Administrative division of Iceland
Iceland consists of eight regions ( Icelandic landshlutar , Sing. Landshluti ), which in turn are subdivided into municipal districts. Since 2003 there are also six constituencies in Iceland. Already in 965 Iceland was divided into four districts ( landsfjórðungar ), which were oriented towards the four cardinal points.
Historic district ( landsfjórðungar )
Traditionally Iceland was divided into four landsfjórðungar (singular landsfjórðungur ) or districts, which were oriented towards the four cardinal points . These were administrative districts that were set up in 965 for the purpose of organizing regional assemblies ( fjórðungsþing ), as well as for the district courts ( fjórðungsdómar ). Each district was divided into three local assemblies, except for Norðlendingafjórðungur, which had four. Each country also had three quarters Goden ( goðorð ) under the command of a chief ( Godi ). The district courts were competent if the plaintiff and defendant were in the same administrative district, otherwise the Alþingi was competent.
Later administrative divisions related to districts ( sýslur ) and municipalities. Especially from 1874, when the new Icelandic constitution established constituencies on the basis of counties and parishes, the districts gradually lost all official meaning, although they are still in common parlance when referring to parts of the country.
The districts were called:
- Vestfirðingafjórðungur (Breiðfirðingafjórðungur), the Westfjords district, encompassed most of the Vesturland region in addition to today's Westfjords region , namely south to the middle of the large Faxaflói bay
- Norðlendingafjórðungur (Eyfirðingafjórðungur), the northern quarter, stretched from Hrútafjörður in the west to the Langanes peninsula in the east and thus included the area of today's regions of Norðurland eystra and Norðurland vestra
- Austfirðingafjórðungur that Ostfjord section, corresponded to the region of today Austurland as well as the eastern part of the region Suðurland , namely the current vestur-skaftafellssýsla
- Sunnlendingafjórðungur (Rangæingafjórðungur), the southern quarter, extended over the southwest of Iceland (today's regions Höfuðborgarsvæðið and Suðurnes ), as well as the rest of the region of Suðurland (namely Árnessýsla and Rangárvallasýsla ), and a small part of the north to the center of Vesturland large bay Faxaflói (today's Borgarfjarðarsýsla on the map )
Regions ( landshlutar )
Iceland is divided into eight landshlutar (parts of the country). These are primarily used for statistical purposes. The district court districts also follow this classification. Although these regions no longer have an administrative function either, they are considered to be sub-national units within the meaning of the international standard ISO 3166-2: IS , the codes of which are used as region numbers in the table and map below.
(January 1, 2010)
|Suðurnes (formerly Reykjanes )||southwest||Keflavík||21,359||818||26.11|
|Norðurland vestra||Northwest Country||Sauðárkrókur||7,394||12,592||0.587|
|Norðurland eystra||Northeast Country||Akureyri||28,900||22,695||1.274|
sýsla and kaupstaður
The eight regions were traditionally divided into 22 sýslur (plural of sýsla , see Syssel , about administrative districts) and 20 independent municipalities (eight kaupstaðir , seven bæir , one borg and four others). Until 1996 there was a 23rd district, Vestur-Ísafjarðarsýsla (code no. 4700), which was then dissolved by incorporating all of its remaining parishes into the municipality of Ísafjarðarbær . A district would then correspond to the Hreppur .
The division into sýslur was mainly based on the geographical division of the country. Eventually these units were further subdivided and by the 20th century they had become 23.
When towns and cities formed in Iceland in the 18th century, one invented, i.e. H. the Danish state administration at that time, a market right similar to mainland European custom, and granted this to independent places which, for their part, did not belong to any such administrative district, even if they were geographically located in one. They were called kaupstaður , plural kaupstaðir .
The chief administrative officers of the districts were called Sýslumaður.
|3700||Snæfells- og Hnappadalssýsla||4,003||1,468||Stykkishólmur|
|Region Norðurland vestra|
|Region of Norðurland eystra|
|8500||Vestur-Skaftafellssýsla||981||7,701||Vík í Mýrdal|
There is also a newer division into 25 sýslumenn , the police districts, each of which is headed by a Sýslumaður.
- Keflavík Airport
As of 2003, there are six constituencies in Iceland .
Municipalities ( sveitarfélög )
At the lowest administrative level there are 74 Sveitarfélög (municipalities), including the independent municipalities (as of June 2016). This number has continuously decreased in recent years due to the amalgamation of municipalities (e.g. due to rural exodus and for reasons of administrative efficiency).
The largest municipality is Reykjavíkurborg with 118,326 inhabitants.
At the sub-municipal level, only the capital Reykjavík is divided into ten boroughs ( hverfi ).
- ↑ Archived copy ( memento of the original from October 7, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.