Academic degrees in the Czech Republic and Slovakia
As a result of the common state that existed until the end of 1992, the academic degrees in the Czech and Slovak higher education systems are almost identical. In the current higher education laws of both countries, they are defined in accordance with the three-level Bologna classification ( Bachelor • Master • Doctor ).
Academic degrees of the 1st Bologna level (Bachelor level)
After a three to four year bachelor's degree, the academic degree of bachelor's degree is awarded.
- Bc. - Bachelor of Science ( cs : bakalář, sk : bakalár, la : baccalaureus)
- BcA. - Bachelor of Arts (cs: bakalář umění, la: baccalaureus artis) , in the Czech Republic
Academic degrees of the 2nd Bologna level (Master's level)
Masters, engineering and professional doctoral degrees
Building on the bachelor's degree, you can continue your studies in a one to three year postgraduate (consecutive) master’s course. The total duration of study (Bachelor plus Master) is at least five and a maximum of six years. In a few fields of study (e.g. medicine) there are only five to six-year basic master’s courses.
- Mgr. - Magister (cs: magistr, sk: magister, la: magister)
- MgA. - Magister of Art (cs: magistr umění, la: magister artis) , in the Czech Republic
- Mgr. Art. - Magister of the arts (sk: magister umenia, la: magister artis) , in Slovakia
The academic degree of engineer is awarded in technical master’s courses and - contrary to the general international practice - also in master’s courses in economics , agriculture , forestry and military sciences . This degree therefore corresponds not only to the German graduate engineer , but also, depending on the field of study, to other diploma degrees from German universities ( Diplom-Kaufmann , Diplom-Volkswirt , Diplom-Agricultural Engineer, etc.) or Master's degrees ( MA , M.Sc. , M.Eng. ) .
- Ing.- Engineer (cs: inženýr, sk: inžinier)
- Ing.arch. - Engineer architect (cs: inženýr architekt, sk: inžinier architekt) , in architecture and urbanism
- MUDr. - Doctor of medicine (cs: doktor medicíny, sk: doktor všeobecného lekárstva, la: medicinae doctor) , in human medicine, previously also in dentistry
- MDDr. - Doctor of Dentistry (cs: doktor zubní medicíny, sk: doktor zubného lekárstva, la: medicinae dentalis doctor)
- MVDr. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (cs: doktor veterinární medicíny, sk: doktor veterinárneho lekárstva, la: medicinae veterinarinae doctor)
Small doctoral degrees
After successfully completing a few master’s degrees in the humanities, social, legal and natural sciences, there is the possibility of attaining the so-called small doctoral degree in a rigorosum .
The minor doctoral degrees were originally awarded between 1966 and 1990. During this time, universities were required to successfully pass an oral so-called rigorous examination in one or two subjects in order to obtain this degree . In the last ten years (1980–1990) those graduates who graduated with honors were even awarded this small doctoral degree together with their university diploma without the otherwise mandatory rigorous examination. In 1990 the award of these degrees was stopped in what was then Czechoslovakia .
Only a few years later (1996 in Slovakia and 1998 in the Czech Republic ) the successor states reintroduced the small doctoral degrees. Since then, apart from the oral examination, part of this Rigorosum has also been the defense of a rigorous work. In many cases, however, the previous master’s thesis is recognized as rigorous work or it just needs to be expanded. The Rigorosum currently lasts around one to two semesters .
The minor doctoral degrees are not assigned to the third level of the Bologna classification (doctoral level) by the higher education laws of both countries. The acquisition of these degrees is not related to independent scientific research. It is not equivalent to a German or Austrian doctoral degree.
The following small doctoral degrees are currently being awarded:
- JUDr. - Doctor of Rights (cs, sk: doktor práv, la: juris utriusque doctor)
- PaedDr. - Doctor of Education (cs, sk: doktor pedagogiky, la: paedagogiae doctor) , in Slovakia, previously also in the Czech Republic
- PharmDr. - Doctor of Pharmacy (cs: doktor farmacie, sk: doktor farmácie, la: pharmaciae doctor)
- PhDr. - Doctor of Philosophy (cs, sk: doktor filozofie, la: philosophiae doctor) , in humanities and social sciences, in the Czech Republic recently also in educational sciences
- RNDr. - Doctor of Natural Sciences (cs: doktor přírodních věd, sk: doktor prírodných vied, la: rerum naturalium doctor)
- ThDr. - Doctor of Theology (cs: doktor teologie, sk: doktor teológie, la: theologiae doctor)
- ThLic. - Licentiate in theology (cs: licenciát teologie, sk: licenciát teológie, la: theologiae licentiatus) , in Catholic theology
In the past, other small doctoral degrees were also awarded that may still be used:
- ICDr. - Doctor of Canon Law (cs: doktor kanonického práva, sk: doktor kánonického práva la: iuris canonici doctor) , in the field of the churches
- RSDr. - Doctor of Social and Political Sciences (cs: doktor sociálně-politických věd, sk: doktor solciálno-politických vied, la: rerum socialium doctor) , in the field of communist ideology
Anglo-Saxon master’s degrees
In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, especially in the areas of management , business , finance and law , numerous private so-called business schools as well as some public universities are increasingly offering further education (non-consecutive) master’s programs that are subject to tuition fees . There, some Anglo-Saxon academic degrees are usually awarded in cooperation with a renowned foreign university.
Academic degrees of the 3rd Bologna level (doctoral level)
Scientific research doctoral degrees
The scientific research doctoral degrees are awarded after a doctoral degree , also known as a doctoral degree , which lasts at least three and a maximum of six years . In addition to the preparation of a dissertation, the course also includes regular courses and exams as well as fulfilling a number of other study requirements such as B. publishing in scientific periodicals or monographs , active participation in international scientific conferences with your own contributions, study abroad, etc. a. and ends with taking a state doctoral examination and defending the dissertation in the form of a disputation . These degrees are equivalent to the German doctoral degree.
- Ph.D. - Doctor (cs: doktor, la: philosophiae doctor) , in the Czech Republic, in all fields of study except theology
- PhD. - Doctor (sk: doktor, la: philosophiae doctor) , in Slovakia, in all fields of study except art
- ArtD. - Doctor of Art (sk: doktor umenia, la: artis doctor) , in Slovakia
- Th.D. - Doctor of Theology (cs: doktor teologie, la: theologiae doctor) , in the Czech Republic
In the years 1990 to 1996 in Slovakia and until 1998 in the Czech Republic, these doctoral degrees were first given the abbreviation Dr. forgive. As a result, the official short form Dr. replaced by law by the new abbreviations. All holders of the scientific research doctorate, to whom he was named Dr. a new certificate with the new abbreviation can be issued upon request .
- Dr. - Doctor (cs, sk: doctor)
The previous equivalent , the candidate of science degree , was awarded until 1990. However, the degree may still be used. A conversion to the new abbreviation Ph.D. or PhD. (as with Dr.) is not intended for this degree.
- CSc. - Candidate of Sciences (cs: kandidát věd, sk: kandidát vied, la: candidatus scientiarum)
Doctor of Science
The highest doctorate in both countries is the relatively rare Doctor of Science . In Slovakia it is awarded in unchanged form to this day, while it was abolished in 1998 in the Czech Republic. However, since 2002 it has been re-issued by the Czech Academy of Sciences in a different abbreviation. Only holders of one of the scientific research doctoral degrees can obtain the Doctor of Science degree in a special doctoral procedure.
- DrSc. - Doctor of Science (cs: doktor věd, sk: doktor vied, la: doctor scientiarum ), in Slovakia, previously also in the Czech Republic
- DSc. - Doctor of Science (cs: doktor věd, la: doctor scientiarum) , in the Czech Republic
Educational degrees from university teachers
- doc. - Lecturer (cs, sk: docent)
After several years of successful activity as a university educator and scientist, a professor can be awarded the professorship with the degree of professor by the respective state president at the suggestion of the responsible scientific committee of the university . The professorial degrees there are equivalent to the German professor.
- prof. - Professor (cs, sk: profesor)
University professors without a scientific research doctorate are usually referred to as assistants . Teachers with a doctorate but not (yet) qualified as a professor are usually called subject assistants .
In both countries, universities have the right to award academic degrees as well as the power to award honorary doctorates . They are primarily awarded to important personalities for their outstanding scientific merits or exceptional social engagement.
- dr. hc - honorary doctor (cs: čestný doktor, la: doctor honoris causa) , in the Czech Republic
- Dr. hc - honorary doctor (sk: čestný doktor, la: doctor honoris causa) , in Slovakia
In the Czech Republic, the non-academic degree of qualified specialist is awarded at so-called higher technical schools . This degree is roughly comparable with the German non-academic degrees from professional academies .
- DiS. - Graduated specialist (cs: diplomovaný specialista)
Leadership of Czech and Slovak degrees
In the Czech Republic and Slovakia
Unlike z. B. in Germany or in the Anglo-Saxon region traditionally in both countries great value is placed on the use of all academic and non-academic degrees. It is not uncommon for there to be several degrees at the same time. Upon request, all academic degrees can be entered in official ID cards and certificates.
The rule is that the academic degrees at the bachelor's and master's level (bachelor's degree, master's degree, engineer, professional doctoral degree, minor doctorate degree) as well as the educational degree (lecturer, professor) are listed in front of the name. All other degrees, including any Anglo-Saxon academic degrees, are separated by commas after the name.
For leading some degrees it also applies that a higher degree replaces the lower degree:
- the master and the engineer the bachelor
- the minor doctorate the master's degree
- the Doctor of Science the degree of the candidate of science
- the professor the degree of lecturer
Some examples for leading the degrees: Erika Mustermann, DiS. • Bc. Max Mustermann • Mgr. Erika Mustermann, CSc. • MUDr. Max Mustermann, Ph.D. • doc. Ing.Erika Mustermann, MBA, Ph.D. • prof. JUDr. Max Mustermann, LL.M., Ph.D., dr. hc
A holder of several academic degrees is only addressed with one and that is the highest degree. The degrees DiS (qualified specialist) and CSc. (Candidate of science) are never used in a salutation. When addressing with an academic degree, it is also common to omit the name of the person addressed (Herr Doktor - pane doktore (cs), pán doktor (sk) instead of Herr Doktor Mustermann) .
Within an unofficial body of text it is permissible to write academic degrees in full or to use the unofficial abbreviations dr. (for all doctoral degrees), ing. or inž. , mgr. and bc. to use. In the narrower sense, these are not abbreviations for academic degrees, but abbreviated words. In addition, it is common in such cases to mention only the highest grade.
In Germany, Austria and Switzerland
In Germany , the academic degrees of the first and second Bologna level (baccalaureate, master's degree, engineer, professional doctoral degrees, minor doctoral degrees) may only be used in the original form awarded without the addition of origin in front of the name. In contrast to this, all variants of the Czech and Slovak degrees of the third level of the Bologna classification (Ph.D., PhD., Th.D., ArtD., CSc., DrSc., DSc.) Can either be in their original form the name and without indication of origin or in the usual German abbreviation Dr. be used in front of the name without any technical addition or designation of origin. The use of the professional doctoral degrees and the small doctoral degrees in the abbreviation Dr. is not possible. Only in the federal states of Bavaria and Berlin is it possible to use the small doctoral degrees already obtained by a certain date because of the protection of the existing as Dr. allowed.
In Austria and Switzerland , all degrees from the Czech Republic and Slovakia are only permitted in the originally awarded form and, depending on the degree, in front of or behind the name. Here, too, however, they may be listed without an addition of the origin.
History of Czech and Slovak degrees
The Czech and Slovak academic degrees look back on a long and eventful history.
From the Middle Ages to the first Czechoslovak Republic
Since the Middle Ages, the degrees of Bachelor, Magister and Doctor have been awarded in the area of the two present-day countries. The first two degrees were awarded at so-called preparatory faculties of the liberal arts (la: facultas artium) . In contrast, a doctorate could only be obtained at one of the three higher faculties for theology, law or medicine (la: facultas theologiae, facultas iurisprudentiae, facultas medicinae) .
As early as 1850, all bachelor and master degrees were abolished by the ministry responsible at the time, and four scientific research doctoral degrees with the abbreviations PhDr., JUDr., MUDr., ThDr. introduced. MVDr., RTDr. (Doctor of Technical Sciences) and PhMr. (Magister in Pharmacy) as the only Magister degree.
After the break-up of Austria-Hungary in 1918, these degrees were adopted by the first Czechoslovak Republic in unchanged form. During this time, two further doctoral degrees RNDr. and RCDr. (Doctor of Commerce).
All of these doctoral degrees were considered scientific research doctoral degrees and were allowed to use the abbreviations mentioned above as Dr. be guided.
During the communist regime
After the Communists came to power, there were also radical changes in terms of academic degrees. Already in 1950 the award of all previous degrees was stopped. All university graduates were only awarded so-called professional titles without an abbreviation. At the same time, following the Soviet model, there was a two-stage aspiration with the degrees CSc. and DrSc. introduced.
It was not until 1966 that the long tradition of academic degrees was renewed. The engineering degrees Ing. And Ing. Arch., The professional doctoral degrees MUDr. and MVDr. as well as the so-called small doctoral degrees ICDr., JUDr., PhDr., RNDr. and RSDr. introduced, later in 1980 PaedDr. and PharmDr. These small doctoral degrees are abbreviated in the same way as the scientific doctoral degrees from the time before 1950, but their content is not comparable with those (see chapter: Small doctoral degrees ) .
Since the collapse of the Eastern bloc
After the Velvet Revolution , the entire system of degrees was rebuilt once again. In 1990 the degrees Bc., Mgr. And Dr. introduced and at the same time the small doctoral degrees and the CSc. abolished. Only the degrees Ing., MUDr., MVDr. and DrSc. were retained.
The last legal changes came about in the successor states. As early as 1996, the small doctoral degrees JUDr., PaedDr., PharmDr., PhDr., RNDr., ThDr. and ThLic. back again, the Dr. was in PhD. or ArtD. converted and in addition new degrees such as Mgr. art., Ing. arch. and MDDr. create. Two years later, in 1998, the Czech Republic followed this step, which apart from PaedDr. reintroduced the same minor doctoral degrees as Slovakia. The Dr. by Ph.D. or Th.D. replaced and further grades BcA., MgA., Ing. arch. and MDDr. newly recorded. You also have the DrSc there. abolished, but already in 2002 as a DSc. was reintroduced.
- anabin: Information portal for the recognition of foreign qualifications.
- Central office for foreign education in Germany
- National information center for academic recognition in Austria
- Czech Higher Education Act 111/1998 of April 22, 1998 ( Memento of January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (in English)
- ( page no longer available , search in web archives: Slovak Higher Education Act 131/2002 of February 21, 2002 ) (in Slovak)
- Czechoslovak Higher Education Act 19/1966
- Czechoslovak Higher Education Act 39/1980
- Czechoslovak Higher Education Act 172/1990
- anabin: Information portal for the recognition of foreign qualifications.
- Recommendation of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Science and Research
- Czechoslovakian Higher Education Act 58/1950
- Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic ( Memento from December 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (in English and Czech)
- Leadership (in Czech)
- Resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of September 21, 2001 i. d. F. of May 15, 2008 (PDF; 439 kB)
- Information sheet on maintaining foreign university degrees in Berlin ( Memento from January 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 42 kB)
- Information sheet on managing foreign university degrees in Bavaria ( Memento from November 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Management of academic degrees in Austria ( Memento from January 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Manageability of foreign academic degrees in Switzerland ( Memento from July 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Slovak Higher Education Act of September 26, 1996 (in Slovak)