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Map with the sectors of KFOR (2002)

The Kosovo Force , shortly KFOR (English Kosovo Force ), the 1999 after the end of the Kosovo war established multinational military formation under the leadership of NATO . It is incumbent upon it to ensure a safe environment for the return of refugees in accordance with Resolution 1244 adopted by the United Nations Security Council in June 1999 . Thus, the first KFOR task was to monitor the withdrawal of Yugoslav troops and the demilitarization of Kosovo. The headquarters are in the Kosovar capital Pristina .

Originally over 40 countries with a troop strength of more than 50,000 soldiers took part in the KFOR mission. In August 2007 the KFOR mission was reduced to around 16,000 soldiers from 37 countries. In 2009, NATO initiated the “Deterrent Presence” process, a continuous reduction in the number of forces present. By January 2012, this number fell further to around 6,000 soldiers and was reduced again to 4,500 soldiers in June 2017. Currently (as of 2020) the KFOR force is provided by 27 countries and comprises around 3,500 soldiers.

In Kosovo, KFOR works closely with missions of the United Nations ( UNMIK ) and the European Union ( EULEX Kosovo ). In April 2009 UNMIK handed over essential tasks in the development of the police and judiciary to EULEX Kosovo.


With the adoption of UN Resolution 1244 by the Security Council on June 12, 1999, NATO - as the leading organization for the implementation of the peace support operation in Kosovo - received the mandate:

  • Ensuring a peaceful and safe environment
  • Support and coordination of international humanitarian efforts and civil organizations
  • Supporting the development towards a stable, democratic, multi-ethnic and peaceful Kosovo
  • Support for the development of security forces in Kosovo


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Until 2010, KFOR was divided into multinational task forces (MNTF), each of which was responsible for securing part of Kosovo. Each multinational task force was led by a lead nation. At that time the following structure emerged. (As of October 2006)

KFOR headquarters in Pristina

In 2011, KFOR was restructured and comprised two multinational battle groups based in Peja and Ferizaj as well as joint regional detachments. The Joint Regional Detachments were in charge of the liaison monitoring teams. Through this restructuring, a bridge was built from traditional military forces to military forces firmly anchored in the population. This created the “feeling of the pulse” within the population as a further management element for the KFOR commander (COM KFOR).

On August 15, 2019, another restructuring was carried out in order to better adapt to the areas of responsibility in Kosovo. The Joint Regional Detachments were incorporated into the Regional Commands. This means that the Regional Commands can already assess all the forces deployed in their area of ​​responsibility.

The current organization (as of September 2019) is as follows:

The following elements are assigned to the headquarters in Pristina:

  • MSU - Multinational Specialized Unit
  • RC - Regional Command
  • JLSG - Joint Support Logistic Group
  • KTRBN - KFOR Tactical Reserve Battalion
  • HSG - Headquarter Support Group

MSU - Multinational Specialized Unit

The KFOR Multinational Specialized Unit (MSU) is based in Pristina and is part of the COM KFOR force. It consists entirely of Italian carabinieri .

The MSU is a military unit made up of police forces with military status. It provides COM KFOR with the ability to implement security measures, including criminal investigation, crowd and riot (CRC), and information gathering and evaluation. The MSU can also provide assistance to local police forces on a variety of police advice and support as needed, including: law enforcement, the fight against organized crime and terrorism, war crimes investigation, crime prevention and public safety.

The MSU is commanded by an Italian Carabinieri officer who advises COM KFOR on all civil police matters.

RC - Regional Command

KFOR has two RCs.

Regional Command East (RC-E) is a NATO command based at Camp Bondsteel near Ferizaj in southeast Kosovo. This camp is the main base of the US Army under the KFOR command in Kosovo.

The RC-E conducts peacebuilding operations in Kosovo to ensure a safe environment and unrestricted freedom of movement.

The unit is commanded by a US officer and consists of US troops as well as troops from Poland, Romania and Turkey.

The Regional Command West (RC-W) is a NATO command headquarters at Camp Villaggio Italia near Pec in western Kosovo. This camp is the main base of the Italian troops under the KFOR command in Kosovo.

The RC-W conducts peacebuilding operations in Kosovo in order to contribute to a safe environment and freedom of movement. The RC-W also carries out the surveillance in the Decane monastery as first responder.

The unit is commanded by an Italian officer and consists of troops from Italy, Austria, Moldova and Slovenia.

JLSG - Joint Support Logistic Group

The Joint Logistics Support Group (JLSG) is based in Camp Film City Pristina.

The JLSG's task is to provide the KFOR armed forces with logistical support throughout the operational area as well as military technical support in order to ensure a safe environment and freedom of movement. The functions of JLSG include general provision of pioneering technical means, transport and repair, defusing of explosive substances, fuel supply, provision and transport.

The unit is commanded by an Austrian officer and consists of troops from 16 different troop-contributing states.

KTRBN - KFOR Tactical Reserve Battalion

The KFOR Tactical Reserve Battalion (KTRBN) is stationed in Novo Selo, in Camp Marshal de Lattre de Tassigny (CMLT) and is directly under the tactical control of COM KFOR. KTRBN's range of services includes a wide range of security measures, for example the protection of people with a special security status, protection of goods with a special security status, roadside checks, escorting people / vehicles, monitoring of rooms, education, first aid measures for the population and other military capabilities. KTRBN is specially trained in Crowd and Riot Control (CRC) operations. The KTRBN can be used anywhere in Kosovo. The battalion consists of Hungarian troops.

HSG - Headquarter Support Group

The Headquarters Support Group (HSG) is based in Camp Film City Pristina. The HSG has the task of protecting Camp Film City / HQ KFOR from internal and external threats. The unit also provides support for the KFOR headquarters at Camp Film City and has the following facilities: Camp Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, Camp Nothing Hill and the Pristina military airport. The unit is commanded by an Irish officer and is made up of troops and civilian personnel from several troop-contributing countries.

Troop contributing states

The states marked with * are not NATO members.

Troop contributing states Number of soldiers
AlbaniaAlbania Albania 29
ArmeniaArmenia Armenia * 41
BulgariaBulgaria Bulgaria 22nd
DenmarkDenmark Denmark 35
GermanyGermany Germany 100
FinlandFinland Finland * 20th
GreeceGreece Greece 111
IrelandIreland Ireland * 12
ItalyItaly Italy 542
CanadaCanada Canada 5
CroatiaCroatia Croatia 34
LithuaniaLithuania Lithuania 1
Moldova RepublicRepublic of Moldova Moldova * 41
MontenegroMontenegro Montenegro 1
NorwayNorway Norway 2
AustriaAustria Austria * 430
PolandPoland Poland 240
PortugalPortugal Portugal 3
RomaniaRomania Romania 57
SwedenSweden Sweden * 4th
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland * 190
SloveniaSlovenia Slovenia 242
Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic 10
TurkeyTurkey Turkey 246
UkraineUkraine Ukraine * 40
HungaryHungary Hungary 385
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 23
United StatesUnited States United States 659


During the Kosovo War in 1999, US General Wesley Clark, as Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), was in command of NATO troops. Until the troop reduction in 2010, KFOR was led by a lieutenant general who usually belongs to one of the Lead Nations, who also headed one of the five multinational brigades. Due to the troop reduction, COM KFOR has been occupied by a major general since 2010.

The following officers served as COM KFOR:

Surname Home state Period
Lieutenant General Sir Michael Jackson United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom June 10, 1999 - October 8, 1999
General Dr. Klaus Reinhardt GermanyGermany Germany October 8, 1999 - April 18, 2000
Lieutenant General Juan Ortuño Such SpainSpain Spain April 18, 2000 - October 16, 2000
Lieutenant General Carlo Cabigiosu ItalyItaly Italy October 16, 2000 - April 6, 2001
Lieutenant General Skjaker NorwayNorway Norway April 6, 2001 - October 3, 2001
Lieutenant General Marcel Valentin FranceFrance France October 3, 2001 - October 4, 2002
Lieutenant General Fabio Mini ItalyItaly Italy April 4, 2002 - October 3, 2003
Lieutenant General Holger Kammerhoff GermanyGermany Germany October 3, 2003 - September 1, 2004
Lieutenant General Yves de Kermabon FranceFrance France September 1, 2004 - September 1, 2005
Lieutenant General Giuseppe Valotto ItalyItaly Italy September 1, 2005 - September 1, 2006
Lieutenant General Roland Kather GermanyGermany Germany September 1, 2006 - August 31, 2007
Lieutenant General Xavier Bout de Marnhac FranceFrance France August 31, 2007 - August 29, 2008
Lieutenant General Giuseppe Emilio Gay ItalyItaly Italy August 29, 2008 - September 8, 2009
Lieutenant General Markus Bentler GermanyGermany Germany September 8, 2009 - September 1, 2010
Major General Erhard Bühler GermanyGermany Germany September 1, 2010 - September 9, 2011
Major General Erhard Drews GermanyGermany Germany September 9, 2011 - September 7, 2012
Major General Volker Halbauer GermanyGermany Germany September 7, 2012 - September 6, 2013
Major General Salvatore Farina ItalyItaly Italy September 6, 2013 - September 3, 2014
Major General Francesco Figliuolo ItalyItaly Italy September 3, 2014 - August 7, 2015
Major General Guglielmo Luigi Miglietta ItalyItaly Italy August 7, 2015 - September 1, 2016
Major General Giovanni Fungo ItalyItaly Italy September 1, 2016 - November 15, 2017
Major General Salvatore Cuoci ItalyItaly Italy November 15, 2017 - November 28, 2018
Major General Lorenzo D'Addario ItalyItaly Italy November 28, 2018 - November 15, 2019
Major General Michele Risi ItalyItaly Italy since November 15, 2019

Further peace missions in Kosovo

In addition to KFOR - the largest mission in terms of numbers - the following missions are currently active in Kosovo:


Web links

Commons : KFOR  - collection of images, videos and audio files
 Wikinews: KFOR  - on the news

Individual evidence

  1. KFOR | Mission. Retrieved September 6, 2019 .
  2. jfcnaples.nato.int ( Memento from December 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  3. KFOR: MNTF South (English).
  4. KFOR | MSU. Retrieved September 6, 2019 .
  5. KFOR | RC. Retrieved September 6, 2019 .
  6. KFOR | RC. Retrieved September 6, 2019 .
  7. KFOR | JLSG. Retrieved September 6, 2019 .
  8. KFOR | KTRBN. Retrieved September 6, 2019 .
  9. KFOR | HSG. Retrieved September 6, 2019 .
  10. KFOR | Contributing Nations. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  11. Peace Operations 2017/2018. (PDF; 720 kB) Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF), June 2017, accessed on October 11, 2017 (English).