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In the Soviet Union and its successor states ( Russia , Ukraine , Kazakhstan , etc.) as well as in the countries of the Eastern Bloc , the term `` Aspirantur '' refers to the continuation of studies with the aim of attaining a further academic degree.


The aspiration is based on the university degree ( diploma ). It usually ends with the defense of the first of two doctoral theses, the candidacy dissertation .

This form of training for the next generation of pedagogues and academics was introduced in the Soviet Union in 1925 and usually takes three years as a face-to-face internship and four years as a long-distance internship. During this time, the aspirant usually works as a research assistant at a university, an approved scientific research institute or an institute of the Academy of Sciences and takes several exams during this time.

In the GDR , the academic aspiration was introduced in December 1951 and led to a wide range of opportunities to complete a doctorate and habilitation directly or as an external person. Many foreign students obtained their doctorate in the GDR as part of an aspirant course.

A direct (= scheduled) aspiration was usually set up for working people after completing their studies and was usually coupled with a scholarship , which for employees was based on the average net income.

Academic degree

After completion of the aspirant and a successful defense of the (candidacy) dissertation, the scientific degree Candidate of Sciences - Кандидат наук (e.g. Candidate of Technical Sciences - Кандидат технических наук ) is awarded. In Czechoslovakia and other countries of the Eastern bloc the Candidatus scientiarum (abbr. CSc. ) Was awarded as the corresponding degree .

In the GDR, the scientific postgraduate study concluded with the Promotion A or promotion B from. Doctorate B is comparable to today's habilitation.

Nostrification in Germany

Holders of scientific degrees “Candidate of Sciences” from Russia can generally use the abbreviation “Dr.” without any technical addition, but with a designation of origin, instead of the abbreviation approved in the country of origin or the generally accepted abbreviation.


  • Agreement of the federal states in the Federal Republic of Germany on favorable regulations in accordance with section 4 of the "Principles for the regulation of the management of foreign university degrees in the sense of a statutory general license through uniform statutory provisions" of April 14, 2000 (resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education of September 21, 2001).

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Coll. Of the GDR , December 1, 1951, no. 139, p 1091ff.