Alexander V (antipope)
Pietro Philargi of Candia (actually: Petros Philargis de Candia or Philaretos ) (* 1340 in Crete ; † May 3, 1410 in Bologna ) was from 1409 to 1410 as Alexander V antipope to Gregory XII. in Rome and Benedict XIII. in Avignon.
Philargi was a Franciscan and was the first Greek professor to teach theology at the Sorbonne from 1378 to 1381 . In 1386 he was made Bishop of Piacenza , in 1402 Archbishop of Milan and in 1405 Cardinal .
When the Council of Pisa in 1409 both Gregory XII. as well as antipope Benedict XIII. Relieved of their offices, Philargi was proclaimed Pope, which however neither Gregory XII. still Benedict XIII. recognized. In the end, Philargi was only able to assert himself in France and England . He was the first Pope to reside in Pisa, so he and his successor John XXIII. also known as the Pisan popes.
With the papal bull of September 9, 1409, Alexander V approved the establishment of the University of Leipzig , which was founded on December 2, 1409 by German students who left the University of Prague as a result of the Kuttenberg decree issued by Wenceslaus IV on January 18, 1409 had.
On May 3, 1410, Alexander V died in the monastery of S. Maria dei Crociferi near Bologna and was buried in Bologna in the Basilica of St. Francis . Before the burial, the physician and philosopher Pietro d'Argellata († 1423) preserved corpses according to the then common procedure. The body prepared in this way was placed in the coffin and buried.
Alexander V's successor as Pope was Baldassare Cossa , who was occasionally - probably incorrectly - made responsible for Alexander's death. He gave himself the name John XXIII, but submitted to the elected Martin V at the Council of Constance in 1415 and resigned from his office.
After the Council of Constance , the Pisan Popes Alexander V and John XXIII. continued to be regarded as legitimate popes, so that Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia as Pope Alexander VI. called. Even in " Meyer's Encyclopedia " from 1897, these two popes were presented without reservation as the legitimate ones. Today, however, both popes are considered antipopes in the Catholic Church . This only became final in 1958, when Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli consciously decided on the Pope's name Johannes XXIII. decided.
- Theocharis E. Detorakis: History of Crete , Heraklion 2015, ISBN 978-618-5024-36-9 , pp 213
- Wolfgang Wegner: Pietro d'Argellata. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 1162.
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : Alexander V., Pope. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 103-104.
- K. Binder: The Pisan Pope Alexander V and his doctrine of original sin. In: Yearbook of Klosterneuburg Monastery 8 (1973), pp. 7–55.
- Franz Ehrle (Hrsg.): The sentence commentary of Peters von Candia, the Pisan Pope Alexander V. A contribution to the divorce of schools in the scholasticism of the fourteenth century and to the history of the road dispute. Münster 1925, digitized at archive.org .
- Armando Petrucci : ALESSANDRO V, antipapa. In: Alberto M. Ghisalberti (Ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 2: Albicante – Ammannati. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 1960.
- Armando Petrucci: Alessandro V, antipapa. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi. Volume 2: Niccolò I, santo, Sisto IV. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 2000 ( treccani.it ).
- FILARGIS, OFM, Pietro (ca.1339-1410). In: Salvador Miranda : The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. ( Florida International University website, English)
- Stephen F. Brown et al. a. (Ed.): Peter of Candia Project , u. a. with bibliography and full texts
- Entry in Alcuin, Regensburg Infothek der Scholastik, ed. Rolf Schönberger .
|Antonio de 'Saluzzi||
Archbishop of Milan
|Francesco II Crippa|
Bishop of Piacenza
|Pietro IV. Manieri|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Pietro Philargi; Petros Philargis; Philaretus|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1340|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Crete|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 3, 1410|
|Place of death||Bologna|