Plaza de Mayo
The Plaza de Mayo ("Place of Maize / May Revolution") represents the heart of the Argentine capital Buenos Aires . This place is the former founding area of the city and, like almost all Spanish and South American plazas, serves representative purposes. Around the rectangular plaza are the Buenos Aires Cathedral , the Banco de la Nación , the City Hall , the Cabildo and other government buildings. The square itself is characterized by a park. The square is named after May, the month of liberation in 1810. Six years later Argentina gained independence from the colonial power Spain. To this day it is an important venue for political rallies or demonstrations.
The only partially preserved house from the colonial era is the Cabildo (former seat of government) on the west side of the plaza. The building that can be seen today was erected in 1725 and partially demolished to make room for the construction of two Avenidas. Opposite the colonial town hall is the presidential palace Casa Rosada ("Pink House") built in 1884 . It owes its name to the pink facade and has been rebuilt several times over the years. It is to this fact that it owes its asymmetrical shape. The presidential palace was built on the exact spot where the first fort from the time the city was founded in 1580 stood.
The Banco de la Nación , which was completed in 1952, stands on the northeast corner of Plaza de Mayo . The interior of the octagonal dome is worth seeing. The building is the headquarters of the largest state bank in Argentina and still houses the National Bank's treasure chest, which consists of more than 10,000 vaults. At the rear of the bank building, the city's banking district joins in north.
Bombing of the Plaza de Mayo in 1955
After the Argentine President Juan Perón had to flee into exile in 1955, his supporters called for resistance against the seizure of power by the military . Skirmishes broke out between the military and armed paramilitary union organizations. The climax of the civil war-like clashes was the bombing of Casa Rosada and a rally in the Plaza de Mayo on October 16, 1955 by fighter jets of the Argentine Air Force and Navy, in which more than 300 demonstrators were killed.
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
During the military dictatorship from 1976 to 1983 under Jorge Videla and his successors, the Plaza de Mayo became internationally known through the Madres de Plaza de Mayo (Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo) . They protested there weekly with a silent march against the violent disappearance of their sons and daughters, for which the government was responsible. These weekly protests continue to this day (as of 2019) with the demand for the crimes of the military dictatorship to be investigated.
The symbol of the Madres de Plaza de Mayo around the Pirámide de Mayo
Equestrian statue of Manuel Belgrano
- LAS MADRES REALIZARON SU MARCHA Nº 2133 EN PLAZA DE MAYO. In: Asociación Madres de Plaza de Mayo. February 28, 2019, Retrieved March 5, 2019 (Spanish).