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general information
Military designation: Mosin-Nagant
Developer / Manufacturer: Sergei Ivanovich Mossin , Léon Nagant
Development year: 1891
Manufacturer country: Russian Empire , USSR
Production time: 1891 to 1965
Model variants: M91 "Dragoons", M1907 carbine, M24 (Finland), M27 (Finland), M28 (Finland), M28 / 30 (Finland), M91 / 30, M91 / 30 PEM sniper rifle, M91 / 30 PE sniper rifle , M91 / 30-PU sniper rifle, M35 (Finland), M38 carbine, M39 (Finland), M44 carbine, T53 (China), vz. 54 sniper rifle ( ČSR ), M56 (Finland), M28 / 57 ( Finland), M85 (Finland)
Weapon Category: gun
Overall length: Infantry rifle: 1306 mm
Dragoon / Cossack
rifle: 1234 mm Carabiner: 1020 mm
Weight: (unloaded) Infantry rifle: 4.22 kg
dragoon / Cossack
rifle: 3.9 kg carbine: 3.45 kg
Technical specifications
Caliber : 7.62 × 54 mm rows
Possible magazine fillings : 5 cartridges
Ammunition supply : Fixed box magazine with loading strip
Cadence : 15 rounds / min
Fire types: Single fire
Number of trains : 4th
Twist : Right
Visor : open sights
Closure : Chamber lock
Charging principle: Repeater
Lists on the subject

The Mosin-Nagant ( Russian винтовка Мосина ) is a Russian or Soviet repeating rifle . It fires the specially created cartridge 7.62 × 54 mm R .

History and versions

Since 1883 there were considerations in Tsarist Russia which rifle should be introduced into the Imperial Russian Army . In 1890 there were two models to choose from: one by the Russian designer Sergei Mossin and one by the Belgian Léon Nagant . After tests in 1891, the decision was made to use the Mossin rifle, which was slightly modified based on the Nagant model. Together with the Mosin-Nagant rifle, the new 7.62 mm rim cartridge with a round head bullet was introduced. The rifle was also known as the "three-line rifle" ( Russian Трёхлинейная винтовка ). The name refers to the caliber specification in the old unit line , with three lines corresponding to exactly 7.62 mm.

The weapon originally came in three versions:

  • Infantry rifle with 800 mm barrel length and bayonet
  • Dragoon rifle with 730 mm barrel length and bayonet
  • Cossack rifle with 730 mm barrel length without bayonet

The disadvantage of the first two versions was that the bayonet had to be permanently attached as the weapons were shot in in this configuration. Removing the bayonet resulted in a deterioration in the shooting pattern. It was not until 1938 that this problem was eliminated. From 1894, the barrel was fitted with hand protection to prevent burns. A carbine was introduced in 1907; it differed from the longer versions in the design of the visor. It was built in small numbers and is now considered very rare. Another modification took place in 1908–1910, when a new cartridge with a pointed bullet was introduced, the ballistic properties of which were significantly better; therefore the weapon received a new sight. In 1938 a carbine version with a total length of 1020 mm and a barrel length of 510 mm (M1938) was introduced again, which in 1944 received a hinged triangular bayonet (M1944), with the barrel being lengthened to 518 mm.

A known version was the sniper embodiment, the bent by the former standard variant M1891 / 30 by a downwardly extended bolt handle and a telescopic tube of the type PE or PU was indistinguishable.

During the First World War the rifles were partly built in the USA by the companies Westinghouse and Remington Arms for the Russian army ; in the German Reich captured weapons were converted for the 8 × 57-IS - and in Austria-Hungary for the 8 × 50-mm cartridge .

The Red Army was to snipers and special forces a "device Bramit" ( Russian Прибор БраМит Pribor Bramit , after the developers brothers Mitin ( Russian Братья Митины Bratja Mitin) ) mentioned silencer from. Bramit captured by the Wehrmacht were used as a silencer 254 (r) .

The rifle remained the standard weapon of the Soviet infantry until after the Second World War and was also built and introduced by many allies of the USSR in various versions (M 91/30 and M 44).

In China the carabiner version M1938 or its variation M1944 was produced under license as Type 53.

Also in Czechoslovakia ( sniper rifle model 54 ), in Poland , Hungary and Romania , license versions of the M1944 carbine in particular were produced after the Second World War.

The 7.62 × 54 mm R rim cartridge developed for the rifle is now the longest-serving rifle cartridge in the world and is also used in modern weapons such as the Dragunov sniper rifle or machine guns , mainly Russian and Chinese designs.



The Mosin-Nagant rifle is a bolt action fünfschüssiger with bolt action . Is used to recharge the 90 ° angle to the right standing bolt handle (so that it stands vertically) is moved upward and the shutter pulling the bolt handle to the rear. The fired cartridge case is ejected and the firing pin cocked. During the subsequent forward movement, a new cartridge is inserted from the magazine into the chamber. The weapon is locked by turning the bolt handle to the right. Two locking lugs engage in recesses in the system box, the chamber stem itself serves as the third lock, which also engages in a recess in the system box. The weapon is secured by pulling back the exposed round button of the firing pin protruding from the breech and turning it to the left. The built-in magazine is filled with the help of a loading strip or cartridge by cartridge.


  • Günter Wollert, Reiner Lidschun: Infantry weapons yesterday . (1918-1945). In: Illustrated encyclopedia of infantry weapons from around the world . 3. Edition. tape 2 . Brandenburgisches Verlagshaus, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-89488-036-8 , weapons, p. 431-436 .
  • Karl-Heinz Wrobel: Three lines: the Mosin-Nagant rifles . In: Deutsches Waffen-Journal . 1st edition. tape 1 . Journal publ. Schwend, Schwäbisch Hall 1999.
  • Karl-Heinz Wrobel: Three lines: the Mosin-Nagant rifles . In: Deutsches Waffen-Journal . tape 2 . DWJ-Verl.-GmbH, Schwäbisch Hall 2004, ISBN 978-3-936632-31-6 .
  • Ilya Schaidurow: Russian firearms - types, technology, data . 1st edition. Motorbuch, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-613-03187-6 .

Web links

Commons : Mosin-Nagant  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Löbell's annual reports on army and warfare, Volume 27, page 895
  2. a b “Bramit” sound suppressor - notes of soviet armorer. In: Retrieved September 18, 2017 .
  3. Bill Harriman: The Mosin-Nagant Rifle . Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016, pp. 57 ( full text in Google Book Search [accessed September 18, 2017]).