In the Soviet Union and its successor states ( Russia , Ukraine , Kazakhstan , etc.) as well as in the countries of the Eastern Bloc , the term `` Aspirantur '' refers to the continuation of studies with the aim of attaining a further academic degree.
This form of training for the next generation of pedagogues and academics was introduced in the Soviet Union in 1925 and usually takes three years as a face-to-face internship and four years as a long-distance internship. During this time, the aspirant usually works as a research assistant at a university, an approved scientific research institute or an institute of the Academy of Sciences and takes several exams during this time.
In the GDR , the academic aspiration was introduced in December 1951 and led to a wide range of opportunities to complete a doctorate and habilitation directly or as an external person. Many foreign students obtained their doctorate in the GDR as part of an aspirant course.
A direct (= scheduled) aspiration was usually set up for working people after completing their studies and was usually coupled with a scholarship , which for employees was based on the average net income.
After completion of the aspirant and a successful defense of the (candidacy) dissertation, the scientific degree Candidate of Sciences - Кандидат наук (e.g. Candidate of Technical Sciences - Кандидат технических наук ) is awarded. In Czechoslovakia and other countries of the Eastern bloc the Candidatus scientiarum (abbr. CSc. ) Was awarded as the corresponding degree .
Nostrification in Germany
Holders of scientific degrees “Candidate of Sciences” from Russia can generally use the abbreviation “Dr.” without any technical addition, but with a designation of origin, instead of the abbreviation approved in the country of origin or the generally accepted abbreviation.
- Agreement of the federal states in the Federal Republic of Germany on favorable regulations in accordance with section 4 of the "Principles for the regulation of the management of foreign university degrees in the sense of a statutory general license through uniform statutory provisions" of April 14, 2000 (resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education of September 21, 2001).
- Coll. Of the GDR , December 1, 1951, no. 139, p 1091ff.