Little meadow button

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Little meadow button
Little meadow button (Sanguisorba minor)

Little meadow button ( Sanguisorba minor )

Eurosiden I
Order : Rose-like (rosales)
Family : Rose family (Rosaceae)
Subfamily : Rosoideae
Genre : Wiesenknopf ( Sanguisorba )
Type : Little meadow button
Scientific name
Sanguisorba minor

The Small burnet ( Sanguisorba minor ), also Pimpinelle or Pimpernell called, is a plant from the genus burnet ( Sanguisorba ) within the family of Rosaceae (Rosaceae).

The plants of the genus Bibernelle are also known as Pimpinelles or Pimpernellen, but belong to the umbelliferae family .


Pinnate leaves
Head with male flowers below, hermaphrodite in the middle and female flowers above.
Female flower
Male flower
Infructescence and fruits
Foliage leaves with guttation drops

Vegetative characteristics

The Little Wiesenknopf is a perennial herbaceous plant that reaches heights of 20 to 100 centimeters. The stem is upright with leaves arranged in rosettes . The unpaired pinnate leaves have three to twelve pairs of pinnate leaves. The leaflets are ovate to elliptical with a length of 0.5 to 2 centimeters and have three to nine teeth on each side.

Generative characteristics

The flowers are in spherical, head-shaped inflorescences 1 to 3 centimeters in diameter. They have a green (to reddish) calyx. On the top of the head are the female flowers with red brush-shaped stigmas, below them hermaphroditic flowers and at the bottom the last-maturing male flowers with long-stemmed, hanging anthers.

The fruit cup (cupula) is wrinkled with a mesh or with roughly toothed mesh bars.

The number of chromosomes is 2n = 28.


The Little Wiesenknopf is a perennial, often evergreen semi-rosette plant. Vegetative reproduction takes place through underground runners (rhizomes). He is a raw floor pioneer with VA mycorrhiza .

The Little Wiesenknopf is wind-flowered , which is an exception in the rose family. The pre-female flowers are of the "long-dust type". The arrangement and the sequence of ripening encourage cross- pollination of the flowers. Bees collect the pollen so that there is also insect pollination. Flowering time is from May to August.

The fruits are small nuts that are tightly enclosed by the flower cup, which serves as a flight and swimming device for the fruits. The fruits spread as balloon fliers and as rainworms; possibly spreading by water adhesion and chance is to be expected. Fruit ripening is from July to October. The fruits are winter dwellers .


The total distribution area extends in the north to Scandinavia , in the south it includes North Africa and in the east Southwest Asia to Afghanistan . As a sub-Mediterranean floral element, the Kleiner Wiesenknopf is primarily native to southern Europe and parts of central Europe. Altitudes from the lowlands to medium mountain ranges are settled (in the Alps up to altitudes of 1220 meters). After Dörr and Lippert he comes z. B. on Nagelskopf near Steeg (Tyrol) at an altitude of 1400 meters.

The Little Wiesenknopf grows on sunny, often patchy, poor and semi- arid lawns , prefers dry, mostly calcareous, loose loam soil, likes warmth and is a sign of leanness. It is a characteristic species of the classes Festuco-Brometea and usually comes in Mesobromion- companies before.


The Small Burnet was in 1753 by Linnaeus in Species Plantarum under the name Poterium sanguisorba first published and is the type species of the genus Poterium . Giovanni Antonio Scopoli placed it in the genus Sanguisorba in 1771 and named it Sanguisorba minor Scop. because, according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants , the generic name and epithet must not be identical. According to molecular phylogenetic knowledge, the genus Poterium is separated from Sanguisorba and with Bencomia Webb & Berthel. , Marcetella Svent. , Dendriopoterium Svent. and Sarcopoterium Spach combined.

There are two subspecies:

  • Sanguisorba minor L. subsp. minor has square, but wingless fruit calyxes with network-veined side surfaces. This subspecies is widespread in Central Europe. The number of chromosomes is 2n = 28.
  • Sanguisorba minor subsp. balearica (Bourg. ex Nyman) Muñoz Garm. & C. Navarro (Syn .: Sanguisorba minor subsp. Muricata (Spach) Briq. , Sanguisorba minor subsp. Polygama (Waldst. & Kit.) Cout. ), The four edges of the calyx are winged; the side surfaces have coarsely serrated mesh bars and pits between them. This sub-Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean subspecies appears in Central Europe mainly in lawn seeds. The number of chromosomes is 2n = 28 or 56.
  • Sanguisorba verrucosa (Link ex G.Don) Ces. (Syn .: Sanguisorba minor subsp. Verrucosa (Link ex G.Don) Holmboe ) is usually regarded as a separate species.


The leaves and flowers have a slightly cucumber-like taste; both can be used in cold drinks as well as in salads. They can also be used to season marinades, sauces, poultry and fish dishes.

The little Wiesenknopf is a pimpinelle component of the Frankfurt Green Sauce as well as the Kassel and Central Hessian recipe. It is one of the herbs found in a classic cottage garden and is still used today as an ornamental plant .

It is also used as fodder, especially since the small meadow button can often be found in the hay.

Common names

The Little Wiesenknopf is also known under the names of hemostatic agent, blood droplets, Braunelle, dragon's blood, false beagle, Goddess words, basket herb, cologna, red beaverwort, sparrowhawk, meadow beaverelle, wormwort, goblet flower, small beaverwort, Italian beaverwort, common beaverwort, little bird , Pimpinelle or Pimpernelle known.

The terms "Bibernelle", "Pimpinelle" or "Pimpernelle" in particular are often used in the market and food trade, but can lead to confusion with the "eponymous" umbelliferae of the genus Bibernelle ( Pimpinella ).


  • Oskar Sebald, Siegmund Seybold, Georg Philippi (Hrsg.): The fern and flowering plants of Baden-Württemberg . tape 3 : Special part (Spermatophyta, subclass Rosidae): Droseraceae to Fabaceae . Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 1992, ISBN 3-8001-3314-8 .
  • Avril Rodway: Herbs and Spices. The most useful plants in nature - culture and use. Tessloff, Hamburg 1980, ISBN 3-7886-9910-8 .
  • Ruprecht Düll , Herfried Kutzelnigg : Pocket dictionary of plants in Germany and neighboring countries. The most common Central European species in portrait . 7th, corrected and enlarged edition. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2011, ISBN 978-3-494-01424-1 .

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp. 547 .
  2. Erhard Dörr, Wolfgang Lippert : Flora of the Allgäu and its surroundings. Volume 2, IHW, Eching 2004, ISBN 3-930167-61-1 , p. 62.
  3. Carl von Linné: Species Plantarum. Volume 2, Lars Salvius, Stockholm 1753, p. 994 ( digitized versionhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/ IA% 3D ~ MDZ% 3D% 0A ~ SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  4. ^ Poterium at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, accessed August 10, 2014.
  5. D. Potter, T. Eriksson, RC Evans, S. Oh, JEE Smedmark, DR Morgan, M. Kerr, KR Robertson, M. Arsenault, TA Dickinson, CS Campbell: Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae . Plant Systematics and Evolution, Volume 266, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 5-43, doi : 10.1007 / s00606-007-0539-9 .
  6. a b Gertrud Dahlgren: Sanguisorba. In: Hildemar Scholz (Hrsg.): Illustrated flora of Central Europe . Founded by Gustav Hegi. 2nd completely revised and expanded edition. Volume IV Part 2B: Spermatophyta: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones 2 (3) (Rosaceae, 2nd part) . Blackwell, Berlin / Vienna a. a. 1995, ISBN 3-8263-2533-8 , pp. 8-13 .
  7. Eckehart J. Jäger, Klaus Werner (Ed.): Exkursionsflora von Deutschland . Founded by Werner Rothmaler. 10th edited edition. tape 4 : Vascular Plants: Critical Volume . Elsevier, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Munich / Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-8274-1496-2 .
  8. Carmen Navarro, Félix Muñoz Garmendia: Sanguisorba L. In: Santiago Castroviejo, Félix Muñoz Garmendia, Carmen Navarro (eds.): Flora Ibérica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares . Vol. VI. Rosaceae . Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid 1998, ISBN 84-00-06221-3 , p. 375–388 ( PDF file; 306 kB ).

Web links

Commons : Kleiner Wiesenknopf ( Sanguisorba minor )  - album with pictures, videos and audio files