Santiago del Estero Province
( Details )
( Details )
|Capital:||Santiago del Estero|
Rank 9 of 24
- Total 2010
Rank 12 of 24
|ISO 3166-2 code:||AR-G|
|Region :||Región Noroeste Argentino|
|Gobernador:||Claudia Ledesma Abdala|
|Website of the Province of Santiago del Estero|
Santiago del Estero is a lowland province in northern Argentina with a subtropical hot climate . Neighboring provinces, clockwise from north, are Chaco , Santa Fe , Córdoba , Catamarca , Tucumán and Salta .
The territory of the province is almost without exception flat in the northeast half , while the southwest half is hilly, there are the low mountain ranges of the Sierra de Ambargasta (southwest), Sierra de Sumampa (south) and Sierra de Guasayan (west) with a maximum height of 800 m . All three mountainous countries belong to the system of the Sierras Pampeanas .
The climate in Santiago del Estero is subtropical. Campo Gallo in the northeast of the province, along with Rivadavia in Salta and Villa de María in Córdoba, is one of the two places where the highest temperatures in South America were measured (47.3 ° C). The average temperature is between 19 ° C in the mountains in the south and 23 ° C in the northeast, in summer it is 25 to 29 ° C, in winter 12 to 16 ° C. The east is the wetter part of the country with up to 800 mm of precipitation per year, but the winters are dry throughout the territory.
Flora and fauna
Santiago del Estero belongs to the Gran Chaco in terms of landscape, but not culturally, and is covered by a bush forest (" Monte ") consisting of sparse trees (e.g. Algarrobo , Quebracho), tree-high cacti and bulky thorn bushes (e.g. Vinal with thorns up to 15 cm long). Many plants produce edible fruits that are collected and used. In between there is grass on which goats, donkeys and individual cows can graze, but cattle breeding on a large scale as in the pampas is not possible. The soil is nitric and there are salt pans in the south of the province . In the "Monte" there are on the one hand many dangerous animals such as snakes , pumas , scorpions , but on the other hand also huntable game such as armadillos , viscachas (hare-like animals) and iguanas . Usually the men improve the menu by hunting.
The Sierra de Guasayan in the southwest of the province, which is covered by significantly denser vegetation, comparable to the primeval forests of the Yunga , is a special case in the vegetation . This is because the mountains dammed the rain clouds and thus received more precipitation than the rest of the province.
With 136,351 km², Santiago del Estero is almost twice as large as Bavaria (70,550 km²). The province is medium-sized by Argentine standards and sparsely populated with only about 900,000 inhabitants. Of these, over 250,000 live in the provincial capital alone.
Santiago del Estero is one of the poorest provinces in Argentina. The gross national product is only $ 2,035 per inhabitant, which is less than a quarter of the national average, which is $ 8,860 (for comparison: in Germany it is $ 23,650). Santiago del Estero is still well below the Latin American average, which was $ 2,950 per capita in 1993 . The study published in the newspaper “El Liberal” describes the poverty situation in only four of the province's 28 departments as “good”, in eight as “normal”, in four as “bad”, in eleven as “very bad” and in one as "intolerable". This means that, for example, in the Choya department, whose situation is described as “good”, 26.9% of the 30,691 inhabitants live below the subsistence level, 14.1% of the houses are barracks, and 37% of the apartments have no sanitary facilities The illiteracy rate is 6.4% and the residents have 46 schools and 66 doctors (1: 465 inh.) At their disposal. In the Salavina department, which has no large towns and whose situation is described as “very bad”, 61.8% of the 9,100 inhabitants live below the subsistence level, 65.3% live in barracks, 82% of the houses have no sanitary facilities Institutions, the illiteracy rate is 11% and there are 37 schools and three doctors (1: 3033 inh.). The relatively high number of schools can be explained by the fact that most of them are one- or two-class rural schools.
Situation of the rural population
The situation of the rural population: In the province of Santiago del Estero, in contrast to most of the other provinces of Argentina, there are no large estancias with fenced-in grounds. The farmers live scattered in the "Monte" and live from farming on a small scale. This sector includes around 15,000 families or 70,000 people, i.e. around ten percent of the provincial population. The ownership of the land is unclear. The residents are families who have lived there for generations but have no written proof of ownership. Time and again, third parties present themselves as landowners, some of whom even have written evidence of this, but do not even inhabit the land and try to evict its residents. As a climate change is currently underway and it is becoming more humid, the earth is gaining in value and is therefore of interest to companies from abroad or other provinces. According to the law, a person is the owner of the land if they or their ancestors have lived, worked on and improved (e.g. wells, fences) on the land for at least 20 years. However, the smallholders do not have the financial means to exercise this right. Many rural residents are forced to emigrate to the cities and lose not only their livelihood but also their homeland, their cultural roots and their identity. The staff of the diocesan Pastoral Social support these people at risk of displacement and help them to assert their rights. The women in the country spin with the hand spindle and weave blankets according to old Indian techniques. There is also some large-scale agriculture, mainly in the Fernandez area. Cotton is traditionally grown there. In recent years, however, the fields have not been harvested at all, as the fall in prices meant that the costs caused by the harvest exceeded the profits. The GM also makes before this remote province not stop, GM soya is now that since the crisis, the meat prices have risen sharply as the new staple crop, which is particularly interesting. Since the income opportunities in the country are not enough for survival, most men work as seasonal workers in the fields in the province of Buenos Aires .
Situation in the cities
In the cities, the majority of people work in the public sector (typical professions are: police officers, teachers and nurses), there are also self-employed people and a great many who work in the informal sector.
The province of Santiago del Estero is culturally part of the northwest of Argentina. The original inhabitants of this part of the country, the Diaguita and other ethnic groups, lived in villages and practiced agriculture. In contrast, most of what is now Argentina was inhabited by nomadic and semi-settled hunting peoples. In the nearby Andean region, people lived in stone houses and fortresses (Pucará).
At the time of the conquest by the Spaniards, the peoples of the northwest were under the cultural influence of the Incas, to whom they were obliged to pay taxes. In Santiago the Incas settled a Quechua- speaking people who displaced the original inhabitants. These Quechua people later mixed with the Spanish immigrants, and so a new culture arose with elements from both of the original cultures. To this day, the Quechua dialect Quichua Santiagueño is spoken in the country , but it is disappearing more and more. The younger generation speaks almost only Spanish, with the exception of a few very remote areas where school lessons are only held in Spanish. Quichua courses are now offered and it is fashionable to name social institutions in Quichua, but Quichua Santiagueño is generally counted as an endangered language.
Santiago del Estero is called the oldest city in Argentina, but correctly it has to be called the oldest continuously inhabited city. Santiago was founded in 1553 by Spanish conquerors who came from Peru . It later became an important stop on the road from the Bolivian silver mines to the Río de la Plata .
The province of Santiago del Estero is divided into 27 departments.
|Department||Capital||Area in km²||Residents|
|Capital||Santiago del Estero||2.116||267.125|
|Guasayan||San Pedro de Guasayán||2,588||7,602|
|Juan F. Ibarra||Suncho Corral||9,139||18.051|
|Ojo de Agua||Villa Ojo de Agua||6,269||14.008|
|Río Hondo||Termas de Río Hondo||2.124||54,867|
|San Martín||Brea Pozo||2,097||9,831|
The agricultural production of Santiago del Estero consists mainly of the cultivation of cotton , soy , corn , wheat and the cultivation of vegetables and sorghum for the internal market.
Wheat cultivation has experienced a rapid increase since 2000, as shown by the expansion of the cultivated area from traditionally 40,000 hectares in 1999 to 184,000 hectares in 2004. At the same time, production rose from 95,800 tons to 282,000 tons in the same period. Wheat rose to the third most important export product of the province with 26.5 million dollars.
The production of sorghum in 2004 was approx. 240,000 tons and thus remained at the average for the years 1991–2004. Sorghum is mainly used as feed in cattle breeding. Most of the production is used for the internal Argentine market and to a lesser extent for export.
The Chacarera comes from the province of Santiago , a music genre that has become the most famous folklore in Argentina .
Some important figures from the history of Santiago del Estero are Colonel Juan Francisco Borges , leader of the War of Independence (ancestor of the writer Jorge Luis Borges ), the 19th century painter Felipe Taboada , and the revolutionary leaders Marios Roberto and Francisco René Santucho , founders of the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (PRT, Revolutionary Party of Workers) and the Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP, Revolutionary Army of the People).
In the field of the arts, the city provided important representatives such as Ramón Gómez Cornet, Carlos Sánchez Gramajo, Alfredo Gogna, Ricardo and Rafael Touriño in the visual arts, and Jorge Washington Ábalos, Bernardo Canal Feijóo, Clementina Rosa Quenel, Ricardo Rojas and Julio Carreras in literature .
Santiago's musical heritage is one of the most important cultural aspects of the city, with the signature folk dances Chacarera and Zamba . Among the numerous famous artists and groups that the province has produced are the Manseros Santiagueños, Alfredo Ábalos, Jacinto Piedra and Raly Barrionuevo.
- ↑ Geography of Santiago del Estero ( Memento of October 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) from the official website of the Province of Santiago del Estero (Spanish). Retrieved on April 12, 2013
- ↑ 2010 census , INDEC (Microsoft Excel)
- ^ Atlas des Automóvil Club Argentino , Ed. 1987, p. 8.
- ↑ 2010 census ( memento of the original from June 2, 2012 on WebCite ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. from Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos , data from 2010. (Spanish) Retrieved April 11, 2013
- Provincial Administration Page (Spanish)
Coordinates: 28 ° 0 ′ S , 63 ° 0 ′ W