dentist), Konstantin Reichardt (Leipzig Nordist, emigrated in 1937), Eduard Reichenow (Hamburg biologist), Ferdinand Reiff (Marburg chemist), Adolf Rein (Hamburg historian), Hermann Rein (Göttingen doctor and rector), Richard Reinhardt (veterinarian) (Leipzig veterinarian), Richard Reisig (Leipzig German pedagogue), Viktor Rembold (Danzig shipbuilder), Heinrich Remy (Hamburg chemist), Theodor Remy (Bonn forester), Oscar Reuther (Dresden archaeologist), Johannes Max Hugo Richter ( Leipzig), Paul Riebesell (Hamburg actuary), Wilhelm Rieder (Hamburg surgeon), August Rippel (Göttingen microbiologist), Curt Risch (Hanoverian railway engineer eur), Eberhard Rimann (Dresden geologist), Curt Risch (Hanoverian civil engineer), Joachim Ritter (Hamburg philosopher), Erich Rix (Marburg pathologist), Ernst Roedelius (Hamburg surgeon), Karl Röder (engineer) (Hanoverian mechanical engineer), Fritz Rössel (Hamburg curative educator), Georg Rohde (Marburg classical philologist), Hermann Rose (mineralogist) (Hamburg), Heinrich Roth (electrical engineer) (Danzig, 1880–1945), Konrad Rubner (Dresden forester), Hans Rudolphi (Leipzig geographer), Georg Rüth (Dresdner Hochbauer), Alfred Ruete (Marburg dermatologist), Wilhelm Ruhland (Leipzig botanist), Max Rumpf (Nuremberg sociologist), Hermann Gustav Runge (Hamburg ENT specialist, 1887–1942)

Sa – Sch

Ewald Sachsenberg (Dresden business economist), Horst von Sanden (Hanoverian mathematician), Curt Sandig (Leipzig business economist), Heinrich Sauer (Hamburg), Ferdinand Sauerbruch (Berlin surgeon), Erich Schäfer (Nuremberg business economist), Karl Theodor Schäfer (Regensburg New Testament student), Wilhelm Schäperclaus (Eberswalder zoologist), Carl Schall (Leipzig chemist), Georg Schaltbrand (Hamburg neurologist, later head of experiments on humans), Johannes Scheffler (Dresden), Johannes Scheiber (Leipzig chemist), Walter Scheidt (Hamburg racial biologist), Georg Scheller (Nuremberg), Martin Schenck (Leipzig chemist), Harald Schering (Hanoverian electrical engineer), Siegmund Schermer (Göttingen veterinarian and rector 1932/33), Karl-Hermann Scheumann (Leipzig mineralogist), Carl Arthur Scheunert (Leipzig veterinarian), Eberhard Freiherr von Scheurl (Nuremberg lawyer), Martin Schieblich (Leipzig veterinarian), Ernst Schiebold (Leipzig mineralogist), Carl Schiffner (Freiberg Hüttenku ndler), Ludwig Schiller (Leipzig physicist), Bernhard Schilling (Dresden mathematician), Friedrich Schilling (mathematician) (TH Danzig), Werner Schingnitz (Leipzig philosopher), Arthur Schleede (Leipzig chemist), Carl Schlieper (Marburg zoologist), Josef Schmid (Theologian) (Dillingen), Ernst Schmidt (TH Danzig), Harry Schmidt (Leipzig chemist), Johannes Schmidt (Leipzig), Jonas Schmidt (zoologist) (Göttingen veterinarian), Werner Schmidt (forest scientist) (Eberswalde), Wolfgang Schmid (t ) (Marburger Anglist), G. Schmitthenner, Eugen Schmitz (Dresden musicologist), Leonhard Schmöller (Passau theologian), Friedrich Schneider (pedagogue) (Bonn), Hermann Schneider (philosopher) (Leipzig), Paul Schneider (Hamburg), Wilhelm Schneider -Windmüller (Bonn), Franz Schob (Dresden psychopathologist), Roland Scholl (Swiss chemist in Dresden), Richard Scholz (Leipzig medieval historian ), Richard Schorr (Hamburg astronomer), Gerhard Schott (oceanographer) (Hamburg), Hugo Schottmüller ( Hamburg bacteriologist), Friedrich Schreiber (Dresden), Alfred Schröder (Dillinger theologian), Bruno Schröder (Dresden), Edward Schröder (Göttingen Germanist), Joseph Schröffer (Eichstätter theologian), Paul Schubring (Hanoverian art historian), Walther Schubring (Hamburg indologist) , Levin Ludwig Schücking (Leipzig Anglist and Nazi opponent), Alfred Schüz (Hamburg military scientist and historian), Hans Schulten (Hamburg internist), Bruno Schultz (Dresden economist), Helmut Schultz (Leipzig), Ernst Schultze (Leipzig), Walter Schultze (Hamburg educator), Leonhard Schultze-Jena (Marburg zoologist), Otto Theodor Schulz (Leipzig ancient historian), Alfred Schulze (Marburg Romanist), Franz Arthur Schulze (Marburg physicist), Otto Schulze (hydraulic engineer) (Danzig), Gerhard Schulze-Pillot (Danzig mechanical engineer), Paul Schulz-Kiesow (Hamburg transport scientist), Rudolf Schulz-Schaeffer (1885-1966, Marburg lawyer), Friedrich Schumacher (geologist and rector in F reiberg), Otto Schumm (Hamburg chemist), Kurt Schwabe (Dresden chemist), Carl Leopold Schwarz (Hamburg hygienist), Paul Schwarz (orientalist) (Leipzig), Bernhard Schweitzer (Leipzig archaeologist), Alfred Schwenkenbecher (Marburg internist and rector), Friedrich Schwerd (Hanoverian mechanical engineer), Wilhelm Schwinning (Dresden Metallurg)


Wilhelm Seedorf (Göttingen agricultural economist and later Nazi opponent), Walter Seiz (Danzig electrical engineer), Emil Sieg (Göttingen Indo-Europeanist), Arthur Simon (Dresden chemist), Aladar Skita (Hanoverian chemist), Alexander Snyckers (Belgian economic linguist in Leipzig) , Emil Sörensen (Dresden mechanical engineer), Max Graf zu Solms (Marburg sociologist and Nazi opponent), Julius Sommer (Danzig mathematician), Curt Sonnenschein (Hamburg tropical medicine specialist), Adolf Spamer (Dresden German specialist ), Curt Sprehn (Leipzig veterinarian), Paul Ssymank (Göttingen historian), Franz Stadtmüller (Göttingen anatomist), Martin Stammer (Rostock theologian), Otto Hermann Steche (Leipzig zoologist), Kurt Steinbart (Marburg art historian), Martha Steinert (Kiel German teacher), Wilhelm Steinkopf (Dresden chemist, poison gas researcher) , Edmund E. Stengel (Marburg historian), Hermann Stephani (Marburg musicologist), Johannes Evangelist Stigler (Eichstätter mathematician), Hans Stobbe (Leipziger Chemike r), Karl Stöckl (Regensburg physicist), Rose Stoppel (Hamburg botanist), Werner Straub (Dresden psychologist), Reinhard Strecker (Eberswalde, later in the resistance), Wilhelm Strecker (Marburg chemist), Rudolf Streller (Leipzig national economist), Hermann Stremme (Danzig soil researcher, later East Berlin), Bernhard Struck (Dresden ethnologist), Fritz Stückrath (Hamburg pedagogue), Otto Stutzer (Freiberg geologist), Paul Sudeck (Hamburg surgeon), Heinrich Süchting (Hannoversch Münder soil scientist), Karl Süpfle (Dresdner Hygienist), Heinrich Sulze (Dresden civil engineer), Karl Friedrich Suter (Leipzig art historian, Rostock from 1946)

T – U

Ernst Tams (Hamburg geophysicist), Jehangir Tavadia (Hamburg indologist), Horst Teichmann (Dresden physicist), Fritz Terhalle (Hamburg financial scientist), Adolf Teuscher (Dresden pedagogue), Karl Thalheim (Leipzig national economist, West Berlin after 1945), Alfred Thiel (Marburger Chemist), Hermann Thiersch (Göttingen archaeologist), Georg Thilenius (Hamburg ethnologist), Arthur Thost (Hamburg ENT specialist), William Threlfall (British mathematician in Dresden), Friedrich Tobler (Dresden botanist), Maximilian Toepler (Dresden physicist), Rudolf Tomaschek (Marburg supporter of German physics), Reinhold Trautmann (Leipzig Slavicist), Erich Trefftz (Dresden mathematician), Emil Treptow (Freiberg mining engineer), Karl Tripp (Marburg biologist), Walter Ehrenreich Tröger (Dresden mineralogist), Carl von Tyszka (Hamburg) Finance scientist), Hans Ueberschaar (Leipzig Japanologist), Jakob Johann von Uexküll (Hamburg environmental researcher), Walther Uffenorde (Marburg ENT-Medizi ner), Wolfgang Heinz Uhlitzsch (Freiberg), Egon Ullrich (Marburg mathematician), Hermann Ullrich (Leipzig botanist), Adalbert von Unruh (Göttingen lawyer)


Siegfried Valentiner (Clausthal physicist and rector), Max Versé (Marburg doctor and rector), Wilhelm Vershofen (economist and teacher Ludwig Erhard ), Wilhelm Ernst Vetter (1883-; Dresden religious educator), Ernst Vetterlein (Hanoverian architect), Hermann Vogel (agricultural scientist ) (Göttingen), Paul Vogel (1877–1960; Leipzig educator), Richard Vogel (educator) (Dresden), Rudolf Vogel (materials researcher) (Göttingen), Sebastian Vogl (Passau science historian), Eckhardt Vogt (Marburg physicist), Walter Voigtländer (Dresden pedagogue), Hans Volkelt (Leipzig psychologist and pedagogue), Wilhelm Volz (Leipzig geographer), Friedrich Voss (zoologist) (Göttingen), Otto Voss (Hamburg neurosurgeon)


Friedrich Wachtsmuth (Marburg art historian, dismissed in 1945), Kurt Wagner (Germanist) (Marburg), Friedrich August Wahl (Marburg gynecologist), Gustav Wahl (Hamburg library director), Bernhard Walde (Dillinger Old Testament scholar), Michael Waldmann (Regensburg moral theologian), Andreas Walther (Sociologist) (Hamburg), Paul Erich Wandhoff (Freiberg Geodät), Otto Wawrziniok (Dresden Metallurg), Anton Weber (Dillingen), Constantin Weber (Dresden mechanic), Ewald Weber (Leipzig veterinarian), Hermann Weber (zoologist) (TH Danzig ), Werner Weber (mathematician) (Göttingen), Edgar Wedekind (Hannoversch Münder chemist), Rudolf Wedekind (paleontologist) (Marburg), Emil Wehrle (Marburg lawyer), Ludwig Weickmann (Leipzig geophysicist), Walther Weigelt (Freiberg mining lawyer ), Walter Weigmann (Leipzig economist), Karl Friedrich Weimann (Leipzig historian), Paul Weinrowsky (Kiel physics teacher), Franz Heinrich Weißbach (Leipzig orientalist), Friedrich Weller (Leipzig indologist), He rmann Wendorf (Leipzig historian), Ferdinand von Werden (Eichstätter art historian), Paul Werkmeister (Dresden surveyor), Otto Westphal (historian) (Hamburg), Wilhelm Weygandt (Hamburg psychiatrist), Georg Wiarda (Dresden mathematician), Paul Wichmann (Hamburg dermatologist ), Walter Wickop (Hanoverian architect), Eilhard Wiedemann (Eberswalde), Kurt Wiedenfeld (Leipzig national economist), Gebhardt Wiedmann (Dresden physicist), Heinrich Wienhaus (Göttingen chemist), Friedrich Adolf Willers (Freiberg mathematician), Hans Winkler (botanist) ( Hamburg), Hugo Wippler (Leipzig art educator), Wilhelm Wirth (Leipzig philosopher and psychologist), Hans Adolf Wislicenus (Dresden forester), Karl Wittmaack (Hamburg ENT specialist ), Michael Wittmann (ethicist) (Eichstätt), Georg Wobbermin (Göttingen theologian ), Gerhard Wörner (economist) (Leipzig lawyer and rector of the commercial college), Georg Wohlmuth (Eichstätt philosopher), Walther Wolf (Leipzig Egyptologist), Ludwig Wolff (Germanist) (Göttingen), Max Wolff (Eberswalder zoologist), Richard Woltereck (Leipzig zoologist), Ferdinand Wrede (Marburg linguist), Heinz-Georg Wünscher (Leipzig student of veterinary medicine), Feodor Wünschmann (tax lawyer at the Leipzig Commercial College), Heinz Wulf (Hamburg doctor, 1908–1957), Wunniger, Franz Wutz (Eichstadt theologian), Johann Wysogorski (Hamburg geologist)


Eduard Zarncke (Leipzig classical philologist), Rudolph Zaunick (Dresden librarian), Oskar Zdralek (Dresden mechanical engineer), Egmont Zechlin (Marburg historian), Paul Zenetti (Dillingen geologist), Peter Zepp (Bonn geographer), Erich Ziebarth (Hamburg ancient historian), Hans -Willi Ziegler (Rostock psychologist), Ludwig Zimmermann (Marburg historian, later Erlangen), Waldemar Zimmermann (Hamburg economist), Friedrich Zoepfl (Dillingen church historian), Ernst Zyhlarz (Hamburg Africanist)

Speeches (excerpts)

Rector Eugen Fischer (Berlin):

“A mighty master builder drew the crack and directed the construction and, through the power and magic of his personality, managed to pull a whole large 65 million people along [...] into a mighty wave of building and working on this new state . That's what the world calls revolution [...] because it came like a storm, [...] because a man's essence, a man's will, has broken away what was rotten and bad, and has given a people new ideals as guidelines in the German style in custom, calm and order [...] we scientists build with [...] following the new state wholeheartedly "

“That is socialism indeed! We will build it up and expand it, not wrested from the fists of the workers, not wrested by class struggle and class antagonism, but built on the commonality of our lineages, on the commonality of our blood, which in the last national comrade sees the same people of the same tribe as we are ourselves . "

- p. 9 f. of the Dresden edition [1933]

Rector Martin Heidegger (Freiburg i. Br.):

“German teachers and comrades! German national comrades! [...] We have renounced the idolatry of bottomless and powerless thinking. We see the end of the philosophy that serves him. We are certain that the clear harshness and the work-appropriate security of the unyielding simple questioning about the essence of being will return. The original courage to either grow or break in the confrontation with beings is the innermost motivation for asking a folkish science. [...] The National Socialist revolution is not just the takeover of an existing power in the state by another [...] party, but this revolution brings about the complete upheaval of our German existence. From now on, every thing demands a decision and every action demands responsibility. "

- p. 13 f.

Wilhelm Pinder (Munich): He refers to the celebration of the 10th anniversary of November 9, 1923 and describes the staging of this commemoration, which deeply moved him:

“It hasn't been since the days of drama . It was no longer theater, it was no longer the separation between players and spectators, stage and audience […], the community was there again. Everything worked together. This is more than a picture [...] This is style, that is, the inseparable union of the community to form, an involuntarily created symbol for the content that thousands perceive, the design of everyone in the expression of their own life. "

- p. 19


Although in the aftermath of the rally in the winter of 1933/34 almost all professors were asked to sign the “call” across the Reich, a number of universities are missing, such as Bonn, Cologne, Frankfurt, Freiburg and Munich. So far only one faculty is known that refused to sign the "Ruf" as a whole, that of Protestant theology in Marburg . The dean of the faculty, Hans von Soden , wrote the rector in cautious language that they were not against the new state, but against this declaration. Formally he objected that the “call” was being propagated at that time as part of a larger memorandum , the future context of which could not be determined. He wrote that the confession was so self-evident in his statements that no signatures were actually required for it, so there was probably more to it. Abroad, the reputation would not have the desired effect, as the faculty knows from contacts abroad. The referendum on November 12, 1933 to withdraw from the League of Nations was approved. Above all, the theologians opposed the formulation of the “call” that, for the first time since Fichte's time, the representatives of German intellectual life as guarantors of the National Socialist state appear before the world public with a political commitment. The sentence would be dismissed as wrong by all those who are knowledgeable abroad. Furthermore, the theologians did not want NS organizations (named by name) to determine who is allowed to sign and who is not, because in various letters accompanying the collection of signatures and money, "Jewish" and other, differently and subtly circumscribed non-Nazis were from the signature been excluded. The theologians countered this with their professional solidarity among faculty colleagues.

The Romanist Victor Klemperer (Dresden), who was of Jewish origin, voted no twice in the referendum, his wife gave blank pieces of paper. In his diary, Klemperer noted: "That was almost a brave act, because everyone was expecting the breach of voting secrecy."

See also


  • The professors at the German universities and colleges acknowledge Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist state. Presented by the Nat.-soz. Teachers' Association Germany, Gau Sachsen, undated [1933] Dresden-A. 1, Zinzendorfstr. 2; 136 p. With translations into English, Italian, French. and spanish language. Printer's note: Wilhelm Limpert, Dresden. For the online scan in Gothic script, see web links. - When the Soviet military administration put the book on the “ List of Literature to be Separated ” in 1945 ( transcript letter B, pages 17–64, no. 755 ), it also unwittingly rendered a great service to all signatories because the book is now available from all libraries of the future GDR disappeared and was therefore no longer publicly noticed.
  • Martin Heidegger: Address on November 11, 1933 in Leipzig. In: Ders .: Speeches and other testimonies of a life path 1910–1976. Complete edition , Dept. 1, Volume 16. Klostermann, Frankfurt 2000, ISBN 3-465-03040-0 , pp. 190–193 ( Doc. 104 in the Google book search, in Latin script ; online in Gothic script , see web links).


  • Thomas Laugstien: Philosophy Relationships in German Fascism. Argument, Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-88619-169-9 , p. 29 ff. On the Lpz. Event.
  • Helmut Kuhn u. a .: The German university in the Third Reich. University lecture series. Piper, Munich 1966, DNB 456422420 (on the number 900: p. 71); therein Hans Maier : National Socialist University Policy. Pp. 71-103.
  • Leonore Siegele-Wenschkewitz , Carsten Nicolaisen (Hrsg.): Theological faculties in National Socialism (= Evangelical Working Group for Church Contemporary History Leipzig (Hrsg.): Works on Church History. Series B: Representations. Volume 18). V&R , Göttingen 1993, ISBN 3-525-55718-3 .
  • Anne Christine Nagel , Ulrich Sieg : The Philipps University of Marburg under National Socialism. Documents on their history (= Pallas Athene. Contributions to the history of universities and science. Volume 1). Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-515-07653-0 .
  • Niels C. Lösch: Race as a construct. Life and work of Eugen Fischer (= European university publications. Series 3: History and its auxiliary sciences. Volume 737). Peter Lang, Bern 1997, ISBN 978-3-631-31746-4 (on the Lpz. Event: p. 262 f.). Zugl. Diss. TU Berlin 1996 (according to the publisher) or Diss. FU Berlin (according to DNB ).
  • George Leaman: Heidegger in context. Complete overview of the Nazi involvement of university philosophers. Argument, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-88619-205-9 (gives the number of 961 signatories, p. 100).

Web links


  1. Very sporadically in secondary literature: "Call ..." instead of "Call ...", e.g. B. Frank-Rutger Hausmann: English and American Studies in the Third Reich. Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-465-03230-6 , pp. 81, 502, 506 ( “call” in the Google book search); or Ruth Heftrig, Olaf Peters , Barbara Maria Schellewald (eds.): Art history in the “Third Reich”. Theories, methods, practices (= writings on modern art historiography. Volume 1). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-05-004448-4 , p. 10 ( preview in Google book search); see. P. 319 to note 23 ( "October 23, 1933" in the Google book search). This study cites October 23, 1933 as the start of the collection of signatures.
  2. The German text states “Prof. Schmidt, Hamburg ”and that he is a lawyer; the translations always say “Eberhard”, which is why we are dealing with the criminal lawyer (1891–1977): in Hamburg until 1935, then in Leipzig, Göttingen and Heidelberg (Rector 1952), cf. Eberhard Schmidt (1891–1977) ( Memento from July 16, 2012 in the web archive ). In:, accessed October 18, 2016; see. Prof. Dr. jur. habil. et Dr. med. H. c. Eberhard Ludwig Ferdinand Schmidt ( Memento from February 12, 2013 in the web archive ). In:, accessed on October 18, 2016. Schmidt does not appear in the list of confessors.
  3. Of the Leipziger deans have Helmut Berve and the mathematician Paul Koebe signed, others not. It is noticeable among the signatories that some institutes are very strongly represented (oriental studies, linguistics, chemistry, geography), while others are weakly represented.
  4. There are different figures, because even after November 11, 1933, signatures and funds for publication were collected across the Reich. Felix Genzmer , Dean of the Faculty of State and Law at Univ. Marburg, gave a list to the rector on January 11, 1934; He himself, Erich Jung, Emil Wehrle, Gerhard Mackenroth, Rudolf Schulz-Schaeffer, Heinrich von Minnigerode (1885–1950) had signed by the lawyers. About 50 university members signed by the Marburg doctors alone. The names of: Anne Christine Nagel, Ulrich Sieg: The Philipps University of Marburg under National Socialism. Documents on their history (= Pallas Athene. Contributions to the history of universities and science. Volume 1). Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-515-07653-0 , p. 188, note 20.
  5. a b Hans Fischer: Ethnology. In: Eckart Krause, Ludwig Huber, Holger Fischer (eds.): Everyday university life in the “Third Reich”. The Hamburg University 1933–1945 (= Hamburg contributions to the history of science. Volume 3). Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin / Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-496-00867-9 , Volume 2: Philosophical Faculty. Faculty of Law and Political Science. DNB 910160899 , p. 597.
  6. Hans Fischer: Ethnology. In: Eckart Krause, Ludwig Huber, Holger Fischer (eds.): Everyday university life in the “Third Reich”. The Hamburg University 1933–1945. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin and Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-496-00867-9 , Volume 2: Philosophical Faculty. Faculty of Law and Political Science. DNB 910160899 , p. 605. Of course, it says in the document, p. 127 : "Declarations of consent to the above statements were given by the professors listed on the following pages [...]", i. H. all speeches included.
  7. In the print 1933 prescribed to "Brandenberg".
  8. Peter Jensen gave up teaching in January 1932 due to serious illness; Emeriti (Jensen since 1928) could also be put on the list. His son Harro de Wet Jensen co- signed.
  9. This alleged signature is difficult to reconcile with the following statement by Litt: “In response to a letter from a group of students asking whether he did not take sufficient account of the volkish element and the importance of the biological in his philosophy, Litt added in the answer to the matter Personal word to […] ‚… Should I stand under the swastika flag , should I hold up my right hand to the sky and shout out in an imploring and pleading voice:“ Dear friends, I am with you too, I am also national! ”? If you don't see what indignity is behind it; that they ask me to do the morally impossible? What do you ask? One demands unconditional submission to the party program, to all points of the party program! It's impossible for me, I just can't! [...] '“Quoted in abbreviated form from: Peter Gutjahr-Löser : Did Theodor Litt crawl to swastikas in November 1933? In: Peter Gutjahr-Löser, Dieter Schulz, Heinz-Werner Wollersheim (eds.): Science and academic education. Is Theodor Litt relevant to current university policy? (= Theodor Litt Yearbook. Volume 7). Leipziger Univ.-Verl., [Leipzig] 2010, ISBN 978-3-86583-527-7 , pp. 254–264, here: p. 256.
  10. The International Dictionary of Germanists 1800–1950. Volume 3: R-Z. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003, ISBN 3-11-015485-4 (Reprint. de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-090805-3 ), claims despite warning of this confusion, that it is acting around the Tübingen Germanist of the same name . However, following the well-known Nazi activities of this Leipzig philosopher, he is likely to be the signatory.
  11. In the text: “Prof. Dr. Georg Schott ”.
  12. ^ With Hans Maier: National Socialist University Policy. In: Helmut Kuhn u. a .: The German university in the Third Reich. University lecture series. Piper, Munich 1966, DNB 456422420 , pp. 71-103, here: pp. 100 f.
  13. Always emphasized, of course: without the Jewish ones! Individual “half-Jewish” scientists (the adjective defined according to Hans Globke's later codified disenfranchisement laws ) nevertheless gave their signature, see Rudolf Ehrenberg in the list above.
  14. ^ Document no. 82 from Anne Christine Nagel, Ulrich Sieg: The Philipps University of Marburg in National Socialism. Documents on their history (= Pallas Athene. Contributions to the history of universities and science. Volume 1). Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-515-07653-0 , p. 186 ff.
  15. Victor Klemperer: I want to give testimony to the last. Part 1: Diaries 1933–1941. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 1995, DNB 945479107 , p. 68 (November 14, 1933).
  16. DNB : “Available at the Leipzig site” (information January 2010); “Copy not available” (April 2011 information). The library may have to be asked what this means. The DNB pressure specification "1933" is incorrect; After November 11, 1933, Heidegger collected money for the translations by printing his deans, so that realistically it was not possible to print until 1934. The book has no imprint; the name of the printer Limpert is found in very small letters on the last page, without the word “publisher”.
  17. ^ In archives: Archiwum Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego (AUW) / University Archives Wroclaw. Holdings: Akt zespol Uniwersytet Wrocławski 1811–1945: AUW, S-165, documents from the years 1933–1944/45. Documents of the rector, therein: AU-064/96/2004 (copy number): copy (letter from NSLB Sachsen, signed Friedrich Forster, concerns rally of German science). To the Rectorate of the University of Wroclaw / Call to the educated of the world / The Rector of the University, Wroclaw, December 9, 1933. AUW, S-166, documents from the years 1933–1944 / 45. Curator's documents. - Correction: the deputy Gauobmann of the NSLB Sachsen, who sent the letters around, was called Förster, not Forster.
  18. Also available as black and white PDF (62 MB) and for Amazon Kindle . Also in English, French, Italian and Spanish. The other file formats offered are difficult to handle, especially the OCR processing of the Gothic script is extremely faulty. The other languages ​​in Latin script can also be read as verbal documents. Complete list of names as of November 11, 1933 on p. 128 ff. (Other people joined later), sorted by university, and at the end “individual scientists”. For the dating (not in the book [1933]) see the note on the print edition. Heidegger's speech can be read in Latin script in his GA , see Heidegger: Speech on November 11, 1933 in Leipzig. 2000, pp. 190-193 (see sources).