Ludolph Brewer

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Ludolph Brewer

Ludolph Brauer , also August Ludolf Brauer (born July 1, 1865 on the Hohenhaus manor, Thorn district ; † November 25, 1951 in Munich ), was a German internist and pulmonologist . He is considered one of the pioneers of German aviation medicine .


Ludolph Brauer was the son of a farmer and grandson of a Bremen shipowner and Josephine Chopard from New Orleans. He studied medicine in Bonn , Marburg, Munich and Freiburg im Breisgau , where he received his doctorate in 1892 ( About Elephantiasis congenita ). During his studies he became a member of the Corps Hansea Bonn . After completing his doctorate, he was assistant to Wilhelm Heinrich Erb in Heidelberg, where he qualified as a professor for internal medicine in 1897 ( on the influence of mercury on the rabbit's nervous system ). In 1902 he became director of the medical polyclinic in Marburg and in 1903 full professor in Marburg and director of the medical clinic. In 1911 he became director of the Eppendorf General Hospital in Hamburg. During the First World War he was a consultant internist in Poland, Palestine and Turkey.

Brauer was a full professor in Hamburg from 1919 until his retirement in 1934 and was also the medical director of the Eppendorf General Hospital. In 1927 his institute for medical research in the field of aviation , affiliated with the tuberculosis research institute, was founded. In 1931 it was entered in the register of associations as an independent institute for aviation medicine and climate research . Brauer was elected a member of the Leopoldina Scholars' Academy in 1932 .

In 1933, Brauer welcomed Hitler's chancellorship as prorector of Hamburg University:

“We are committed to our powerful Chancellor Adolf Hitler [...]. We waited longingly for the man who was supposed to deliver us from the German discord. Now he's risen. We want to serve him joyfully. ... Our German universities will always stand in these lofty ideals, because it is Germans who rule them. "

- Brewers, May 1, 1933, National Labor Day.

In November 1933 he signed the professors' commitment to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist state at German universities and colleges . Allegations had previously been made against brewers. As rector, Brauer officially warned a leader of the National Socialist German Student Union in 1931 for distributing anti-Semitic writings. He preferred Jewish assistants, employed Jewish lawyers and, before 1933, opposed the establishment of ethnic lecturers' associations. Brauer has good relations with social democrats, namely Max Brauer and Senator Heinrich Eisenbarth , and is a member of a lodge association . The Hamburg Medical Association drew up an assessment in which it said:

“Professor Brauer [...] always had a national stance, but was an outspoken opponent of National Socialism. [...] After the seizure of power, he consistently opposed all our measures and tried to carry out sabotage. [...] One of the worst reactionaries we have in Hamburg. "

Brauer had to quit his job at the age of 68 and never forgave his Hamburg colleagues for not showing solidarity with him in 1933/34. With the help of the German Research Institute for Tuberculosis, which he founded . V. he moved to Wiesbaden, where he founded the Research Institute for General Medicine , which conducted bioclimatic research , and the Research Institute for Work Design, Aging and Consumption. V. He is referred to as the "Board of Directors" of the institute. The German Labor Front was the sponsor of this institute.

In 1947 he became director of the tuberculosis research institute in Munich, which was later named the Ludolph Brauer Institute .

He was an honorary doctor in Córdoba, Shanghai and Bonn and was an honorary professor in Istanbul. In 1944 he received the Goethe Medal .

His children were the art historians Heinrich (1900–1981) and Elisabeth Brauer (* 1902), who in 1935 married the art historian Ludwig Heinrich Heydenreich .

Scientific importance

Brauer was one of the leading German heart and lung surgeons and one of the founders of modern heart and lung function diagnostics by examining the performance limits of the heart, lungs and muscles. He is considered the developer of hypertension anesthesia and the founder of lung collapse therapy for tuberculosis (the term collapse therapy comes from him). To this end, he introduced the technique of artificial pneumothorax developed by Carlo Forlanini , which is now outdated, for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in Germany. He also performed pioneering work in the field of thoracic surgery using the pressure differential method (positive pressure breathing). Together with Paul Friedrich, he performed paravertebral subscapular thoracoplasty for the first time (artificially induced collapse of the lung in advanced tuberculosis, which is no longer used today) and developed cardiolysis (removal of the adhesions between the heart and sternum). He wrote important works on the function of the pericardium and the pneumothorax.

He also researched nervous diseases, infectious diseases such as dysentery , diets, heart, lung and liver diseases.

Military research

Brauer pioneered research in military aviation medicine and altitude medicine . Its activities began soon after the First World War. The Versailles Treaty had officially banned a German air force, but since 1925, flights have been in violation of the treaty in the Soviet Union . As a result, he initially (1927) named his institute "Institute for medical research in the field of aviation", expanded it until 1931 and then entered it under the "Institute for Aviation Medicine and Climate Research " in the register of associations. From his medical practice and TB research in Eppendorf, Brauer had two publicly funded decompression chambers for medical purposes . While one of them continued to serve as intended for general medical tasks, he now used the 2nd chamber for "occupational medicine, sports medicine, altitude physiology" and stated in public:

"(My test facility in its) generosity and versatility is unique in Germany and equally important for aviation medicine, high tourism, meteorology and measurement technology"

- Brauer, Acta Aerophysiologica 1933–1934, pp. 5–13, here p. 13

Brauer's investigations related exclusively to airworthiness; accordingly, Heinz von Diringshofen completed his habilitation with him in this area.

Publications (selection)

  • The appearance of tuberculosis in cigar factories . A. Stuber, Würzburg 1903.
  • Cardiolysis and its indications. In: Archives for Clinical Surgery. Volume 71, 1903, pp. 258-267.
  • Untitled: Inaugural lecture Marburg 1905, page 1 , in Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift , vol. 45, pp. 1–16.
  • About pneumothorax . Koch, Marburg 1906.
  • Ludolph Brauer, Franz Maximilian Groedel et al .: Floor plan and atlas of X-ray diagnostics in internal medicine . 2nd edition, Lehmanns, Munich 1914.
  • (Ed.): The tuberculosis advanced training course of the General Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf . Curt Cabitzsch, Würzburg 1913 (Volume 1), 1914 (Volume 2)
  • with Georg Schröder, Felix Blumenfeld (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Tuberkulose . 3. redesigned Edition, Barth, Leipzig 1923.
  • The surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Summary and conclusions . [German Research Institute for Tuberculosis, Hamburg 1928]
  • with Alexander Loery: The radiological representation of the bronchi using contrast filling . Leipzig 1928.
  • The Institute for Aviation Medicine and Climate Research at the Eppendorfer Hospital in Hamburg .
  • The scientific basis of lung collapse therapy. Hamburg 1930.
  • with Joachim Hein , Wilhelm Kremer, Ferdinand Sauerbruch , Walter Schmidt: Collapse therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis . Thieme, Leipzig 1938.
  • with Hubertus Strughold , Hermann Rein (Hrsg.): Zeitschrift Luftfahrtmedizin. ISSN  0368-7651


  • Viktor Harsch: Ludolph Brauer, German aeromedical pioneer . In: Aviat Space Environ Med 75, 2004, pp. 705-707.
  • Viktor Harsch: The Institute for Aviation Medicine in Hamburg-Eppendorf, 1927–1945. Rethra, Neubrandenburg 2003.
  • Hugo Wilhelm Knipping, Helmut Venrath:  Brauer, August Ludolf. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, ISBN 3-428-00183-4 , p. 540 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Axel W. Bauer : Brewer, August Ludolf. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 207.
  • Claudia Bedenbecker: Ludolph Brauer (1865–1951) as an internist and science reformer . Dissertation University of Hamburg 2014 ( digitized version ).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Axel W. Bauer: Brauer, August Ludolf. 2005, p. 207.
  2. ^ Kösener corps lists 1960, 11/282.
  3. ^ University of Hamburg - On the history of the Hamburg University: The failure of the university in the "Third Reich" ; Hamburg Library for University History BfUG; partly in: Angela Bottin, Rainer Nicolaysen : Enge Zeit. Traces of displaced and persecuted people at the University of Hamburg. Series: Hamburg Contributions to the History of Science, 11. [First exhibition catalog, Hamburg 1991]. Berlin 1992, p. 29.
  4. Quoted from Hendrik van den Bussche (Ed.): Medical Science in the 'Third Reich' - Continuity, Adaptation and Opposition at the Hamburg Medical Faculty (Hamburg Contributions to the History of Science, 5) Berlin and Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-496-00477- 0 , p. 57.
  5. Hendrik van den Bussche (ed.): Medical science in the 'Third Reich'. Berlin and Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-496-00477-0 , pp. 57-58.
  6. ^ LB with Wilhelm Wolf: Introduction to Spirography and Ergometry in: Contributions to the Clinic of Tuberculosis and Specific Tuberculosis Research, Vol. 94, H. 6, May 1940 Source: Title page of the article
  7. "Exhaustion" in the title of the institute should be a "German" paraphrase for the retirement age, in accordance with the language policy of the NS.
  8. ^ The mentioned Zs. Des Brauer, published together with the National Socialists Strughold and Hermann Rein, was called "Luftfahrtmedizin" from 1936/37 to 1944.
  9. Additional pages are chargeable.