Mongolian People's Party

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Монгол Ардын Нам
Mongolian People's Party
MVP logo
Party leader Mijeegombyn Enchbold
founding March 1, 1921
Headquarters Ulaanbaatar
Alignment Social Democracy , Democratic Socialism
Colours) Red Blue
Parliament seats 65 of 76 (as of 2016)
Number of members 163,805 (2011)
International connections Socialist International
Former party headquarters of the MRVP in Ulan Bator (2007)

The Mongolian People's Party ( Mongolian Монгол Ардын Нам Mongol Ardyn Nam ), abbreviated MVP ( МАН MAN ) is a political party in Mongolia . It was founded in 1921 as a party oriented towards communism with Soviet-Russian characteristics, which still exists today under reformed pluralistic conditions. At the 3rd Party Congress in August 1924 it was renamed the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party ( Mongolian Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам Mongol Ardyn Chuwjsgalt Nam ), abbreviated to MRVP ( МАХН MAChN ). On November 5, 2010, at the 26th party congress, it was decided to return to the original name of the Mongolian People's Party.

After the transition phase of the " socialist states " around 1990, the MPRP was until 1996 at the government . From 1997 to 2009 the MRVP again appointed the President of Mongolia and from January 2006 to August 2012 also the head of government of Mongolia (previously: until 1996 and 2000 to 2004).

After the CPSU , the MRVP was the second longest ruling Communist Party in the world in the 20th century . The MRVP has been a full member of the Socialist International since 2003 .

A distinction must be made between the old Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party , which is now known as the Mongolian People's Party, which was founded in 2010 and is also called the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party . In January 2011, the former head of government Nambaryn Enchbajar was elected party leader of the new party.

Party history

The MVP was founded in 1921 and took power the same year after the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Army drove Chinese and White Guard troops out of Mongolia. As a result, it increasingly became a communist unity party and finally brought about the official proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic on November 26, 1924 .

It was a member of the Comintern ( Communist International ) and was under the influence of the CPSU of the USSR until the fall of the Soviet Union , especially under the rule of the dictator Tsedenbal , who led the party in 1940 and, after the introduction of a new constitution, also the state leadership had taken over.

In 1984 Tsedenbal was deposed, and a process of democratization began in the MRVP - similar to perestroika in the USSR.

After the political change in 1990 in the wake of massive demonstrations for democratization in Mongolia, other parties were allowed. The MRVP's Politburo resigned. In 1991 the MRVP broke away from Marxism-Leninism of Soviet communist characteristics. With the constitutional amendment of February 12, 1992, the Mongolian People's Republic became Mongolia , and the parliament was also downsized. However, as in 1990, the MRVP also won free, democratic elections in 1992. The main reasons were again the fragmentation of the opposition and the strong support of the MRVP in the rural population. On June 28, 1992, the MRVP achieved 70 out of 76 seats in the Great Chural , as the new supreme legislative state organ , a unicameral parliament , was now called , although it was favored by the still existing majority voting rights .

It was not until the parliamentary elections in 1996 that it was ousted, if only temporarily, when the democratic coalition, which was oriented towards a free market economy , won a landslide. This coalition of different parties was only missing one vote to a two-thirds majority , so that the MRVP only had 26 of the 76 parliamentary seats. However, this "landslide victory" was largely achieved through the majority voting system.

But the new government was also unable to cope with the urgent problems in the country caused by the transformation. In addition, her reign was marked by scandals, so that the coalition had a total of four prime ministers in four years.

The disillusioned population increasingly turned to the MRVP. In the 1997 presidential elections, the chairman of the MRVP, Natsagiin Bagabandi , was elected President of Mongolia.

The parliamentary elections of July 2, 2000 were impressively won by the MRVP, winning 72 of the 76 seats in the great state of Chural . Head of government was Nambaryn Enchbajar , who had taken over the chairmanship of the MRVP after Bagabandi.

Bagabandi himself was confirmed in his office as President on May 20, 2001 and re-elected for a further term . At the end of this term, the former Prime Minister (until 2004) and Speaker of the Parliament (until 2005) Enchbajar was elected as the new head of state in the presidential elections on May 22, 2005 with 53.4% ​​of the votes cast.

Burned-out and now demolished MRVP building

In the parliamentary elections on June 27, 2004, according to a statement by Prime Minister Enchbajar, the MRVP did not succeed in explaining the performance and future tasks of the party to the voters in a comprehensible manner. She received only 36 seats in the Great State Chural . The MRVP then formed a grand coalition with the three-party Democratic Alliance . Enchbajar then ran for president and was elected in May 2005 with 53 percent of the vote. The coalition was unilaterally dissolved by the MRVP in January 2006. She then ruled in a coalition with smaller parties and independent parliamentarians, who were rewarded for their support with ministerial posts and similar high offices. Prime Minister was first Mijeegombyn Enchbold , then Sandschaagiin Bajar , both of the MRVP.

In the elections on June 29, 2008 , the MRVP was able to achieve a surprisingly clear victory. It reached 46 of the 76 seats available for election. The announcement of the first results was followed by partly violent protests. Supporters of the defeated opposition stormed the party headquarters of the MRVP in the capital, which is said to have falsified the result. Two of the five floors of the building were on fire on July 1, 2008. Five people are said to have died in the riots and 200 were injured. President Enchbajar declared a state of emergency. The burned-out building was torn down; a new building is under construction (2010).

After the election, despite its clear majority in parliament, the MRVP agreed with the Democratic Party (DP) to form a coalition under Prime Minister Sandschaagiin Bajar (MRVP).

On May 24, 2009 incumbent Enchbajar was defeated in the presidential election by his challenger Tsachiagiin Elbegdordsch from the DP.

On October 28, 2009, Bajar resigned as Prime Minister, he was succeeded by Süchbaataryn Batbold (MRVP).

The decision to rename the Mongolian People's Party (MVP) in November 2010 , which was intended to signal a departure from the communist past, did not only meet with approval from the party. Enchbajar and other critics formed a new party, which bears the old name Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MRVP). The MVP denied the new MRVP's right to use the old name.

In the parliamentary elections in June 2012 , the MVP only received 26 seats and went into opposition. After the change in the electoral law in May 2016 and the parliamentary elections in Mongolia in 2016 , it became the strongest party again.

Web links

Commons : Mongolian People's Party  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files


  1. - ( Memento of the original from October 10, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. ^ Five dead in serious unrest in Mongolia Die Welt, July 2, 2008
  3. Dissatisfaction with election results - opposition storms building of Mongolian ruling party ( archive), July 1, 2008
  4. Mongolian parliamentary election: dead and injured in riots Die Zeit, July 2, 2008