The Banū Aus (بنو أوس) were an Arab tribe in Yathrib who played an important role in early Islam . Together with the Banu Khazradsch , the second tribe based in Medina, they formed the so-called Banu Qaila .
Like the Banu Khazradsch, the Banū Aus probably immigrated to Yathrib from southern Arabia in the fifth century. At first they were subject to the Jews who were already resident there ( Banu Quraiza , Banu Nadir and Banu Qainuqa ), but under the leadership of the Khazradschite Mālik ibn al-ʿAdschlān, the Banū Qaila gained greater independence. Later different clans of the Chazradsch and the Aus quarreled, the Aus were allied with the Banū Quraiza and Banū l-Nadīr, the Chazradsch with the Banū Qainuqāʿ. Around the year 617 there was a battle between the two parties at Buʿāth in the southeastern part of the oasis, in which the Aus and their allies were victorious over the Khazradsch.
Although there had been no further fighting after this battle, the war parties had not formally made peace when, in 620, the Prophet Mohammed made contact with six men from the Khazradsch. Members of the Aus took part in the second and third meetings of Muhammad with the people from Yathrib in 621 and 622, but the Aus were generally more cautious about Mohammed than the Khazradsch. This changed only when Saʿd ibn Muadh , the leader of the Ausite clan ʿAbd al-Aschhal, became a Muslim.
Ibn Ishāq reports that after Muhammad's Hijra, Shas ibn Qais, a Jew from the Banu Qainuqa tribe, tried to revive the dispute between the Aus and the Khazradsch by attending a gathering of members of the two tribes conjured up at the battle of Buʿāth. A scuffle broke out in which members of the two tribes took up their weapons. Only through the quick intervention of Muhammad, who reminded the two parties of their duties as Muslims, was the renewed division between Aus and Khazradsch averted. Sura 3 : 99 is supposed to refer to this incident , which rebukes the Ahl al-Kitab for keeping the believers from the path of God.
Clans of Aus
- W. Montgomery Watt: Art. "Al-Aws" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition Vol. I, pp. 771f.
- Cf. Ibn Hischām : Kitāb Sīrat Rasūl Allāh . From d. Hs. On Berlin, Leipzig, Gotha a. Leyden ed. by Ferdinand Wüstenfeld. 2 vols. Göttingen 1858-59. Pp. 385-387. Available online here: http://archive.org/stream/p1daslebenmuhamm01ibnhuoft#page/n161/mode/2up