Český Dub

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Český Dub
Coat of arms of Český Dub
Český Dub (Czech Republic)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Region : Liberecký kraj
District : Liberec
Area : 2257,3073 ha
Geographic location : 50 ° 40 ′  N , 15 ° 0 ′  E Coordinates: 50 ° 39 ′ 32 ″  N , 14 ° 59 ′ 48 ″  E
Height: 325  m nm
Residents : 2,752 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 463 43
License plate : L.
Status: city
Districts: 15th
Mayor : Jiří Miler (as of 2016)
Address: nám. Bedřicha Smetany 1
463 43 Český Dub
Municipality number: 563960
Website : www.cdub.cz

Český Dub (German Bohemian Aicha , 1943–1945 Aicha (Sudeten) ) is a small town in Okres Liberec in the Czech Republic .

Geographical location

The city is located in northern Bohemia , south of the Jeschken on the right bank of the Jeschkenbach and twelve kilometers from Liberec ( Reichenberg ).

Panorama of the town of Český Dub ( Bohemian Aicha ) and its surroundings


Part of the late Gothic vaulted cellar of the order of St. John , destroyed by the Hussites in the 20s of the 15th century , which was rediscovered in 1991
City center with town hall
Fragment of the medieval city fortifications
Town square with a statue erected by the town council in 1723 in honor of the mother of Jesus and the patron saints Florian, Johannes, Franz and Rochus

The history of Český Dub goes back to the 12th century. In 1109/1115 Duke Vladislav I of Bohemia founded a hunting lodge in the area of ​​today's city with settlements called Vladislavice and Swietla with a parish church "To the Holy Spirit". The founding of the town was on the trade route from Prague to the Sorbs in Lusatia . Some goods in the south his domain gave Vladislav I the newly founded Benedictine - monastery Kladruby . Other possessions fell to the nearby Cistercian foundation of Hradiště around 1170 . The Benedictines received the Rabenstein Castle in Aicha and the surrounding lands to furnish them. A large manor developed from the district , to which around 53 medieval and 9 modern settlements and 11 aristocratic residences belonged. In its largest extension, the large estate had around 5,230 hectares and in northern Bohemia included the towns of Dörfel, Langenbruck, Hermannsthal, Kohlstatt, Jaberlich, Schartingen, Saskal, Maffersdorf ( Vratislavice nad Nisou ) (partially), Schimsdorf and Liebenstein.

The Benedictines of Kladruby sold their property in 1237 to Gallus von Lämberg ( Havel z Lemberka ). This passed the property in the forties of the 13th century to the Order of St. John , who set up a commander here. The order of knights established a hospital and took care of the expansion of Český Dub into a town. The year of foundation is 1291. Saint Zdislava , married to Gallus von Lämberg, was initially buried in the monastery church, but found her final resting place in the Laurentiuskirche von Gabel .

Although the Johanniter received considerable increases in their endowment from 1408 to 1409, the Kommende was badly affected by the army campaigns of the Hussites under Andreas Prokop the Bald in 1425 and 1429 , did not recover and eventually dissolved. The coming one was probably set on fire as early as 1423. Their property went back into noble hands. To defend against the attacks of the Bohemian Hussites, the Upper Lusatian estates brought an occupation to Český Dub.

In 1490 the brothers Fabian and Hans von Tschirnhaus owned the estate. After the death of Fabian and Hans, their brother Michael von Tschirnhaus sold the "Pfandschaft Aicha" to Ulrich Schaffgotsch in 1501 .

In 1512 the Supreme Burgrave of Bohemia, Johann von Wartenberg , was the owner of Aicha. He laid out the new town and built a manor for himself . After the bohemian uprising of 1547, King Ferdinand I withdrew the manor of Aicha-Friedstein from the Wartenbergs. 1552 acquired this Jan (Johann, Hans) of Oppersdorff (noble family) , was awarded the hereditary title "Baron of Aich and Fried stone" for himself and two of his brothers and designed the monastery in Bohemian-Aicha and the late-Gothic castle Rabenstein into a representative Renaissance castle to . A town hall was also built in the 1660s; the residents of the place received a number of privileges. Český Dub came under the rule of the Smiřický von Smiřice family in 1591 and in 1622 in the possession of Wallenstein .

After Wallenstein's death in 1634, Johann Ludwig Hector von Isolani received the manor Aicha-Friedstein and its income from places in subjection as a reward for his success as a general. After his death in 1640, his daughter Anna Maria Elisabeth, married Baroness von Saurau, took over the inheritance, who died in 1648. Another heiress was her sister Regina, who in 1653 gave the monastery and the manor to the Augustinian Canons of Vienna . In 1782 the Aicha monastery was dissolved by Emperor Joseph II in the course of secularization . 1820 acquired Prince Charles Alain de Rohan on Sychrov for 512,200  fl. The rule Aicha, in 1945 the descendants of the house Rohan by the Benes decrees was lost.

Several successful textile companies sprang up in the 19th century. The industrialist Franz Ritter von Schmitt (1816–1883) from Braunau in Eastern Bohemia and his family played an important role as employers of more than 2000 people with exemplary social institutions. A water connection with an elevated tank was created on the Schafberg, a multi-class German elementary school and community school for boys and girls. After 1890, Czechs began to immigrate to the previously German-speaking city. In 1920, Böhmisch-Aicha was connected to the electricity network. Tourism has developed since the beginning of the 20th century .

After the First World War , Bohemian Aicha was added to the newly created Czechoslovakia . In addition to the German-language school education, a Czech-language primary and secondary school has now been opened. Language tests in the Czech language were required for qualified administrative tasks. In 1923 an inflation of the monetary currency, in 1929 and 1930 mass unemployment weakened the profitability of the textile companies and led to problems in the coexistence of Germans and Czechs. Český Dub received a city library and a cinema. The Schmitt'sche Palais became a retirement home and the villa of the glass manufacturer Blaschka became a museum with interesting finds from the nearby Devil's Wall in Northern Bohemia on the edge of the Jeschken.

After the Munich Agreement , which provided for the annexation of the Sudetenland to the German Reich , German troops occupied the region in 1938. Böhmisch Aicha then belonged to the district of Reichenberg , district of Aussig , in the Reichsgau Sudetenland until 1945 . In 1943 the place name was changed to Aicha (Sudeten) .

After the end of the Second World War , the German inhabitants of Bohemian Aicha were expelled . The economic development of the town was considerably hampered by the population decline.

The most important branch of industry in the municipality today is tourism. Český Dub is particularly important as a winter sports resort.


Until 1945, Böhmisch Aicha was predominantly populated by German Bohemia , which were expelled.

Population development until 1945
year Residents Remarks
1830 1,819 in 275 houses
1833 1.306 In 207 houses, all but three Israelite families are Catholics
1857 2,430 on October 31st
1900 2,715 1593 Germans, 1116 Czechs

three fifths of them are German residents

1930 2,880
1939 2.014
Population since the end of the Second World War
year 1970 1980 1991 2001 2003
Residents 2,987 2,952 2,904 2,847 2,698

City structure

The town of Český Dub consists of the districts Bohumileč ( Bohumilitz ), Český Dub I, Český Dub II, Český Dub III, Český Dub IV, Hoření Starý Dub ( Ober Altaicha ), Kněžičky ( Kneschitz ), Libíč ( Liebitsch ), Loukovičky ( Loukowitschek ), Malý Dub ( Kleinaicha ), Modlibohov ( Nudelbaum , formerly Modlitbow ), Smržov ( Smrzow ), Sobákov ( Sobaken ), Sobotice ( Katharinsfeld ) and Starý Dub ( Altaicha ). Basic settlement units are Bohumileč, Český Dub, Hoření Starý Dub, Kněžičky, Libíč, Loukovičky, Malý Dub, Modlibohov, Smržov, Sobákov, Sobotice and Starý Dub.

The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts of Český Dub, Libíč, Modlibohov, Smržov, Sobákov, and Starý Dub.


Holy Spirit Church with cemetery
  • Excavation site of the Johanniter-Kommende: The complex from the years 1240–1250 was "built over" with a Renaissance castle at the end of the 15th century in such a way that the original premises under the new building were preserved. After a fire in 1859, a rental house was built on the property, and once again the rooms of the newcomer remained undamaged and undiscovered. During a building survey in 1991, behind a wall of the apartment building, access to the two-storey complex der Kommende was found with a number of rooms, a large Romanesque-Gothic and a smaller convent hall and a Romanesque chapel dedicated to John the Baptist. The chapel was rededicated in 2001. The late Gothic basement rooms are not yet open to the public.
  • Fortifications
  • Jewish Cemetery
  • Church of the Mission of the Holy Spirit
  • Holy Trinity Church
  • Town hall, built in 1565 in the Renaissance style , rebuilt 1905–1907 by Ernst Schäfer
  • Marian column, 1723
  • Villa Schmitt, built in 1874
  • Podještědské Muzeum Karoliny Světlé : The regional museum founded in 1919 is dedicated to the life and work of the Czech writer Karolína Světlá (1830–1899). It houses a regional and historical collection, which also includes the literary estate of the poet. Since 1993 the museum has been responsible for the administration of the Johanniter-Kommende premises.

sons and daughters of the town


  • Rudolf Anděl, Svatopluk Technique: Český Dub. 1291-1991 . Ústí nad Labem 1991, ISBN 80-7047-037-2 .
  • Tomáš Edel: Příběh ztraceného kláštera . Česká expedice 1993, ISBN 80-85281-33-3 .
  • Tomáš Edel: Českodubsko v památkách 12. – 20. stoleti. Podjěštědské muzeum, Český Dub 2006, ISBN 80-239-6186-1 .
  • Böhmisch-Aicha, local history with illustration in: Randolf Gränzer: Reichenberg town and country in the Neißetal. A home book, published by Heimatkreis Reichenberg in the Heimatstube Reichenberg , Augsburg 1974, OCLC 3249745 , pp. 423-433.

Web links

Commons : Český Dub  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. http://www.uir.cz/obec/563960/Cesky-Dub
  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  3. ^ A b Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 2: Bunzlauer Kreis , Prague 1834, p. 232, item 1.
  4. ^ A b Anton Frind : The church history of Bohemia in general with special consideration of the current Leitmeritz diocese . Volume 3, Prague 1872, p. 219.
  5. ^ Roman von Procházka : Ancestry of Count Schrattenbach. In: Genealogical handbook of extinct Bohemian gentry families. Neustadt an der Aisch 1973, ISBN 3-7686-5002-2 , p. 275, note 1.
  6. Yearbooks of the Bohemian Museum of Natural and Regional Studies, History, Art and Literature . Volume 2, Prague 1831, p. 196, paragraph 15.
  7. Statistical overviews of the population and livestock in Austria . Vienna 1859, p. 39, left column .
  8. Municipal dictionary Bohemia 1900, p. 912
  9. ^ Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon 6th edition, Volume 3, Leipzig and Vienna 1905, p. 161 .
  10. ^ A b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to reunification in 1990. City and district of Reichenberg. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  11. Czeski Urząd Statystyczny
  12. http://www.uir.cz/casti-obce-obec/563960/Obec-Cesky-Dub
  13. http://www.uir.cz/zsj-obec/563960/Obec-Cesky-Dub
  14. http://www.uir.cz/katastralni-uzemi-obec/563960/Obec-Cesky-Dub