War crimes trial

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Defendants at the Nuremberg Trials

In a war crimes trial of the accused in a be war committed crimes established in court and criminal penalties.

After the Second World War there were several lawsuits brought against German and Japanese war criminals by the victorious powers , some of them before an International Military Tribunal (IMT) ( Nuremberg Trials ), before military courts of the individual victorious powers, before courts of the countries occupied by Germany and also took place before German courts in both the Federal Republic and the GDR . In Japan , which was occupied by the Allies, there were also several trials of war criminals after 1946.

Regardless of the fact that only members of the defeated nations were brought to justice in these trials, the reasons for their verdicts can be seen as the beginning of international criminal law .

The first international war crimes trials, which no longer dealt with crimes during the Second World War, began in 1993 in The Hague to deal with the events of the Yugoslav wars . In 1998, at a conference in Rome, the founding of the International Criminal Court (ICC) was decided, which is the first permanent international criminal court and is not limited to a specific conflict.

List of war crimes trials

The list contains a selection of war crimes trials after the end of the First World War without claiming to be exhaustive.

Year (s) designation Place of negotiations content
1921-1927 Leipzig trials Leipzig Charges against German war criminals
1945-1949 Nuremberg Trials Nuremberg Indictment against those responsible for National Socialism
1945-1946 Nuremberg Trial of the Major War Criminals Nuremberg The indictment of those primarily responsible for the horrors of World War II
1945-1948 Dachau trials Dachau concentration camp Charge u. a. against teams from different concentration camps
1945-1947 Aviation trials together with the Dachau processes in Dachau Charges of killing and ill-treatment of incapacitated aircrews.
1945-1949 Guam War Crimes Trials Kwajalein , Chichi-jima , Truk Islands , Guam War crimes charges during the Pacific War
1946-1949 Yokohama War Crimes Trials Yokohama War crimes charges during the Pacific War
1946-1947/1966 Ravensbrück Trials Hamburg and Rastatt Trials against those responsible at the Ravensbrück concentration camp
1946-1948 Tokyo trials Tokyo Trial against high Japanese military
1949 Khabarovsk war crimes trials Khabarovsk Negotiations against members of the Japanese Guandong Army
1950 Waldheim trials Waldheim Rapid Trials of War Criminals of the Second World War
1959 Santiago pilots trials Santiago de Cuba Revolutionary tribunal against members of the Cuban Air Force
1961 Eichmann trial Jerusalem Indictment as a key figure in the Holocaust
1963-1968 Auschwitz trials Frankfurt am Main Charges against those responsible for the Auschwitz concentration camp
Since 1993 International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia The hague Prosecuting serious crimes during the Yugoslav Wars
since 1994 International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Arusha (Tanzania) Coming to terms with what happened during the genocide in Rwanda
since 2002 Special Court for Sierra Leone Freetown Prosecuting crimes during the civil war in Sierra Leone
since 2004 Khmer Rouge Tribunal Phnom Penh Crimes of the Khmer Rouge
since 2002 International Criminal Court The hague first permanent international criminal court, u. a. Thomas Lubanga , Jean-Pierre Bemba

See also


  • Kevin Jon Heller and Gerry Simpson (Eds.): The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials . Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York 2013, ISBN 9780199671144 .
  • Daniel Marc Segesser: Justice instead of revenge or revenge through justice? The prosecution of war crimes in the international scientific debate 1872-1945 . Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn et al. 2010, ISBN 978-3-506-76399-0 , ( War in History 38).
  • The trial of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal. Nuremberg November 14, 1945 - October 1, 1946 . German edition. Approved special edition, photomechanical reprint Nuremberg, 1947-49 . Komet, Frechen 2001, ISBN 3-89836-121-7 .

Web links

Wiktionary: war criminals trial  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations