International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
|International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia|
ICTY service building in The Hague
|English name||International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)|
|French name||Tribunal pénal international pour l'ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY)|
|Organization type||Ad hoc criminal court|
|Seat of the organs||The Hague , Netherlands|
|Chair||Judge Carmel A. Agius (President of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia)|
|founding||May 25, 1993|
|resolution||December 31, 2017|
Security Council of the United Nations
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ( French Tribunal pénal international pour l'ex-Yougoslavie , abbreviated TPIY ; English International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia , abbreviated ICTY ), colloquially often called the UN War Crimes Tribunal or Hague Tribunal , was an ad- hoc criminal Court based in the Netherlands the Hague .
He was Resolution 827 of the UN Security Council from 25. May 1993 created and was responsible for the prosecution of serious crimes in the 1991 Yugoslavia war were committed. The International Residual Mechanism for the ad hoc criminal courts has been functioning as the joint successor to the ICTY and the International Criminal Court for Rwanda since July 2012, and existed in parallel with the two ad hoc courts for the transitional period until 2014.
Of the total of 161 accused, 84 were convicted. The last criminal case was concluded on November 29, 2017. As of December 31, 2017, the criminal court was officially closed.
According to the statute, the criminal court had the following powers:
- Factual: The Court has four categories of criminal offense: serious violations of the Geneva Conventions , violations of the laws or customs of war , genocide and crimes against humanity .
- Personal: Jurisdiction includes only natural persons (not organizations or governments).
- Spatial: crimes committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia .
- Temporal: Crimes committed since 1991.
- Competitive: The Court of Justice takes precedence over national courts.
Trials could only be carried out against those present in person; the defendants could expect a maximum sentence of life imprisonment . The execution of sentences is carried out in one of the states that have agreed in treaties with the United Nations to accept convicts. The Court can also refer cases to competent national courts such as the Special War Crimes Chamber at the Belgrade District Court .
The Tribunal consisted of the court administration, responsible for the United Nations Detention Facility designated detention center of the Court in the Hague district of Scheveningen , where the suspects are on remand, a prosecution and the chambers .
The prosecution was headed by an independently working chief prosecutor. This was appointed - on the proposal of the UN Secretary General - by the UN Security Council. The current chief prosecutor is the Belgian Serge Brammertz , who has followed the Swiss Carla del Ponte . From 1997 to 1998 the Canadian Louise Arbor , before that the South African Richard Goldstone (1994–1996) held this post - the Venezuelan Escovar Salom, originally chosen as the first chief prosecutor, had ultimately canceled. The chief prosecutors from 1994 to 2003 were also chief prosecutors of the second UN tribunal, the International Criminal Court for Rwanda , until the restructuring of the criminal court in September 2003 .
The Court had 18 permanent judges, divided into three criminal chambers and one appeals chamber. 16 of the permanent judges are elected by the UN General Assembly from a list established by the UN Security Council. The other two permanent judges are appointed by the President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in consultation with the President of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, from among the judges of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
The permanent judges elected the President of the Criminal Court from among their ranks - most recently the Maltese Carmel A. Agius , who replaced the American Theodor Meron in November 2015 . Prior to this, this position was held by the Jamaican Patrick Robinson (2008–2011), the Italian Fausto Pocar (2005–2008), also Theodor Meron (2002–2005), the French Claude Jorda (1999–2002), the American Gabrielle Kirk McDonald (1997–1999) and the Italian Antonio Cassese (1993–1997).
In addition to the permanent judges, another twelve so-called ad litem judges were available for temporary reinforcement for individual processes. The three criminal chambers negotiated in the first instance. They were each made up of three of the permanent judges elected by the UN General Assembly. The Appeals Chamber consisted of seven permanent judges, including the two judges appointed by the President of the International Court of Justice for Rwanda. The President of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia acted as chairman of the Appeals Chamber. The seven judges of the Appeals Chamber also formed the Appeals Chamber for the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
The budget of the Court of Justice was approved by the UN General Assembly. The court was also financed by donations from states or supranational organizations such as the European Commission . The ICTY provided information on the amount of the budget and the donors in its annual reports.
A total of 919 employees from 76 nations were employed. The budget was approximately 150 million US dollars per year.
Judges College (permanent judges)
- Carmel A. Agius, President
- Liu Daqun, vice president
- Koffi Kumelio Afande
- Jean-Claude Antonetti
- Guy Delvoie
- Christoph Flügge
- Burton Hall
- Khalida Khan
- O-Gon Kwon
- Theodor Meron
- Bakone Justice Moloto
- Howard Morrison
- Mandiaye Niang
- Alphons MM Orie
- Fausto Pocar
Former permanent judges: Georges Abi-Saab (Egypt), Mohamed Bennouna (Morocco), Iain Bonomy (United Kingdom), Antonio Cassese (Italy), Jules Deschênes (Canada), Amin El Abbassi El Mahdi (Egypt), Asoka de Zoysa Gunawardana (Sri Lanka), Mehmet Güney (Turkey), David Anthony Hunt (Australia), Saad Saood Jan (Pakistan), Claude Jorda (France), Adolphus Godwin Karibi-Whyte (Nigeria), Germain Le Foyer De Costil (France), Haopei Li (China), Richard George May (United Kingdom), Gabrielle Kirk McDonald (USA), Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (Zambia), Rafael Nieto Navia (Colombia), Elizabeth Odio Benito (Costa Rica), Kevin Parker (Australia), Arlette Ramaroson (Madagascar), Patrick L. Robinson (Jamaica), Almiro Simões Rodrigues (Portugal), Fouad Abdel-Moneim Riad (Egypt), Wolfgang Schomburg (Germany), William Hussein Sekule (Tanzania), Mohamed Shahabuddeen (Guyana), Rustam S. Sidhwa (Pakistan), Sir Ninian Stephen (Australia), Christine Van den Wyngaert (B elgien), Lal Chand Vohrah (Malaysia), Patricia M. Wald (USA), Wang Tieya (China), Bakhtiyar Tuzmukhamedov (Russia), Andresia Vaz (Senegal), Inés Mónica Weinberg de Roca (Argentina)
Ad litem judge
- Melville Baird
- Flavia Lattanzi
- Antoine Kesia-Mbe Mindua
Former ad litem judges: Carmen Maria Argibay (Argentina), Hans Henrik Brydensholt (Denmark), Maureen Harding Clark (Ireland), Justice Ali Nawaz Chowhan (Pakistan), Pedro David (Argentina), Fatoumata Dembélé Diarra (Mali), Albin Eser (Germany), Elizabeth Gwaunza (Zimbabwe), Mohammed El Habib Fassi Fihri (Morocco), Claude Hanoteau (France), Frederik Harhoff (Denmark), Frank Höpfel (Austria), Ivana Janu (Czech Republic), Tsvetana Kamenova (Bulgaria), Uldis Kinis (Latvia), Per-Johan Viktor Lindholm (Finland), Joaquín Martín Canivell (Spain), Janet M. Nosworthy (Jamaica), Prisca Matimba Nyambe (Zambia), Michèle Picard (France), Árpád Prandler (Hungary), Kimberly Prost (Canada), Vonimbolana Rasoazanany (Madagascar), Amarjeet Singh (Singapore), Ole Bjørn Støle (Norway), Albertus Swart (Netherlands), György Szénási (Hungary), Chikako Taya (Japan), Krister Thelin (Sweden), Stefan Trechsel (Switzerland), Volodymyr Vassylenko (Ukraine), Sharon Williams (Canada)
Three judges each led the main proceedings and then determine the verdict with a 2: 1 majority or unanimously without the help of lay judges or jury members. The Appeals Chamber decides with a simple majority. Some judges judge several proceedings at the same time and there are substitute judges on record.
Convicts and prosecutors could appeal once; in exceptional cases, if more recent investigation results raise significant doubts, another appeals chamber cancels an already legally binding appeal judgment. In the Duško Tadić case, after the final verdict of guilty, the indictment was expanded and retried, without this being viewed as an inadmissible double punishment. In the case of Haradinaj et al. After the final acquittal, there was a further charge because incriminating material had subsequently emerged.
The only permissible punishment was imprisonment , which could be imposed indefinitely. Both very long time sentences (45 years) and life sentences have already been pronounced. After the extradition and remand detention have been deducted, the remaining sentence will be served in the usual penal system of a contracting state with the ICTY.
The following countries imprison legally convicted persons: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Denmark, Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Italy, France, Spain; Other contracting states still without transfer: Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, Albania, Portugal.
Since the criminal court was able to fully commence its activities in December 1994, judicially confirmed indictments have been published against 161 suspects, 133 of whom appeared - compulsorily or voluntarily - at the tribunal.
Since the arrest of Goran Hadžić on July 20, 2011, none of the accused has been on the run.
The charges were withdrawn in 36 cases: The charges against 20 people in the preliminary proceedings were discontinued due to a lack of incriminating material, 10 accused died before their extradition, 6 during the main proceedings.
In the legally valid judgments of the Criminal Court, there were 83 convictions and 19 acquittals up to November 2017; 13 defendants were extradited to other courts. By 2011, 20 defendants pleaded guilty on the essentials.
The cases of KLA commanders Haradinaj, Balaj and Brahimaj resumed in July 2010. On November 29, 2012, all three commanders were found not guilty.
The trial of Slobodan Milošević , Yugoslavia and Serbia's former president, who died in custody in March 2006 shortly before the end of his trial, aroused particular interest . In recent legal history, he was the first incumbent head of state to be indicted in an international criminal court.
The accused were:
|Judgment in 1st instance *
|Rahim Ademi||Kosovo Albanians||not guilty||delivered||-||acquitted in Croatia|
|Mehmed Alagic||Bosniaks||not guilty||-||-||Died before the trial ended|
|Zlatko Aleksovski||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||2.5||7th|
|Stipo Alilović||Bosnian Croat||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Milan Babic||Croatian Serb||guilty||13||13|
|Mirko Babic||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Haradin Bala||Kosovo Albanians||guilty||13||13|
|Idriz Balaj||Kosovo Albanians||not guilty||acquittal||Repeal||new charge|
|WAV * Balaj||not guilty||acquittal||no calling|
|Nenad Banović||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Predrag Banović||Bosnian Serb||guilty||8th||no calling|
|Ljubiša Beara||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||lifelong||lifelong|
|Vidoje Blagojevic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||18th||15th|
|Tihomir Blaškić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||45||9|
|Janko Bobetko||Croatian||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Ljubomir Borovčanin||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||17th||no calling|
|Goran Borovnica||Serb||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Ljube Boškoski||Macedonians||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Lahi Brahimaj||Kosovo Albanians||not guilty||6th||6th||new charge|
|WAV * Brahimaj||not guilty||acquittal||no calling|
|Miroslav Bralo||Bosnian Croat||guilty||20th||20th|
|Radoslav Brđanin||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||32||30th|
|Mario Čerkez||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||15th||6th|
|Ivan Čermak||Croatian||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Ranko Češić||Bosnian Serb||guilty||18th||no calling|
|Valentin Ćorić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||16||16|
|Zejnil Delalić||Bosniaks||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Hazim Delic||Bosniaks||not guilty||18th||18th|
|Rasim Delic||Bosniaks||not guilty||3||no vocation (deceased)|
|Miroslav Deronjić||Bosnian Serb||guilty||10||no calling|
|Slavko Dokmanović||Serb||not guilty||-||-||Died before the trial ended|
|Vlastimir Đorđević||Serb||not guilty||27||18th|
|Damir Došen||Bosnian Serb||guilty||5||no calling|
|Simo Drljača||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Đorđe Đukić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||-||-||Died before the trial ended|
|Dražen Erdemović||Bosnian Croat||guilty||10||5|
|Anto Furundžija||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||10||10|
|Dušan Fuštar||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||in Bosnia 9 years imprisonment|
|Dragan Gagović||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Stanislav Galic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||20th||lifelong|
|Ante Gotovina||Croatian||not guilty||24||acquittal|
|Zdravko Govedarica||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|(?) Gruban||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Momčilo Gruban||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||in Bosnia 7 years imprisonment|
|Milan Gvero||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||5||no vocation (deceased)|
|Goran Hadžić||Croatian Serb||not guilty||-||-||Died before the trial ended|
|Enver Hadžihasanović||Bosniaks||not guilty||5||3.5|
|Sefer Halilović||Bosniaks||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Ramush Haradinaj||Kosovo Albanians||not guilty||acquittal||Repeal||new charge|
|WAV * Haradinaj||not guilty||acquittal||no calling|
|Janko Janjić||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Nikica Janjić||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Gojko Janković||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||34 years imprisonment in Bosnia|
|Goran Jelisić||Bosnian Serb||guilty||40||40|
|Dragan Jokic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||9||9|
|Drago Josipović||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||15th||12th|
|Radovan Karadžić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||40||lifelong|
|Marinko Katava||Bosnian Croat||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Duško Knežević||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||in Bosnia 31 years imprisonment|
|Dragan Kolundžija||Bosnian Serb||guilty||3||no calling|
|Dragan Kondić||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Dario Kordic||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||25th||25th|
|Milojica Kos||not guilty||6th||no calling|
|Predrag Kostic||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Radomir Kovač||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||20th||20th|
|Milan Kovačević||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||-||-||Died before the trial ended|
|Vladimir Kovačević||Montenegr. Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||unable to stand trial in Serbia|
|Momčilo Krajišnik||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||27||20th|
|Milorad Krnojelac||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||7.5||15th|
|Radislav Krstić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||46||35|
|Amir Kubura||Bosniaks||not guilty||2.5||2|
|Dragoljub Kunarac||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||28||28|
|Mirjan Kupreškić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||8th||acquittal|
|Vlatko Kupreškić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||6th||acquittal|
|Zoran Kupreškić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||10||acquittal|
|Miroslav Kvočka||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||7th||7th|
|Goran Lajić||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Esad Landžo||Bosniaks||not guilty||15th||15th|
|Vladimir Lazarevic||Serb||not guilty||15th||14th|
|Fatmir Limaj||Kosovo Albanians||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Paško Ljubičić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||delivered||-||in Bosnia 10 years imprisonment|
|Milan Lukic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||lifelong||lifelong|
|Sredoje Lukic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||30th||27|
|Sreten Lukic||Serb||not guilty||22nd||20th|
|Zoran Marinić||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Mladen Markač||Croatian||not guilty||18th||acquittal|
|Milan Martić||Croatian Serb||not guilty||35||35|
|Vinko Martinović||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||18th||18th|
|Željko Mejakić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||21 years imprisonment in Bosnia|
|Radivoje Miletić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||19th||18th|
|Slobodan Miljković||Serb||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Dragomir Milosevic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||33||29|
|Slobodan Milosevic||Serb||not guilty||-||-||Died before the trial ended|
|Milan Milutinović||Serb||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Ratko Mladic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||lifelong||constantly|
|Darko Mrđa||Bosnian Serb||guilty||17th||no calling|
|Mile Mrkšić||Croatian Serb||not guilty||20th||20th|
|Zdravko Mucic||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||7th||9|
|Agim Murtezi||Kosovo Albanians||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Isak Musliu||Kosovo Albanians||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Mladen Naletilić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||20th||20th|
|Dragan Nikolić||Bosnian Serb||guilty||23||20th|
|Drago Nikolić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||35||35|
|Momir Nikolić||Bosnian Serb||guilty||27||20th|
|Mirko Norac||Croatian||not guilty||delivered||-||6 years imprisonment in Croatia|
|Dragan Obrenović||Bosnian Serb||guilty||17th||no calling|
|Dragoljub Ojdanić||Serb||not guilty||15th||-||Appeal withdrawn|
|Naser Oric||Bosniaks||not guilty||2||acquittal|
|Vinko Pandurević||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||13||13|
|Dragan Papic||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Nedeljko Paspalj||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Nebojša Pavković||Serb||not guilty||22nd||22nd|
|Milan Pavlić||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Momčilo Perišić||Serb||not guilty||27||acquittal|
|Biljana Plavšić||Bosnian Serbian||guilty||11||no calling|
|Milivoj Petković||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||20th||20th|
|Milutin Popović||Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Vujadin Popović||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||lifelong||lifelong|
|Slobodan Praljak||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||20th||20th||Suicide during the 2017 verdict|
|Dragoljub Prcać||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||5||5|
|Draženko Predojević||Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Jadranko Prlić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||25th||25th|
|Berislav Pušić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||10||10|
|Miroslav Radić||Serb||not guilty||acquittal||acquittal|
|Mlađo Radić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||20th||20th|
|Ivica Rajić||Bosnian Croat||guilty||12th||no calling|
|Mitar Rašević||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||in Bosnia 8.5 years imprisonment|
|Željko Ražnatović "Arkan"||Serb||-||-||-||murdered in Belgrade|
|Nikola Šainović||Serb||not guilty||22nd||18th|
|Ivan Šantić||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Vladimir Šantić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||25th||18th|
|Dragomir Šaponja||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Željko Savić||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Vojislav Šešelj||Serb||not guilty||acquittal||10||11 years in pre-trial detention until the first sentence was pronounced, not re-imprisoned after conviction on appeal, as the sentence was shorter than the pre-trial detention that had already been served|
|Duško Sikirica||Bosnian Serb||guilty||15th||no calling|
|Franko Simatović||Serb||not guilty||acquittal||Repeal|
|Blagoje Simić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||17th||15th|
|Milan Simic||Serb||guilty||5||no calling|
|Pero Skopljak||Croatian||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Veselin Šljivančanin||Montenegrins||not guilty||5||17th||reduced to 10 years|
|Milomir Stakić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||lifelong||40|
|Jovica Stanišić||Serb||not guilty||acquittal||Repeal|
|Mićo Stanišić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||22nd||constantly|
|Radovan Stanković||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||in Bosnia 20 years imprisonment|
|Bruno Stojić||Bosnian Croat||not guilty||20th||20th|
|Vlajko Stojiljković||Serb||-||-||-||died before the trial began|
|Pavle Strugar||Montenegrins||not guilty||8th||7.5|
|Duško Tadić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||20th||20th||subsequently further indictment,
further sentence of 25 years,
second appeal sentence : 20 years
|Miroslav Tadić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||8th||no calling|
|Momir Talic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||-||-||Died before the trial ended|
|Johan Tarčulovski||Macedonians||not guilty||12th||12th|
|Nedjeljko Timarac||Bosnian Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Stevan Todorović||Bosnian Serb||guilty||10||no calling|
|Savo Todović||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||in Bosnia 12.5 years imprisonment|
|Zdravko Tolimir||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||lifelong||lifelong||died in custody|
|Milorad Trbić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||delivered||-||30 years imprisonment in Bosnia|
|Mitar Vasiljevic||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||20th||15th|
|Zoran Vuković||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||12th||12th|
|Simo Zarić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||6th||no calling|
|Milan Zec||Serb||-||-||-||Charges withdrawn|
|Dragan Zelenović||Bosnian Serb||guilty||15th||15th|
|Zoran Žigić||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||25th||25th|
|Stojan Župljanin||Bosnian Serb||not guilty||22nd||constantly|
*) The number indicates the length of imprisonment in years; “Ongoing” means ongoing proceedings without a judgment, WAV is the abbreviation for retrial proceedings after the judgment has been overturned.
If there is no appeal judgment, either the appeal was waived or it was rejected as unfounded because no serious misjudgment by the first instance was alleged or justified in the application.
With the ceremonial opening of the international residual mechanism for the ad hoc criminal courts in July 2013, numerous staff for the press department, translations and archives will gradually move to this newly established tribunal. In the future, the residual mechanism will regulate releases from prison, easing of imprisonment, media work, etc. Hadžić died in 2016, Mladić was sentenced to life imprisonment on November 22, 2017, and the last convictions against Bosnian-Croatian defendants were confirmed on November 29, 2017. The ICTY will be closed at the end of 2017; Appointments are to be directed to the residual mechanism in the future. An information center with access to all audio files and over 2,000,000 documents was set up in Banja Luka and Sarajevo .
Kosta Čavoški , Serbian professor of international law, who is no longer allowed to enter Bosnia-Herzegovina because of alleged links to war criminals, criticized, among other things, that the tribunal was founded in violation of international law. It is based on a generous interpretation of Chapter VII of the UN Charter , which speaks of “special measures to maintain or restore world peace and security”. Defendants such as the former Serbian and Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević were unconstitutionally kidnapped or extradited. This was also not properly medically treated. The legal scholar Konstantinos D. Magliveras follows this line of argument, complaining that the tribunal creates its own rules at will and is not subject to any independent control. Since the prosecutor is an organ of the tribunal, he has a dominant position in the proceedings. Statements by witnesses whose identities are kept secret by the court are admissible as evidence. It should also be criticized that convicted defendants were not given an opportunity to appeal. Norman Paech , a retired university professor and politician on the left , believes that the tribunal is being used for political purposes. It also said that the tribunal was only interested in crimes committed by perpetrators of former Yugoslav nationality, while references to war crimes by NATO member states were not investigated. After all, defendants of Serbian nationality would be disadvantaged compared to others: while many Muslim or Croatian defendants would get away with relatively low prison terms, defendants such as Biljana Plavšić were usually sentenced to long prison terms.
By contrast, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled in the Naletilic v. Croatia case on May 4, 2000 that the Yugoslavia Tribunal is an international court which, in view of the content of its statute and its procedural rules, offers all the necessary guarantees for a fair trial , including those of impartiality and independence (in view of the content of its Statute and Rules of Procedure, offers all the necessary guarantees including those of impartiality and independence) .
- Friedrich Jäger: The International Tribunal on War Crimes in Former Yugoslavia: Claim and Reality (= Political Science . Volume 107 ). LIT Verlag, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-8258-8400-7 .
- Slavenka Drakulić : Nobody was there. War crimes on trial in the Balkans. Paul Zsolnay Verlag Vienna 2004 ISBN 3-552-05290-9 ( Chapter Triumph of Evil and The Change of Biljana Plavšić online at eurozine.com )
- Official ICTY website (English, French, Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian, Albanian and Macedonian)
- Collection of decisions by the ICTY in the Legal Tools project
- German translation of Resolution 827
- Statute of the ICTY
- German translation of the ICTY statute; Status: November 2000 (PDF; 34 kB)
- The ICTY renders its final judgment in the Prlić et al. appeal case
- "SECURITY COUNCIL APPOINTS SERGE BRAMMERTZ, FORMER LEAD INVESTIGATOR OF LEBANESE PRIME MINISTER'S DEATH, TO HEAD INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR FORMER YUGOSLAVIA" , UN Security Council Resolution 1786 , November 28, 2007
- Caroline Fetscher: The Yugoslavia Tribunal - a balance sheet . In: Der Tagesspiegel , November 29, 2017.
- ICTY annual report 2007. (PDF; 198 kB) pp. 23-25. ICTY annual report 2006. (PDF; 222 kB) p. 24. ICTY annual report 2005. (PDF; 405 kB) p. 47, 61. Page with all ICTY annual reports since 1994
- The Cost of Justice (ICTY budget and staff) , Retrieved May 3, 2015.
- The Duško Tadić case.Retrieved May 3, 2015.
- Enforcement of Sentences , Retrieved May 3, 2015.
- ICTY Facts & Figures. (PDF; 696 kB) In: icty.org. November 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017 .
- Official indictment statistics of the Tribunal ( Memento of January 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Acquittal for UÇK commanders Haradinaj, Balaj and Brahimaj (PDF; 159 kB)
- Entry on the ICTY website
- Case Information Sheet
- Report of the tribunal on its termination (PDF; 334 kB)
- Bosnia to expel Serbian professor . ( Memento of June 7, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) B92 , June 4, 2008
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