|Canton :||Canton of St. Gallen (SG)|
|Constituency :||Sea gaster|
|Political community :||Rapperswil-Jona|
Kempraten, view from Rapperswil Castle over Lake Zurich
Kempraten (officially Kempraten-Lenggis ) is a church village and district of the municipality of Rapperswil-Jona in the canton of St. Gallen ( Switzerland ). Kempraten (Latin Centum Prata ) has been continuously settled since Roman times and is one of the most important archaeological sites in the canton of St. Gallen.
Location and local affiliation
Kempraten – Lenggis is located on the right bank of Lake Zurich , in the north of Rapperswil , on the Kempraten Bay . This natural indentation on the eastern shore of Lake Zurich extends between Feldbach and Rapperswil over a length of around three kilometers. In the east, the Kempraten Bay is bordered by the Lindenhof , which dominates the Rapperswil peninsula . Due to its location, the area was already settled in pre-Roman times and used as a natural harbor. Until the merger of Rapperswil and Jona , Kempraten was part of the political municipality of Jona. The community part belongs to the Roman Catholic parish Rapperswil-Jona .
Numerous archaeological finds show that the area around Rapperswil, Jona and especially Kempraten has been inhabited for at least 5000 years - even before the turn of the century by the Celts and later by the Romans. The highlights of archaeological finds in Kempraten include a Neolithic ax workshop in Seegubel and body graves from the La Tène period , which indicate an early settlement.
Kempraten at the turn of the century
Linguists are said to be speculating whether a Helvetic settlement Cambioratin (“Bay Hill”) existed on Kempratner Bay opposite today's Rapperswil Castle Hill. Around 15 BC After the conquest by Drusus and his brother Tiberius (Emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero from 14 to 37 AD), the area was on the right bank of Lake Zurich in the border area of the Roman provinces Raetia and Germania superior . The Vicus Kempraten (Centum Prata) was an important Roman settlement that served to secure the provincial borders from the 1st to the 4th century AD.
As elsewhere, the settlement in Kempraten-Lenggis probably continued to exist and the Gallo-Roman population is likely to have merged with the Alemannic wave of immigration in the 3rd and 5th centuries. Alemannic body graves from the 7th century were found in the Roman ruins, along with a variety of objects and weapons from the entire history of settlement.
Kempraten could have been Christianized during the Roman settlement. It is mentioned in 741 and 744 in a deed of donation in the St. Gallen Abbey Archives as Centoprato ("Place of a Hundred Meadows") and in 863 as Centiprata, based on the Latin name Centum Prata, which will have survived in the Gallo-Roman population . According to a document from the 9th century kept in Fulda, Kempraten was a well-known place of pilgrimage with relics of the martyr Alexander ( Thebaic Legion ). Legends recorded around 847 tell of a pilgrimage basilica with a pastor in Kentibruto, which could mean the St. Ursula's Chapel .
Counts of Rapperswil and Habsburg
At the beginning of the 13th century, the Alemannic hamlet with the Allmendgenossenschaft was integrated into the rule of the Rapperswilers and the St. Ursulakapelle on Lenggishang (re-consecrated in 1607, demolished in 1813) belonged to the parish church of Busskirch from 1253 . Aegidius Tschudi describes in his chronicle how in 1443, during the Old Zurich War , Uri, Zug and Glarner troops "away from the Kilchen ze Kempraten / behind the Büchel bi the Meienberg ob Rapperschwil / since the Strash von Rüte harin gat" their camp on Meienberg opened. Tschudi also describes a stone with a Roman inscription near a church in Jona.
Until 1458 was Kempraten owned by the Counts of Rapperswil and Habsburg -Austria, from 1415 it was under the Rapperswil manorial and high courts . The rural inhabitants of the surrounding area, which remained rural until the 19th century - today's Jona with Busskirch, Wagen, Bollingen, Wurmsbach, Kempraten - became the estate of the courtiers.
Above Kempraten was in the Middle Ages, the Rapperswil infirmary on the "hard fluefels". It was built around 1354 far outside the Rapperswil city walls and was probably moved to the island of Lützelau in the 16th century . The historic walls of the infirmary were found in what is now the “Fluh” house during a renovation in 1904. To the south of the Fluhhaus stood the Fluh chapel (by today's house "Felsenburg") until 1813, with an ossuary and burial place for those who were executed, suicides and people who were outside the social community at that time. In the 19th century, viticulture was practiced from Lake Zurich to Gubel , and country houses such as Fuchsenberg, Höcklistein and Gubel were built in Kempratner Bay, Lenggis and the vineyards.
With the invasion of the French revolutionary troops under General Nouvion (see Helvetic Republic ), two separate municipalities were formed from Rapperswil and Jona , and the residents (courtiers) in the surrounding area, in the then remaining subject areas of the city of Rapperswil, roughly in the area of today's municipality of Jona , fought for the same rights as the city citizens. Jonah claimed all territory "as far as her parishes extend". In 1804 the government council finally set the municipal boundaries. Rapperswil was limited to the area of the late medieval city, and the entire area now belonged to the municipality of Jona.
After the Second World War, Kempraten became the preferred upscale residential area . After earlier unsuccessful attempts, in a referendum in 2003, the population approved a merger of the municipalities of Rapperswil (7400 inhabitants; yes 82%) and Jona (17,100 inhabitants; yes 52%). The merger agreement was accepted by the population of both municipalities in spring 2005, and the municipality merger to form the city of Rapperswil-Jona came into force on January 1, 2007.
Church and parish center
The St. Ursulakapelle (built around 830, re-consecrated in 1607), affiliated with the parish of Busskirch, survived the iconoclasts of the Reformation and after the French invasion. Fragments of frescoes from the 15th and 16th centuries have been preserved. In 1906 it was redesigned in the neo-Gothic style and restored in 1990/1991. After the Busskirch parish was dissolved, Kempraten and Lenggis were assigned to the Roman Catholic parish of Rapperswil in 1945 .
The St. Franziskus parish center, inaugurated in 1979, was the last polygonal church building by Schaffhausen architect Walter Maria Förderer and testified to the rapid development of Kempraten's settlement in the late 20th century. The parish of St. Franziskus has existed since July 1, 1982, with around 2500 Catholics in the Kempraten area (Lenggis and Meienberg ).
Schools, business and transport
A primary school has existed in Lenggis since 1815 and was expanded after the Second World War. The road to Zurich ran through Kempraten until 1854. In 1979 Kempraten was given an SBB stop, and since May 27, 1990 with a connection to the S7 line of the Zurich S-Bahn .
The "Krone" inn was built in 1809/30 and had its own brewery since 1845. In 1829 the “Rössli” and the “Weinhalde” were built. In 1811 the local community of Rapperswil sold the "Fluh" property and its spring to Hermann Freudenberg, who set up a tannery in the old infirmary . In 1846/49 Jakob Franz Leder acquired the tannery including the “Flue” house, the fields, meadows, vines, Riet and the “Galgenacker” on Meienberg. Production was expanded to include shoe leather and the drive belts required by the spinning mills in Rapperswil and Jona. The neighboring villa "Belsito" remained in the possession of Jakob Franz Leder until 1853. In 1895 his son built the striking factory building with a covered and heated pit courtyard. In 1926 the new company manager, Dr. Lothar Burgerstein, the production facilities of «Lederi» for synthetic conveyor and processing belts in Germany and abroad; In 1996 the company moved to Jona-Buech.
- Mikhail Borissovich Khodorkovsky (1963), Russian entrepreneur
- Pascale Sutter (editing): Legal sources of the city and rulership of Rapperswil (with the farms Busskirch / Jona, Kempraten and Wagen) (= Collection of Swiss legal sources , XIV. Department: The legal sources of the canton of St. Gallen, second part: The city rights of St. Gallen and Rapperswil, second row: The legal sources of the city and rule of Rapperswil). Schwabe, Basel 2007, ISBN 978-3-7965-2297-0 (online) .
- Alois Stadler: Kempraten. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Georg Matter: The Roman settlement Kempraten and its surroundings . Published by the community of Jona, 2003.
- State Archives of the Canton of Zurich (Ed.): Small Zurich Constitutional History 1218–2000 . Published on behalf of the Directorate of Justice and Home Affairs on the day the Zurich Constitutional Council was constituted on September 13, 2000. Chronos, Zurich 2000. ISBN 3905314037
- G. Matter: The Roman vicus of Kempraten . In: JbSGUF 82, 1999, pp. 183-211.
- D. Hintermann: The Roman vicus of Kempraten . In: HA 106-108, 1996, pp. 128-136.
- Lukas Gschwend: Kempraten 1250 years ago - A contribution to the first written mention in 741 . Publishing house of the culture commission of the community of Jona, Jona 1991.
- Eugen Halter: History of the community of Jona . Edited by the political community of Jona, Swiss publishing house, Zurich 1970.
- Hans Rathgeb: Rapperswil-Jona: Our beautiful little world and together with O. Eggmann Rapperswil - city and country . In: Hans Rathgeb (Ed.): Between Lake Zurich and Lake Walen. Bank vom Linthgebiet, Uznach 1974.
- L. Kilger: Pilgrimage stories from Kempraten around the year 835 . In: Heimatkunde vom Linthgebiet, Volume 15, 1943, pp. 9–12.
- Rapperswil-Jona culture building set: 36 museums without a roof
- Alois Stadler: Kempraten. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Website of the University of St. Gallen, Chair of Gschwend
- Website churches and chapels in the diocese of St. Gallen
- "Hotel Schwanen" website, history ( memento of the original from March 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website Rapperswil-Jona ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Dominion and subject area, Rapperswil and Jona
- Population as of 2001
- Website of the parish of St. Franziskus ( Memento of the original from February 4, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Switzerland currently on March 13, 2014 on SRF 1